The regiment was founded in 1960 as the Presidential Guard Regiment following Ghana's independence, when Kwame Nkrumah increased the Presidential Bodyguard from a company to a full regiment. Initially, it was made up of soldiers who had become unfit for operational service, and was intended to act as a ceremonial unit. However, following attempts on his life, Nkrumah ordered that the regiment be expanded and reinforced, renaming it as the President's Own Guard Regiment, and bringing it under the direct control of the Presidential Detail Department. In 1965, the regiment was removed from the command structure of the army, being accountable directly to the President. By February 1966, the regiment consisted of two battalions and almost 1,200 officers and men, trained by Soviet advisers. Because of the regiment's status (it was better trained, equipped, paid and clothed than the regular army), significant resentment was directed at its members, which led to violence directed against it by the army during the coup that overthrew Nkrumah. After this, the regiment was reintegrated into the Ghanaian Army.
Today, the regiment consists of a single battalion. The regiment's primary function remains as a bodyguard to the President of Ghana and to defend the Presidential Palace in Accra.