|— Municipality —|
|Motto: Benemérita, invicta, heroica, buena, muy noble, muy leal
(Meritorious, undefeated, heroic, good, very noble, very loyal)
|Autonomous community||Principado de Asturias|
|• Alcalde||Agustín Iglesias (PP)|
|• Total||18.665 km2 (7.207 sq mi)|
|Elevation||232 m (761 ft)|
|• Density||12,000/km2 ( 31,000/sq mi)|
|Demonym||ovetense or, coloqually, carbayón|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Postal code||33001 and 33013|
Oviedo ([oˈβjeðo]; Asturian: Uviéu, [uˈβje'u]) is the capital city of the Principality of Asturias in northern Spain and the administrative and commercial centre of the region. It is also the name of the municipality that contains the city. The city lends its name to the sudarium of Oviedo a religious relic revered there since the 9th century.
It is said that two monks, Nolan and John, founded the city in 761. That settlement was soon to be completed with the construction of a small church dedicated to Saint Vincent. Nevertheless, the archaeological register has shown traces of occupation since the 1st century, in Roman times.
King Fruela I of Asturias, the fourth of the Asturian monarchs, was the first decided promoter of the city as may be witnessed by his construction of both a palace and a nearby church. Oviedo owes to a later king, Alfonso II The Chaste (791-842), its establishment as a capital city and ruling seat as a result of the moving of the court from Pravia and the creation of the Pilgrim’s Route to Santiago de Compostela, a major event in the history of Oviedo, a church dedicated to The Saviour, the Cathedral of San Salvador, and a royal palace formed the nucleus and motive power of Oviedo.
During this period the city became the centre of an original and unique architectural expression, inheritor of Visigothic, Roman and Nordic traditions, which was to reach its high point during the reign of Ramiro I of Asturias. Ramiro I sponsored many unique construction projects, which remain a signature of Oviedo to this day.
The moving of the royal court to León, after the death of Alfonso III, The Great, links the life of the city to the relics preserved in its cathedral and the passing of pilgrims that visit El Salvador, and continue on their way to Santiago de Compostela. The following centuries (12th-16th) witness the development of the medieval city, the outlines of which are still preserved today, the construction of the city walls, a devastating fire which took place on Christmas Eve in 1521, and the aqueduct works, Los Pilares, constructed in order to provide the city with water throughout the 16th century.
The foundation of the Arts College (University of Oviedo) by Fernando de Valdés Salas, at the beginning of the 17th century, opened Oviedo to a progressive urban expansion. Further impulse was in the 18th century by the regional nobility and the construction of remarkable palaces; in the 19th century by industrial growth and the suburban development of Uría Street; and finally in the 20th century by administrative and commercial development.
The Siege of Oviedo in 1936 was a memorable event in the Spanish Civil War. The army garrison rose in support of the coup d'état and stood a siege of three months by an improvised force, loyal to the Republican government until relieved in 1937.
The economy is strongly dependant on the tertiary sector, with many office buildings in the city centre. Oviedo's status as the administrative centre of the region supports a large number of jobs in public administration. The manufacturing sector, which remains important in this part of Spain, is not much in evidence in Oviedo itself, but is more important in the adjacent municipalities of Siero and Llanera which lie to the north of the city, between Oviedo and Gijon. In 2009 the Oviedo municipality had a total debt of €135,185,000.00.
- Cathedral of San Salvador, from 13th century, erected in 1288 over the previous cathedral, which was founded in the 8th century.
- Cámara Santa de Oviedo. Dating from 802. It is located within the Cathedral, and it is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Houses the Arca Santa chest reliquary of the Sudarium of Oviedo.
- Santa María del Naranco Hall, 9th century. A relatively large pavilion, part of the palace complex built for and by King Ramiro I.
- San Miguel de Lillo (small church), 9th century.
- Basilica of San Julián de los Prados.
- La Foncalada. Fountain of the 9th century. It is the only preserved Pre-Romanesque civil work in the whole of Europe.
- The University of Oviedo was created in 1574, but only inaugurated on September 21, 1608, the feast of Saint Matthew. It was funded by the terms of the will of Archbishop D. Fernando Valdés Salas, minister and General Inquisitor under Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and Philip II.
- Town Hall (Casa Consistorial). Dates from 1662.
- La Balesquida Chapel (13th century). Associated with Oviedo's taylors' guild. Repeatedly restored in the 17th, 19th and 20th centuries. It is dedicated to the Virgin of Hope.
- House of the Llanes (18th century). It is the best Baroque façade in the whole of Asturias.
- Deán Payarinos' House (20th century). A building on the Beaux Arts style. Nowadays, it houses the Eduardo Martínez Torner Conservatory.
- The Monastery of San Vicente (8th century). At the moment, home of the Archaeological Museum of Asturias.
- The Convent Church of Santo Domingo, Oviedo (16th century). One of the monastic settlements outside the city walls. The original building burnt down in 1934 and it was heavily reconstructed after the Civil War.
- El Fontán Market (17th-18th centuries). A simple but rather monumental complex; an 18th-century porticoed square, which housed the vegetable market. It fell victim to speculative manoeuvres. It was left to deteriorate on its own; claiming that it was beyond repair, it was then demolished on 1998 and rebuilt offering all modern amenities, but with its original proportions radically changed; the original complex being much lower than its modern replacement.
- Casas del Cuito, early 20th century Art Nouveau apartment building
Oviedo inspired the fictional city of Vetusta in Leopoldo Alas' La Regenta. Other Spanish writers were inspired by the city, including Ramón Pérez de Ayala in Tigre Juan and Dolores Medio in her novel Nosotros los Rivero.
Museums in Oviedo:
- Archaeological Museum of Asturias
- Museum of Fine Arts of Asturias
- Camara Santa within the Cathedral houses the Arca Santa and Sudarium of Oviedo
- Diocesan Museum
- Tabularium Artis Asturiensis
- Center for the reception and understanding of Preromanesque Art
- (future) Museum of the Militar Technology and Industry
Other cultural centres in Oviedo:
- Campoamor Theatre
- Filarmónica Theatre
- Prince Felipe Auditorium
- Princess Letizia Congress Palace
Cultural institutions: Orquesta Sinfonica del Principado de Asturias is the premier orchestra of the Principality of Asturias. This full-time symphony orchestra performs wide range of repertoire with world class soloists and conductors. It is based in the Auditorio Principe Felipe in Oviedo, but also performs in the main concert venues in Gijón and Avilés. Internationally recognized and one of the best orchestras in Spain, it is committed to adventurous programing with strong emphasis on education and community partnerships. Rossen Milanov is the Music Director.
Oviedo also hosts the annual Prince of Asturias Awards. This prestigious event, held in the city's Campoamor Theatre, recognizes international achievement in eight categories. Award winners in 2007 include Bob Dylan in the category of Arts and Al Gore in the category of International Cooperation.
Oviedo University's international campus attracts many foreign scholars from all over the globe.
Teams based in Oviedo 
- Real Oviedo, football team. (Segunda División B league)
- Oviedo Rugby Club, rugby union team. (División de Honor B)
- Oviedo CB, basketball team. (LEB Plata, third division)
- Oviedo Hockey Club, roller hockey team. (Primera División B, second division)
- Oviedo Moderno CF, football team. (Segunda División (women) league)
Annual sports events 
- International Showjumping Competition
- City of Oviedo Horse Show
- City of Oviedo San Silvestre
- City of Oviedo Trial Indoor
- Outdoor Sports Climbing
- Vuelta a España (Cycling)
- Tour of Asturias (Cycling)
- Ascent of Naranco (Cycling)
- City of Oviedo Mountain Bike Open
- City of Oviedo Cycle Criterium
- Base Hockey International Tournament
- International Icehockey Tournament
- Prince of Asturias International Rally
- National Auto-Cross Championship
- International Hurdles Competition
- International Chess Open
- Boxing Nights
- City of Oviedo Weightlifting Championship
- Ascension Bowls Tournament
- San Mateo Bowls Tournament
Feasts and traditions 
The Festive Calendar:
- Cabalgata de los Reyes Magos de Oriente: The traditional Twelve Night parade, where the Three Wise Men of the East and their retinue parade through the city main streets, reaching the Cathedral Square, where they make their offering to the Child Jesus.
- L'Antroxu (Carnival)
- The Sudarium of Oviedo is displayed to the public three times a year: Good Friday, the Feast of the Triumph of the Cross on 14 September, and its octave on 21 September.
- Feast of the Ascension
- La Foguera de San Xuan (Saint John's Bonfire):
- La Balesquida or Martes del Bollu:
- The Feast of San Mateo
- El Desarme (Disarmament's Day), commemorating the cunning victory of the locals over a Carlist army during the First Carlist War, during the 1830s
- Fabada, bean stew with selected cuts of pork, etc.
- Callos, tripe
- Carne gobernada, (chunks of meat, prepared with onion, garlic and white wine sauce)
- Chorizo a la sidra, (chorizo sausage prepared in cider)
- Paxarines, figures made from breadcrumb and egg coloured with saffron
- Carbayones, Oviedo's typical almond pastry
- Sidra, (cider), Asturian typical drink, fermented apple cider
- Arroz con leche, similar to milk pudding
- Frixuelos, similar to crepes
Oviedo's climate is temperate oceanic (Cfb in the Köppen climate classification).
|Climate data for Oviedo|
|Average high °C (°F)||11.7
|Daily mean °C (°F)||8.0
|Average low °C (°F)||4.2
|Precipitation mm (inches)||85
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)||10||11||11||13||12||8||8||8||8||11||11||11||122|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||117||117||147||152||158||168||174||171||154||134||114||105||1,711|
|Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología|
Notable people 
- Emilio Alarcos Llorach, linguist
- Leopoldo Alas Clarín, 19th century novelist and literary critic
- Fernando Alonso, Formula One driver and a two-time world champion
- Antonio Gamoneda winner of the 2006 Cervantes Prize
- Ángel González, poet
- Juan Mata, Chelsea F.C. footballer
- Melendi, popular singer.
- Michu, Swansea City footballer
- HRH Letizia Princesa de Asturias the consort of the Spanish Crown Prince
- Ramón Pérez de Ayala, writer
- Carmen Polo, wife of Spain's dictator Francisco Franco
- Indalecio Prieto, socialist politician. One the leaders of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party up to the end of the Civil War and the posterior exile
- Samuel Sánchez, cyclist. 2008 Olympic Road Race Champion.
- Tioda, 9th century architect who designed several of the city pre-romanesque buildings.
- Sid Lowe, well known international football journalist predominantly known for his contributions to The Guardian.
Other places in the municipality 
- Colloto (divided between two municipalities: Oviedo and Siero)
- San Claudio
- San Esteban de les Cruces
International relations 
Twin towns — sister cities 
Oviedo is twinned with:
- Valparaíso, Chile, since 1976
- Bochum, Germany, since 1979
- Buenos Aires, Argentina, since 1983
- Veracruz, Mexico, since 1983
- Clermont-Ferrand, France, since 1988
- Tampa, Florida, United States, since 1991
- Santiago de Compostela, Spain, since 1993
- Santa Clara, Cuba, since 1995
- Jersey City, New Jersey, United States, since 1998
- Sucre, Bolivia, since 2000
- Zamora, Spain, since October 9, 2001
- Torrevieja, Spain, since January 2, 2004
- Hangzhou, China, since 2006
- Valencia de Don Juan, Spain, since 2006
- Oviedo, Florida, United States, since 2006
- Viseu, Portugal, since April 10, 2007
- Maranello, Italy, since April 28, 2010
- Móstoles, Spain, since May 2, 2012
- Bennett, Janice (January 2005). Sacred Blood, Sacred Image: The Sudarium of Oviedo, New Evidence for the Authenticity of the Shroud of Turin. Ignatius Press. ISBN 978-0-9705682-0-5. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
- Hisham I, D.M. Dunlop, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol.III, ed. B. Lewis, V.L. Menage, C. Pellat and J. Schacht, (E.J. Brill, 1986), 495.
- "Microsoft Word - Informe_Deuda_Local_2009" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-03-12.
- "Valores Climatológicos Normales. Oviedo".
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Oviedo|
- (English) Asturias Cities
- (Spanish) Municipality of Oviedo
- (English) Municipality of Oviedo and touristic informations
- (Spanish) University of Oviedo
- (English) Spanish Pre-Romanesque Art Guide; San Julian de los Prados.
- (English) Spanish Pre-Romanesque Art Guide; Santa María del Naranco.
- (English) Spanish Pre-Romanesque Art Guide; San Miguel de Lillo.