Rhodesian general election, 1970

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Rhodesian general election, 1970
Rhodesia
1965 ←
10 April 1970
→ 1974

All 66 seats to the House of Assembly of Rhodesia
34 seats were needed for a majority
  First party


  Ian Smith 1950s.jpg


Leader Ian Smith
Party RF
Last election 50
Seats won 50
Seat change
Popular vote 39,066
Percentage 76.8%
(European Seats)

Prime Minister before election

Ian Smith
RF

Elected Prime Minister

Ian Smith
RF

The Rhodesian general election of 10 April 1970 was the first election which took place under the revised, republican, constitution of Rhodesia. The country had declared itself independent in November 1965, shortly after the previous election; the Rhodesian Front government had always disliked the 1961 constitution and made sure to change it by the time of the next one.

Background[edit]

Following the referendum on the new constitution in June 1969, the timing of the next election was laid out: it would happen once the new Electoral Act had been put in place, and once delimitation of the new constituencies was complete.

This gave opponents of the Rhodesian Front a chance to organise in time for the election. At the Rhodesian Front congress on 23 October 1969, the party chairman Ralph Nilson warned the government to avoid complacency. The Centre Party had been founded in 1968 as a non-racial party which aimed for 'Middle of the Road' political opinion; it supported "advancement of the African on merit" and gradual abolition of racial discrimination and was led by Pat Bashford; it was strongest in the urban areas. Ian Smith described it as "the real opposition".

Robin James, an independent MP who had been expelled from the Rhodesian Front for opposing Ian Smith, formed the Conservative Alliance on 26 June 1969 which campaigned for the preservation of the European and his civilisation in Rhodesia. James attacked the Rhodesian Front for 'multiracial, integrationist policies'; his party was subsequently renamed the Republican Alliance. Eligible African voters also began to form political parties, among them the National People's Union which aimed to unite Africans against white supremacy without violence.

Election campaign[edit]

On 1 March, Clifford Dupont as 'Officer Administering the Government' signed a proclamation dissolving Parliament and bringing into effect the new constitution at midnight (Rhodesia therefore became a unilaterally-proclaimed Republic on 2 March). The general election was set for 10 April.

The Centre Party announced on 4 March its intention to run 12 candidates. The party declared it accepted the constitution and therefore the independence of Rhodesia. It eventually ran 16; the Republican Alliance had 14, and there were 14 Independents. These candidates generally fell into two categories.

  1. The first category comprised candidates who were usually former members of the Rhodesian Front who had fallen out with it over the new constitution or some other issue. Max Cohen (Greendale) had resigned from the Rhodesian Front immediately before the election; Mrs Ina Bursey (Sinoia-Umvukwes) asserted that she was "sticking to the 1962 principles" of the Rhodesian Front; and William Ogley (Que Que) informed voters that he was now more conservative than the RF, just as Arthur Hubbard (Milton Park) said he was now to the right of it.
  2. The second category were those fighting rural constituencies in the interests of the farmer. Thomas Edridge (Marandellas) declared he wanted to restore profit to farming. Harry Affleck (Gwebi) and Roy Ashburner (Sinoia-Umvukwes) stood explicitly as farmers' representatives.

A victory for the Rhodesian Front was regarded as inevitable. Ian Smith, helped by the presence of the Republican Alliance, portrayed his government as not being racialist, and sought to postpone the question of what to do about the farming industry until after the election. In the event, the Rhodesian Front won every seat; the most marginal was Salisbury City, which included the large Salisbury community of Indian shopkeepers, and where a mixed-race candidate was only 40 votes off winning. The Centre Party's appeal to non-racial politics played well only among African voters who gave them seven out of the eight seats, with only one going to the National People's Union.

Electoral system[edit]

Rural constituencies used at this election.
Constituencies in Salisbury.
Constituencies in Bulawayo.

Under the 1969 constitution, the electorate of Rhodesia returned 66 members of the House of Assembly. The electoral system was divided into three different classes of seat:

  • European roll seats: 50 seats were returned by voters of European descent.
  • African roll seats: 8 seats were returned by voters of African descent.
  • Tribal seats: 8 seats were returned by Tribal electoral colleges made up of the Chiefs of the Tribes.

Qualification of voters[edit]

Qualification for being a voter depended on having sufficient means or educational achievement. All voters had to be a citizen of Rhodesia, over 21 years of age, have resided in the constituency for at least three months, and have an adequate knowledge of English and be able to sign the claim form in his or her own handwriting. There were then two rolls for which the voter might qualify, which were determined by their race.

To qualify for the European voters roll, a voter had to be European, Coloured, or Asian and either:

  • Have received an income of not less than $1,800 per annum for the previous two years, or
  • Own immovable property worth $3,600; or
  • Having completed four years' secondary education of a prescribed standard, have an income of not less than $1,200 per annum for the previous two years, or
  • Having completed four years' secondary education of a prescribed standard, own immovable property worth $2,400.

To qualify for the African voters roll, a voter had to be African and either:

  • Have received an income of not less than $600 per annum for the previous two years, or
  • Own immovable property worth $1,200; or
  • Having completed two years' secondary education of a prescribed standard, have an income of not less than $400 per annum for the previous two years, or
  • Having completed two years' secondary education of a prescribed standard, own immovable property worth $800.

In practice very few Africans qualified, and many who met the qualification requirements refused to register to vote.

Wives were deemed to meet the means qualification through their husbands' earnings or wealth, although for African voters living under a system of polygamy, only the first wife qualified. A Minister of Religion or a member of a religious order living under a vow of poverty was automatically deemed to have met the means qualification. Tribal chiefs also qualified automatically to vote.

Voters were disqualified if they were insane, had been convicted of a serious criminal offence or an offence under electoral law, had been under detention or restriction for more than six months under security legislation, or had been expelled from Parliament. Some voters were also disqualified for receiving Government rations or maintenance in lieu of rations for more than a year.

Constituency boundaries[edit]

A delimitation commission was established by the Electoral Act of 1969, and began work in December 1969. Several of the constituencies were the same as previous constituencies, but some changes were required due to population shifts. The delimitation commission had to work with electorate figures as of 1 February, and could recommend constituencies within 20% either side of a target electorate of 1,740 (which gave a maximum of 2,088 and a minimum of 1,393).

State of the parties[edit]

Party Seats
Rhodesian Front 50
Rhodesia Electoral Union 8
Centre Party 7
National People's Union 1
Total 66

Results summary[edit]

European seats[edit]

Electorate: 87,020 (65,475 in contested seats)
Turnout: 77.7%

Party Candidates Elected Unopposed Popular vote
 % change
Rhodesian Front 50 50 13 39,066 76.8
Centre Party 16 - - 5,619 11.0
Independents 14 - - 4,534 8.9
Republican Alliance 14 - - 1,633 3.2
Totals 94 50 13 50,852 100%

Results by constituency[edit]

European roll seats[edit]

Constituency
Electorate and turnout
Candidate Party Votes %
ARUNDEL
1,925 (81.5%)
Andrew Skeen RF 1,193 76.1
Alfred Priestley Knottenbelt CP 375 23.9
AVONDALE
1,993 (79.2%)
Dr Colin Eric Barlow RF 1,197 75.8
Dr Robert West Fynn CP 382 24.2
BELLEVUE
1,949 (78.1%)
Wallace Evelyn Stuttaford RF 1,363 89.5
Alfred Henry Vincent RA 160 10.5
BELVEDERE
1,882 (79.1%)
Dennis Divaris RF 1,046 70.3
Edmund Thomas Thurlow Nelson CP 349 23.5
John Fraser Caladine Whiting RA 93 6.2
BORROWDALE
1,857 (83.3%)
Dr Douglas Archibald Hamilton Ritchie RF 969 62.6
Thomas Henry Patrick Bashford CP 578 37.4
BRAESIDE
1,904
Herbert Douglas Tanner RF Unopposed
BULAWAYO CENTRAL
1,627
Sydney Henderson Millar RF Unopposed
BULAWAYO DISTRICT
1,792 (81.7%)
Alexander Moseley RF 1,173 80.1
John Stakesby-Lewis CP 291 19.9
BULAWAYO EAST
1,699 (81.6%)
Elias Broomberg RF 904 65.2
Arthur Sarif CP 482 34.8
BULAWAYO NORTH
1,677 (75.6%)
John James Wrathall RF 1,197 94.5
Austen Sales Perkins RA 70 5.5
BULAWAYO SOUTH
1,583 (68.3%)
Arthur McCarter RF 988 91.4
Ernest Leonard Garland RA 93 8.6
CHARTER
1,715
Rowan Cronjé RF Unopposed
EASTERN
1,413
Alan James Wroughton Macleod RF Unopposed
GATOOMA
1,557
Albert Gannaway Mells RF Unopposed
GREENDALE
1,974 (79.0%)
Mark Henry Heathcote Partridge RF 1,123 72.0
Max Cohen Ind RF 436 28.0
GWEBI
1,527 (83.2%)
Thomas Ian Fraser Sandeman RF 941 74.1
Harry Affleck Ind 329 25.9
GWELO
1,505 (70.9%)
Desmond William Lardner-Burke RF 939 88.0
James William Redmond RA 128 12.0
HARTLEY
1,710
Pieter Kenyon Fleming Voltelyn van der Byl RF Unopposed
HATFIELD
1,994 (74.3%)
Lance Bales Smith RF 927 62.6
Peter Chalmers Chalker Ind RF 555 37.4
HIGHLANDS NORTH
1,861 (81.6%)
Bernard Ponter RF 1,017 67.0
Mrs. Sheila Maria Nolan CP 502 33.0
HIGHLANDS SOUTH
1,854 (80.0%)
Richard Brathwaite Hope Hall RF 1,133 76.3
Jeremy Ralph Bushton Broome CP 351 23.7
HILLCREST
1,990
John Arthur Newington RF Unopposed
HILLSIDE
1,892 (79.6%)
Dennis Fawcett Phillips RF 1,120 74.4
Hilary Stephen Norton CP 386 25.6
JAMESON
1,874 (75.8%)
John Peter Broberg Nilson RF 1,209 85.1
Christopher Wordsworth Phillips RA 212 14.9
KAROI
1,534 (78.4%)
Daniel Jacobus Brink RF 784 65.2
Bertram Cecil William Hacking Ind 419 34.8
MABELREIGN
1,898 (75.0%)
Patrick Palmer-Owen RF 1,319 92.7
Michael Anthony Crow RA 104 7.3
MARANDELLAS
1,515 (86.0%)
David Colville Smith RF 945 72.5
Thomas Edridge Ind 358 27.5
MARLBOROUGH
1,942 (73.9%)
William Michie Irvine RF 1,242 86.5
Peter Andrew Thomas Young Ind 194 13.5
MATOBO
1,650
Clifford Allan Redin Savory RF Unopposed
MAZOE
1,644 (75.0%)
George Rollo Hayman RF 1,075 87.2
Ernest Frederick Konschel Ind 158 12.8
MIDLANDS
1,478
Roger Tancred Robert Hawkins RF Unopposed
MILTON PARK
1,927 (69.4%)
Arthur Leonard Lazell RF 1,146 85.7
Arthur Valentine Curwen Fortescue Hubbard Ind 192 14.3
MOUNT PLEASANT
1,844 (81.9%)
John Hartley Howman RF 913 60.5
Nicholas John McNally CP 597 39.5
MTOKO
1,670 (79.5%)
Rodney Guy Swayne Simmonds RF 880 66.3
Guy Kerry Webb Ind 447 33.7
QUEEN'S PARK
1,786 (79.5%)
Ian Finlay McLean RF 1,301 91.7
Alford Graham Coppard RA 118 8.3
QUE QUE
1,499 (80.7%)
Jacobus Johannes Burger RF 899 74.3
William Ernest Ogley Ind 311 25.7
RAYLTON
1,713 (82.2%)
Thomas Alexander Pinchen RF 1,114 79.1
Stanley Cyril Howard CP 232 16.5
William Edward Bailey RA 62 4.4
RUSAPE
1,466
Johannes Jacobus Lodewickus de Kock RF Unopposed
SALISBURY CENTRAL
1,937 (66.1%)
Theodore Maurice Ellison RF 1,064 83.1
Robin Hugh James RA 217 16.9
SALISBURY CITY
1,956 (77.9%)
Edward Aylett Sutton-Pryce RF 651 42.7
Gaston Thomas Thornicroft Ind 611 40.1
Francis Hugh Keenlyside CP 157 10.3
Mrs. Isaline Cecily Dunsterville James RA 80 5.3
John Robert Lentell Ind 24 1.6
SALISBURY NORTH
1,953 (75.7%)
Andre Sothern Holland RF 1,001 67.7
George Henry Tanser CP 477 32.3
SELUKWE
1,431 (76.5%)
Charles Falcon Scott Clark RF 986 90.0
Mrs. Patricia Mary McHugh RA 109 10.0
SHABANI
1,457
Ian Birt Harper Dillon RF Unopposed
SINOIA/UMWUKWES
1,633 (77.1%)
Frederick Augustus Alexander RF 759 60.3
Roy William Jack Ashburner Ind 438 34.8
Mrs. Ina Antoinette Bursey Ind RF 62 4.9
UMTALI EAST
1,567 (77.3%)
Bernard Horace Mussett RF 1,061 87.5
William Lamb CP 151 12.5
UMTALI WEST
1,622 (74.7%)
John Christie RF 988 81.6
Geoffrey Chilcott Taylor CP 193 15.9
Hajo Spandow RA 30 2.5
UMZINGWANE
1,719 (79.6%)
Ian Douglas Smith RF 1,252 91.5
Samuel Albert Gelman CP 116 8.5
VICTORIA
2,038
George Holland Hartley RF Unopposed
WANKIE
1,540
Reginald Edward Dennis Cowper RF Unopposed
WATERFALLS
1,847 (76.0%)
Arthur Philip Smith RF 1,247 88.8
Maurice Alan George Dedman RA 157 11.2

African roll seats[edit]

African roll constituencies.
Constituency
Electorate and turnout
Candidate Party Votes %
HARARE
1,505 (57.3%)
Edward Gabriel Watungwa CP 527 61.1
Gervase Muchada NPU 153 17.7
Patrick John Daniel Rubatika Ind 119 13.8
Mandishona Donson Matimba AAPP 63 7.3
INSUKAMINI
491 (54.6%)
Lewis Alban Ndhlovu CP 97 36.2
Phillip Elijah Chigogo Ind 82 30.6
Sidney Sidwell Bonke Keyi NPU 74 27.6
William Henry Kona UNPP 15 5.6
KUNYASI
1,488 (48.5%)
Josiah Moses Gondo NPU 353 48.9
Johnson Matariro Hungwe CP 221 30.6
Cephas Asaph Napata RAP 93 12.9
Jepson Mutumwa Mashingaidze UNPP 33 4.6
Lazarus Dembetembe Ind 22 3.0
MABVAZUWA
1,566 (57.8%)
Lazarus Masenda CP 420 46.4
Oswald Nyamwanza NPU 266 29.4
Selby Hlatshwayo RAP 91 10.1
Ambrose Charles Majongwe Ind 69 7.6
Davidson Murambiwa Jahwi Ind 59 6.5
MATOJENI
646 (42.3%)
Wening Shake Moraka CP 187 68.5
Billy Boarder Matawele RAP 41 15.0
Samson Chibi NPU 23 8.4
Michael Malisela Mojapelo UNPP 22 8.1
MPOPOMA
539 (72.9%)
Lwazi Joel Mahlangu CP 174 44.3
Cephas Hlabangana Ind 67 17.0
Cleaphas Chihota Chiremba Ind 60 15.3
Abishai Chimbadzwa Mutasa Ind 54 13.7
Zachariah Tongai Chigumira RAP 38 9.7
NEMAKONDE
1,453 (43.7%)
Ronald T.D. Sadomba CP 281 44.3
Chad Magumise Chipunza NPU 131 20.6
Herbert Munukwa Mano Ind 87 13.7
Paul Harbinett Joseph Chanetsa Ind 83 13.1
Eric Gwanzura Ind 45 7.1
Simon Chibvawure Paraffin RAP 8 1.3
NTSHONALANGA
638 (42.3%)
Micah Mahamba Bhebe CP 240 88.9
Austin Ruzayi Munyoro RAP 30 11.1

Tribal seats[edit]

All the successful tribal MPs formed the Rhodesia Electoral Union on election.

Electoral college Candidate Votes %
MASHONALAND
HIGHVELD Tadeos Mutidzwa Chikonyara 75 35.9
Bartholomew Augustine Mabika 63 30.1
Calogreedy Chatambudza Zimbudzama 33 15.8
Isaac Hanzi Samuriwo 32 15.3
Matthew Kwenda 4 1.9
Nelson Saite Mutambirwa 2 1.0
LOWVELD Ranches Chereni Makaya 73 39.2
Chikati Merkiya Makamure 73 39.2
Elias Mapiya Badza 40 21.5
MANICA Naboth Absolom Gandanzara 58 46.4
Barnabas Jonathan Munyaradzi Mutasa 31 24.8
Tafirenyika Paulus Makumbe 12 9.6
Allenby Thodlana 11 8.8
Percy Hudson Mkudu 9 7.2
Tiripano Francis Zhangazha 4 3.2
Oliver Chakonda
ZAMBEZI Aaron Takawira Mungate 206 72.8
Stephen Amos Dzuka Chirenda 37 13.1
Luke Mangirazi Kandengwa 24 8.5
Jockoniah Stanley Chigumbura 16 5.7
MATABELELAND
KARIBA Enock Gudu Sifuya 28 40.6
Amos Zikhundulu Nhliziyo 23 33.3
Sidney Mugore Mangoro 18 26.1
PAGATI Jeremiah Macelegwana Khabo 34 31.2
Dennis Simanga Nkiwane 32 29.4
Fani Mlingo 28 25.7
Josiah Randa Mtemeri 15 13.8
PIONEER Josia Bvajurayi Hove 106 79.7
Ephraim Jiro Mhlanga 24 18.0
Ratisayi Zhou 2 1.5
Jotham Siyapela Hove 1 0.8
TULI Daniel Namate 33 35.5
Henry Mpumulo Kumile Ncube 31 33.3
Herbert Habathuri Kokobele 29 31.2
  • Note: In the Lowveld electoral college, Ranches Makaya was declared elected after drawing lots, having tied with Chikati Makamure.

Changes during the Assembly[edit]

Party changes[edit]

Allan Savory resigned from the Rhodesian Front in 1972 over the issue of land nationalisation. On 31 October 1972, he formed the Rhodesia Party together with Roy Ashburner (who had been an independent candidate in 1970), and Dr Morris Hirsch, who had been a United Federal Party MP in the 1960s.

Mabelreign[edit]

Patrick Palmer-Owen died on 9 June 1971. A byelection was held to replace him on 5 August 1971.

Constituency
Electorate and turnout
Candidate Party Votes %
MABELREIGN
1,913 (59.5%)
John Cornelius Gleig RF 524 46.0
Dr Ian George Anderson Ind 456 40.1
William Francis Mandel Weedman CP 158 13.9

Salisbury Central[edit]

Theo Ellison was convicted of a tax fraud and resigned from the Assembly on 15 November 1971. Nomination day for the byelection was 3 December 1971; only Hilary Gwyn Squires of the Rhodesian Front was nominated, and he was declared elected unopposed.

Kunyasi[edit]

Josiah Gondo died on 27 October 1972, leading to a byelection to replace him on 8 December 1972. Thomas Tavagwisa Zawaira was elected. There were five defeated candidates: Elias Mapiye Badza, Johnson Matariro Hungwe, Percy Hudson Mkudu, Samson Mundondo, and Isaac Hanzi Samuriwo.

Victoria[edit]

George Hartley was made Speaker of the House of Assembly on 27 March 1973, which made him a member of the House ex officio. A byelection to replace him was held on 17 May 1973.

Constituency Candidate Party Votes %
VICTORIA
2,048 (67.3%)
Gordon Richard Olds RF 985 71.5
Peter Southerton Hingeston RP 305 22.1
Leonard George Idensohn RNP 45 3.3
Wynn Arnold Starling United Front 43 3.1

Matojeni[edit]

Wening Moraka died on 7 March 1973 and a byelection was held to replace him on 24 May 1973.

Constituency Candidate Party Votes %
MATOJENI
840 (35.2%)
Lot Enock Dewa Ind ANC 133 44.9
John Zachary Ind ANC 85 28.7
Mishi Isaiah Bure Pfumojena CP 30 10.1
Ratisayi Zhou Ind 18 6.1
Simon Dzicaperanhamo Bhene Ind 15 5.1
Samson Chibi Ind 10 3.4
Maurince Mavuwa Ind 5 1.7

Sinoia-Umvukwes[edit]

Frederick Alexander died on 26 December 1973, and the byelection to replace him was held on 28 February 1974.

Constituency Candidate Party Votes %
SINOIA-UMVUKWES Esmond Meryl Micklem RF 553 53.8
James Strathearn Brown RP 249 24.2
Leonard George Idensohn RNP 199 19.4
Thomas Henry Patrick Bashford CP 27 2.6

Raylton[edit]

Thomas Pinchen resigned from the Assembly on 9 January 1974. The byelection in Raylton was held on 28 February 1974.

Constituency Candidate Party Votes %
RAYLTON Patrick Francis Shields RF 783 66.1
Julius Michael van Beek RP 371 31.3
James Mary Kinley CP 31 2.6

Sources[edit]

  • Electoral Act of 1969 (no. 56), Statute Law of Rhodesia.
  • Peter Bridger, "Encyclopaedia Rhodesia" (College Press Pvt. Ltd, Salisbury, Rhodesia, 1973).
  • Rhodesia Herald
  • Sunday Mail
  • Report of the Delimitation Commission, 1970