The Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory (Russian: Пу́лковская астрономи́ческая обсервато́рия, official name The Central Astronomical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences at Pulkovo, Гла́вная (Пу́лковская) астрономи́ческая обсервато́рия Росси́йской акаде́мии нау́к), the principal astronomical observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences, located 19 km south of Saint Petersburg on Pulkovo Heights (75 m above sea level). It is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments.
 Early years
The observatory was opened in 1839. Originally, it was a brainchild of the German/Russian astronomer Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve, who would become its first director (in 1861, his son Otto Wilhelm von Struve succeeded him). The architect was Alexander Bryullov. The observatory was equipped with the state-of-the-art devices, one of them being the a 38-cm (15 in.) aperture refractor, one of the large refractors in the world at that time (see Great Refractor). In 1885, the observatory was equipped with 30-inch (76 cm) refractor, which was one of the biggest refractors in the world, until the 36" (91 cm) telescope at the Lick Observatory in California a few years later, both of which were built by Alvan Clark & Sons in Massachusetts. The principal line of work of the observatory consisted of determination of coordinates of stars and astronomical constants, such as precessions, nutations, aberrations and refractions, and also discovering and measuring double stars. Observatory’s activities have also been connected to the geographical study of the territory of Russia and development of navigation. The star catalogues, containing the most precise positions of 374, and then 558 stars, were made for the years 1845, 1865, 1885, 1905 and 1930.
By the 50th anniversary of the Observatory, they had built an astrophysical laboratory with a mechanical workshop and installed the Europe’s largest refractor, a 76-cm refractor (30 inch). Astrophysical research really gained momentum with the appointment of Feodor Bredikhin as a director of the Observatory in 1890 and transfer of Aristarkh Belopolsky from the Moscow Observatory, an expert in stellar spectroscopy and solar research. In 1923, they installed a big Littrow spectrograph, and in 1940 – a horizontal solar telescope, manufactured at a Leningrad factory. After having received an astrograph in 1894, the observatory began its work on astrophotography. In 1927, the Observatory received a zone astrograph and with its help the Russian astronomers catalogued the stars of the near-polar areas of the sky. Regular observation of movements of celestial poles began with the construction of the zenith telescope in 1904. In 1920, the Observatory started transmitting the exact time by radio signals. The observatory participated in the basic geodesic work, namely in measuring degrees of the arc of the meridian from the Danube to the Arctic Ocean (until 1851), and in triangulation of Spitsbergen in 1899–1901. Military geodesists and hydrographers used to work at the Observatory as interns. The Pulkovo Meridian, which passes through the center of the main building of the Observatory and is located at 30°19,6‘ east of Greenwich, was the point of departure for all former geographical maps of Russia.
In order to observe the southern stars that could not be seen on the observatory’s latitude, the scientists organized 2 affiliates. One of them was an astrophysical station in the Crimean town of Simeiz (Simeiz Observatory), which had been organized on the basis of a private observatory presented to the Pulkovo Observatory by an astronomy lover N.S.Maltsev in 1908. The other affiliate of the Pulkovo Observatory was an astrometric station in Nikolaev – a former observatory of the Department of the Navy, (today’s Nikolaev Astronomical Observatory).
 Later history
During the siege of Leningrad (1941–1944), the Observatory became the target of fierce German air raids and artillery bombardment. All of the buildings were completely destroyed. Under dramatic circumstances, the main instruments were saved and stored safely in Leningrad, including the lens of the destroyed 30-inch refractor, and a significant part of the unique library with manuscripts and important works from the 15th to 19th century. On February 5, 1997, nearly 1,500 of the 3,852 books were destroyed by malicious arson and the rest of the library items were damaged by flames, smoke or water.
Even before the end of the war, the Soviet government made a decision to restore the Observatory. In 1946, it began the construction after having cleared the territory. In May 1954, the Observatory was re-opened, not only having been restored but considerably expanded in terms of instruments, employees and research subjects. New departments had been created, such as the Department of Radio Astronomy and Department of Instrument Making (with its own optical and mechanical workshop). The surviving old instruments were repaired, modernized and put into service once again. Also installed were new instruments, such as the 65-cm (26-inch) refractor, a horizontal meridian device, a photographic polar telescope, a big zenith telescope, stellar interferometer, 2 solar telescopes, coronagraph, a big radio telescope and all kinds of labware. The Simeiz station became a part of the new Crimean Astrophysical Observatory of the Soviet Academy of Sciences in 1945. They also built the Kislovodsk Mountain Astronomical Station and a laboratory in Blagoveshchensk. The Observatory organized many expeditions for determining differences of longitudes, observing passages of Venus and solar eclipses, and studying astroclimate. In 1962, the Observatory sent an expedition to Chile to observe stars in the southern skies. The 65 cm Zeiss telescope was originally intended as a gift from then Chancellor of Germany Adolf Hitler to the Italian Benito Mussolini, but it was not delivered and instead was taken by the Soviet Union.
- 1839–1862 Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve
- 1862–1889 Otto Wilhelm von Struve
- 1890–1895 Fyodor Aleksandrovich Bredikhin
- 1895–1916 Oskar Backlund
- 1916–1919 Aristarkh Belopolsky
- 1919–1930 Alexandr Alexandrovich Ivanov
- 1933–1937 Boris Gerasimovich
- 1937–1944 Sergey Belyavsky
- 1944–1946 Grigory Neujmin
- 1947–1964 Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Mikhailov
- 1964–1979 Vladimir Alekseevich Krat
- 1979–1982 Kiril Nikolaevich Tavastsherna
- 1983–2000 Viktor Kuzmich Abalakin
- 2000– Alexandr Vladimirovich Stepanov
- Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments – UNESCO World Heritage Centre
- Hellemans, Alexander; Bunch, Bryan (1988). The Timetables of Science. Simon & Schuster. p. 304. ISBN 0671621300.
- Pulkovo Observatory web page (in Russian)
- John Lankford History of astronomy: an encyclopedia pp.423-424, Taylor & Francis, 1997 ISBN 0-8153-0322-X
- Eremeeva, A. I. (November 1995), "Political Repression and Personality: The History of Political Repression Against Soviet Astronomers", Journal for the History of Astronomy: 297, Bibcode:1995JHA....26..297E
- André Heck Information handling in astronomy: historical vistas p. 147, Springer, 2003 ISBN 1-4020-1178-4
- Frank Kelly Edmondson AURA and its US national observatories pp. 199 ff Cambridge University Press, 1997 ISBN 0-521-55345-8
- Journal for the history of astronomy vol. 28, pt. 2, p. 177 (1997), Title: Book Review: Pulkovo / St. Petersburg : Spuren der Sterne und der Zeiten : Geschichte der russischen Hauptsternwarte / Peter Lang, New York, 1995, Bibliographic Code: 1997JHA....28..177H
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- History of the observatory (in Russian)
- The official site of Pulkovo observatory
- Overview of the observatory[dead link]
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Pulkovo". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.