|Joaquín Salvador Lavado|
Quino in Paris in 2004.
July 17, 1932 |
Guaymallén, Mendoza, Argentina
|Nationality||Argentine Spanish |
Joaquín Salvador Lavado, better known by his pen name Quino (born 17 July 1932), is a Argentine Spanish cartoonist. His comic strip Mafalda (which ran from 1964 to 1973) is very popular in Latin America and many parts of Europe.
Joaquín Salvador Lavado was born in the Argentine province of Mendoza, 17th of July of 1932. He was called "Quino" since childhood, to distinguish him from his uncle, the illustrator Joaquín, who helped to awaken his vocation of cartoonist at an early age. In 1945, after the death of his mother, he is enrolled and starts his studies at Escuela de Bellas Artes de Mendoza. Shortly after, his father dies, Quino was 16 years old; a year later he abandoned his studies, with the intent to become a cartoonist. Soon he would sell his first illustration, an advertisement for a fabric store. He tries, unsuccessfully to get a job with the editorial houses in Buenos Aires.
After serving in the military draft in 1954, he decides to reside in Buenos Aires under poverty-stricken conditions. His first humor page was published in the weekly magazine Esto Es, which leads to the publication of other works in many other magazines: Leoplán, TV Guía, Vea y Lea, Damas y Damitas, Usted, Panorama, Adán, Atlántida, Che, el diario Democracia, etc.
In 1954, his cartoons became regulars in Rico Tipo, Tía Vicenta and Dr. Merengue. After this, he started to make more advertisement illustrations. On May 21st of 2014, he was given the Premio Príncipe de Asturias de Comunicación y Humanidades. This prize was validated on the 25th of October of the same year, 2014, when he received a statuette designed by the celebrated painter and sculptor Joan Miró.
His first compilation book, Mundo Quino, was published in 1963, while he was developing pages for a covert advertising campaign for Mansfield, an electrical household appliance company, for which he creates the character of Mafalda. The advertising campaign was never executed, which led to the publication of Mafalda’s first story to be published in Leoplán, after this, it started to be published regularly in the weekly magazine Primera Plana, since the director of the magazine was a friend of Quino. Between 1965 and 1967 it was published in the newspaper El Mundo; soon after the first compilation book is published, it starts to be edited in Italy, Spain (due to the censorship, it is tagged as “only for adults”), Portugal and many others.
After abandoning the story of Mafalda in June 25th of 1973, after a lack of new ideas –according to him-, Quino moved to Milán, from where he continued to create humor pages. In 1976, the character Mafalda was chosen by UNICEF to be a spokesperson for the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Mafalda is still translated in book collections. Argentine director Daniel Mallo translated 260 Mafalda strips into 90-second cartoons that aired in Argentina, starting in 1972.
In 2008, by initiative of the Museo del Dibujo y la Ilustración and under the curator Mercedes Casanegra, the company Subterráneos de Buenos Aires created two murals of Mafalda in the estación Perú in the Plaza de Mayo. In 2009, Quino participated with an original work of Mafalda, created for El Mundo, in the Bicentenial: 200 years of Graphic Humor that the Museo del Dibujo y la Ilustración held in the Museo Eduardo Sívori of Buenos Aires.
While Mafalda continued to be used for human rights campaigns in Argentina and abroad, Quino dedicated himself to writing other editorial-style comics. The comics were published in Argentina and abroad. Since 1982, the Argentine newspaper Clarín has published his cartoons weekly.
After visiting Cuban cartoon director Juan Padrón, the two produced a series of cartoons. Between 1986 and 1988, they made six Quinoscopio cartoons through the Instituto Cubano del Arte e Industrias Cinematográficos, none of which were longer than six minutes. In addition, the pair worked on 104 short Mafalda cartoons in 1994. While Mafalda concentrated on children and their innocent, realistic view of the world, his later comics featured ordinary people with ordinary feelings. The humor is characteristically cynical, often poking fun of real-life situations, such as marriage, technology, authority and food. Collected in numerous volumes by Argentine publisher Ediciones de la Flor, these comics are readily available.
In 1960, he married Alicia Colombo, but the couple never had children. Starting in 1976, Quino and his wife lived his exile in Milan, Italy for several years before returning to Argentina. He is an agnostic.
Prizes and honors
- The kind of ideas that he works with are one of the most difficult, and I am amazed at their variety and depth. Also, he knows how to draw, and to draw in a funny way. I think that he is a giant. — Charles M. Schulz
Quino has won many international prizes and honors throughout his career. In 1982, Quino was chosen Cartoonist of the Year by fellow cartoonists around the world, and has won twice the Konex Platinum Prize for Visual Arts. In 1988, he was named an "Illustrious Citizen" of Mendoza. In 2000 he received the second Quevedos Prize for graphical humor. In March 2014 he was awarded the French Legion of Honour. Additionally, Buenos Aires' Colegiales neighborhood named their plaza Plaza Mafalda.
In 2014 Quino was awarded the Prince of Asturias award in recognition of his work, 50 years after creating the character of Mafalda. He received the prize from the hands of the King Felipe VI of Spain on October 24, 2014 in a ceremony in Oviedo, Spain.
- "Silent Satire", retrieved June 8, 2009
- "Evita, Gardel, Maradona y...Mafalda", retrieved June 8, 2009
- "Quino, on the Funny Side of Freedom" at the Wayback Machine (archived June 23, 2009), The UNESCO Courier, interview with Lucía Iglesias Kuntz, June/July 2000, retrieved June 8, 2009
- "Declaración de los Derechos del Niño", Amnesty International, retrieved June 7, 2009
- "Juan Padrón, IMDB", retrieved June 8, 2009
- Quino: "A los argentinos les atrae el fútbol por la misma razón que nos les atraen las cosas importantes, Diario Uno, 15 July 2012 (Spanish)
- Vanderbilt Special Collections Library| http://www.library.vanderbilt.edu/special-collections/subjectlist.php
- Quino's official webpage (Spanish)