Prince Wilhelm of Prussia (1906–1940)

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Prince Wilhelm of Prussia
Prinz Wilhelm und Prinz Lous Ferdinand von Preussen.jpg
Prince Wilhelm, left, with his brother, Louis Ferdinand, in 1926
Spouse Dorothea von Salviati
Issue
Princess Felicitas of Prussia
Princess Christa
Full name
Wilhelm Friedrich Franz Joseph Christian Olaf
House House of Hohenzollern
Father Kronprinz Wilhelm
Mother Duchess Cecilie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Born (1906-07-04)4 July 1906
Marmorpalais, near Potsdam, Prussia
Died 26 May 1940(1940-05-26) (aged 33)  
Nivelles, Belgium
Burial Antique Temple, Sanssouci Park, Potsdam, Germany
Prussian Royalty
House of Hohenzollern
Wappen Deutsches Reich - Reichsadler 1889.svg
Wilhelm II
Grandchildren
   Prince Wilhelm
   Prince Louis Ferdinand
   Prince Hubertus
   Prince Frederick
   Prince Alexander Ferdinand
   Princess Alexandrine
   Prince Oskar
   Princess Victoria Marina
   Prince Karl Franz
   Prince Burchard
   Princess Cecilie
   Princess Victoria Marina
   Herzeleide, Princess of Courland
   Prince Wilhem Victor
   Prince Wilhelm-Karl

Prince Wilhelm of Prussia (Hohenzollern) (Wilhelm Friedrich Franz Joseph Christian Olaf, in English, William Frederick Francis Joseph Christian Olaf; 4 July 1906 – 26 May 1940) was the eldest child and son of Crown Prince Wilhelm of Germany and Duchess Cecilie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. At his birth, he was second in line to the German throne, and was expected to one day succeed to the throne after the deaths of his father and grandfather, both of whom ultimately outlived him.

Early life and childhood[edit]

Prince Wilhelm with his mother, Crown Princess Cecilie, in 1908

Wilhelm was born on 4 July 1906 at the Hohenzollern family's private summer residence, Marmorpalais, or Marble Palace, near Potsdam, where his parents were residing until their own home, Schloss Cecilienhof, could be completed.[1] His father was Crown Prince Wilhelm, the eldest son and heir to the German Emperor, Wilhelm II. His mother was Duchess Cecilie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria was one of the Prince's godfathers.

The selection of a nanny for Wilhelm and his younger brother, Louis Ferdinand (born in 1907) caused considerable distress within the family.[2]

On his tenth birthday in 1916, Wilhelm was created a lieutenant in the 1st Guards Regiment, and was given the Order of the Black Eagle by his grandfather.[3] Two years later, when he was only twelve, the German monarchy was abolished. Wilhelm and his family remained in Germany, though his grandfather, the former Emperor, went into exile in the Netherlands. The former Crown Prince and his family remained in Potsdam, where Wilhelm and his younger brothers attended the local gymnasium.

Prince Wilhelm in 1914, with his younger brothers, Louis Ferdinand, Hubertus and Friedrich. The boys are dressed in the uniform of the Prussian army.

After graduating from secondary school, Wilhelm went on to study at the Universities of Königsberg, Munich and Bonn. In 1926, while a student at the University of Bonn, Wilhelm joined the Borussia Corps, a student organization of which his father, grandfather, and other members of the Prussia Royal Family were members.[4]

Marriage and children[edit]

While a student at Bonn, Wilhelm fell in love with a fellow student, Dorothea von Salviati (10 September 1907 – 7 May 1972). His grandfather did not approve of the marriage of a member of the minor nobility with the second in line to the German Throne. At the time, the former Kaiser still believed in the possibility of a Hohenzollern restoration,[5] and he would not permit his grandson to make an unequal marriage. Wilhelm told his grandson: "Remember, there is every possible form of horse. We are thoroughbreds, however, and when we conclude a marriage such as with Fräulein von Salviati, it produces mongrels, and that cannot be allowed to happen."[6]

However, Wilhelm was determined to marry Dorothea. He renounced any rights to the succession for himself and his future children in 1933.[7][8] Wilhelm and Dorothea married on 3 June 1933 in Bonn. They had two daughters. In 1940, the marriage was recognised as dynastic and the girls were given the title and style of Princesses of Prussia.[9]

Military services[edit]

During the Weimar Republic, Wilhelm inadvertently caused a public scandal by attending Army manoeuvres in the uniform of the old Imperial First Foot Guards without first seeking government approval. The commander of the Reichswehr, Hans von Seeckt, was forced to resign as a result.[11]

At the beginning of World War II, Wilhelm was among a number of Princes from the former Germany monarchies who enlisted to serve in the Wehrmacht, the unified armed forces of Germany.

Death and reaction[edit]

With his father and grandfather in 1927

In May 1940, Wilhelm took part in the invasion of France. He was wounded during the fighting in Valenciennes and died in a field hospital in Nivelles on 26 May 1940.[2][12] His funeral service was held at the Church of Peace, and he was buried in the Hohenzollern family mausoleum in the Antique Temple in Sanssouci Park. The service drew over 50,000 mourners, by far the largest not officially organized demonstration during Nazi rule in Germany.[12]

His death and the ensuing sympathy of the German public revealed that despite years of Nazi ideologic indoctrination large parts of the German society still were affectionately bound to the former German royal houses. This greatly bothered Hitler, and he began to see the Hohenzollerns as a threat to his power. Shortly after Wilhelm's death, a decree known as the Prinzenerlaß, or Prince's Decree, was issued, barring all members of the former German royal houses from service in the Wehrmacht.[12][13]

Ancestry[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Potsdam tourism sights - Marmorpalais
  2. ^ a b Zeepvat, Charlotte (2003). Queen Victoria's Family: A Century of Photographs. Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7509-3059-8. 
  3. ^ Wilhelm von Preußen (1906–1940) - Wikipedia, Die freie Enzyklopädie.
  4. ^ "KAISER'S FRATERNITY NOW IN DISGRACE; Borussia Corps of the University of Bonn Is Suspended for Hazing. ALL THE PRINCES MEMBERS Leading Organization of German University Life Guilty of Disorder -- Students Not Expelled.". New York Times. 21 November 1909. Retrieved 2008-08-10. 
  5. ^ RADOWITZ-NEI.Copyright, BARON CLEMENS VON (3 July 1922). "MONARCHY WILL RETURN, BUT NOT I, SAYS EX-KAISER; Ebert Capable, but Republic Is Only a Temporary Affair, Former Ruler Holds. SEES NATION AGAIN A POWER Hopes for an Economic Union in Central Europe, but Disapproves Austrian Alliance.ASSAILS THE SOVIET TREATYTslka on Many Current Issues With Baron Clemens von Radowitz-Nel, One of a Group Of Callers at Doorn.". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-08-10. 
  6. ^ MacDonogh, Giles (2003). The Last Kaiser: The Life of Wilhelm II. New York City: St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 978-0-312-30557-4. 
  7. ^ Eilers, Marlene A. (1987). Queen Victoria's Descendants. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co. ISBN 978-0-8063-1202-6. OCLC 17370791. 
  8. ^ boys clothing: German royalty -- Wilhelm Hohenzollern
  9. ^ Genealogy of the Royal Family of Prussia: HRH Prince Wilhelm and his descendants at the Wayback Machine (archived October 28, 2009)
  10. ^ Trauer um IKH Prinzessin Felicitas von Preussen (1934 - 2009)
  11. ^ "Hans von Seeckt." Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 6 July 2008 [1].
  12. ^ a b c (German) "Wilhelm Prinz von Preussen (in German)". Preussen.de. Retrieved 2008-07-12. 
  13. ^ Petropoulos, Jonathan. (2006) Royals and the Reich: The Princes Von Hessen in Nazi Germany. Page 242. Published - Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-516133-5

External links[edit]