Ostinato

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In music, an ostinato (derived from Italian: stubborn, compare English: 'obstinate') is a motif or phrase that persistently repeats in the same musical voice, usually at the same pitch. The best-known ostinato-based piece may be Ravel's Boléro.[1]

The repeating idea may be a rhythmic pattern, part of a tune, or a complete melody in itself.[2] Both ostinatos and ostinati are accepted English plural forms, the latter reflecting the word's Italian etymology. Strictly speaking, ostinati should have exact repetition, but in common usage, the term covers repetition with variation and development, such as the alteration of an ostinato line to fit changing harmonies or keys.

"If the cadence may be regarded as the cradle of tonality, the ostinato patterns can be considered the playground in which it grew strong and self-confident."

—Edward E. Lewinsky[3]

Within the context of film music, Claudia Gorbman defines an ostinato as a repeated melodic or rhythmic figure, to propel scenes which lack dynamic visual action.[4]

Classical music[edit]

Ostinati are used in 20th-century music to stabilize groups of pitches, as in Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring "Introduction" and "Augurs of Spring".[2] A famous type of ostinato, called the Rossini crescendo, owes its name to a crescendo that underlies a persistent musical pattern, which usually culminates in a solo vocal cadenza. This style was emulated by other bel canto composers, especially Vincenzo Bellini; and later by Wagner (in pure instrumental terms, discarding the closing vocal cadenza). Mozart uses an ostinato phrase throughout the big scene that ends Act 2 of the Marriage of Figaro, to convey a sense of suspense as the jealous Count Almaviva tries in vain to incriminate the Countess, his wife, and Figaro, his butler, for plotting behind his back.

Ground bass[edit]

"Dido's Lament" ground bass, measures 1–6.[5] About this sound Play 

Applicable in homophonic and contrapuntal textures they are "repetitive a rhythmic-harmonic schemes", more familiar as accompanimental melodies, or purely rhythmic.[6] The technique's appeal to composers from Debussy to avant-garde composers until at least the 1970s "...lies in part in the need for unity created by the virtual abandonment of functional chord progressions to shape phrases and define tonality."[6] Similarly, in modal music, "...relentless, repetitive character help to establish and confirm the modal center."[7] Their popularity may also be justified by their ease as well as range of use, though, "...ostinato must be employed judiciously, as its overuse can quickly lead to monotony."[7]

See also: lament bass
Ground bass of Pachelbel's Canon. About this sound Play 

Ground bass or basso ostinato (obstinate bass) is a type of variation form in which a bassline, or harmonic pattern (see Chaconne; also common in Elizabethan England as Grounde) is repeated as the basis of a piece underneath variations.[8] Aaron Copland[9] describes basso ostinato as "...the easiest to recognize" of the variation forms wherein, "...a long phrase—either an accompanimental figure or an actual melody—is repeated over and over again in the bass part, while the upper parts proceed normally [with variation]." However, he cautions that, "it might more properly be termed a musical device than a musical form."

Ostinato plays a large role in improvised music such as in jazz and Baroque music. A "favorite technique of contemporary jazz writers," ostinati are often used in modal and Latin jazz, traditional African music including Gnawa music,[7] and boogie-woogie.

Sub-Saharan African music[edit]

Ghanaian gyil

Counter-metric structure[edit]

Many instruments south of the Sahara Desert play ostinato melodies. These include lamellophones such as the mbira, as well as xylophones like the balafon, the bikutsi, and the gyil. Ostinato figures are also played on string instruments such as the kora, gankoqui bell ensembles, and pitched drums ensembles. Often, African ostinatos contain offbeats or cross-beats, that contradict the metric structure.[10] Other African ostinatos generate complete cross-rhythms by sounding both the main beats and cross-beats. In the following example, a gyil sounds the three-against-two cross-rhythm (hemiola). The left hand (lower notes) sounds the two main beats, while the right hand (upper notes) sounds the three cross-beats.[11]

Ghanaian gyil cross-rhythmic ostinato. About this sound Play 

European harmonic influence[edit]

Popular dance bands in West Africa and the Congo region feature ostinato playing guitars. The African guitar parts have drawn from a variety of sources, including the indigenous mbira, as well as foreign influences such as James Brown-type funk riffs. However, the foreign influences are interpreted through a distinctly African ostinato sensibility. African guitar styles began with Congolese bands doing Cuban "cover" songs. The Cuban guajeo had a both familiar and exotic quality to the African musicians. Gradually, various regional guitar styles emerged, as indigenous influences became increasingly dominant within these Africanized guajeos.[12]

As Moore states, "One could say that I – IV – V – IV [chord progressions] is to Latin music what the 12-bar blues is to North American music."[13] Such progressions clearly follow the conventions of Western music theory. However, performers of African popular music do not necessarily perceive these progressions in the same way.

The harmonic cycle of C-F-G-F [I-IV-V-IV] prominent in Congo/Zaire popular music simply cannot be defined as a progression from tonic to subdominant to dominant and back to subdominant (on which it ends) because in the performer’s appreciation they are of equal status, and not in any hierarchical order as in Western music—(Kubik 1999).[14]

Afro-Cuban guajeo[edit]

A guajeo is a typical Cuban ostinato melody, most often consisting of arpeggiated chords in syncopated patterns. The guajeo is a hybrid of the African and European ostinato. The guajeo was first played as accompaniment on the tres in the folkloric changüí and son.[15] The term guajeo is often used to mean specific ostinato patterns played by a tres, piano, an instrument of the violin family, or saxophones.[16] The guajeo is a fundamental component of modern day salsa, and Latin jazz. The following example shows a basic guajeo pattern.

Cuban guajeo written in cut-time. About this sound Play 

The guajeo is a seamless Afro-Euro ostinato hybrid, which has had a major influence upon jazz, R&B, rock 'n' roll and popular music in general. The Beatles' "I Feel Fine" guitar riff is guajeo-like.

Riff[edit]

"Riff" redirects here. For other uses, see Riff (disambiguation).
The riff from Black Sabbath's "Iron Man" About this sound Play  is characteristic of Rooksby's description: only four measures repeated, played low on a guitar as part of a heavy metal (rock) arrangement
The Kinks' "You Really Got Me" guitar riff. About this sound Play 
Ostinato from Radiohead's "Creep" features modal mixture, common tones between adjacent triads (B between G & B, C and G between C+ & C−), and an emphasis on subdominant harmony (IV = C in G major).[17]About this sound Play 

In various popular music styles, riff refers to a brief, relaxed phrase repeated over changing melodies. It may serve as a refrain or melodic figure, often played by the rhythm section instruments or solo instruments that form the basis or accompaniment of a musical composition.[18] Though they are most often found in rock music, Latin, funk and jazz, classical music is also sometimes based on a simple riff, such as Ravel's Boléro. Riffs can be as simple as a tenor saxophone honking a simple, catchy rhythmic figure, or as complex as the riff-based variations in the head arrangements played by the Count Basie Orchestra.

David Brackett (1999) defines riffs as, "...short melodic phrases," while Richard Middleton (1999)[19] defines them as "short rhythmic, melodic, or harmonic figures repeated to form a structural framework". Rikky Rooksby[20] states, "A riff is a short, repeated, memorable musical phrase, often pitched low on the guitar, which focuses much of the energy and excitement of a rock song."

BBC Radio 2, in compiling its list of 100 Greatest Guitar Riffs, defined a riff as "the main hook of a song and must be played principally by a guitar. It often begins the song, but is repeated throughout it, giving the song its distinctive voice".[21]

The term riff entered musical slang in the 1920s,[22] and is used primarily in discussion of forms of rock music or jazz. "Most rock musicians use riff as a near-synonym for musical idea."[23] The etymology of the term is not clearly known. Some sources explain riff as an abbreviation for rhythmic figure or refrain.[24] Use of the term has also misleadingly been extended to comedy where riffing is used to mean the verbal exploration of a particular subject, thus moving the meaning away from the original jazz sense of a repeated figure over which the soloist improvises, to instead indicate the improvisation itself: that is, improvising on a melody or progression as one would improvise on a subject by extending a singular thought, idea or inspiration into a bit, or routine. Charlie Parker's 1945 recording "Thriving From a Riff" may have popularized the term.[citation needed]

Use in jazz and R&B[edit]

In jazz and R&B, riffs are often used as the starting point for longer compositions. The "Night Train" riff was first used in Duke Ellington's "Happy-Go-Lucky Local", which Ellington recycled from Johnny Hodges' earlier "That's the Blues, Old Man".[citation needed]

The riff from Charlie Parker's bebop number "Now's the Time" (1945) re-emerged four years later as the R&B dance hit, "The Hucklebuck". The verse of The Hucklebuck—another riff—was "borrowed" from the Artie Matthews composition, "Weary Blues". Glenn Miller's "In the Mood" had an earlier life as Wingy Manone's "Tar Paper Stomp". All these songs use twelve bar blues riffs, and most of these riffs probably precede the examples given.[25]

Neither of the terms 'riff' or 'lick' are used in classical music. Instead, individual musical phrases used as the basis of classical music pieces are called ostinatos or simply phrases. Contemporary jazz writers also use riff- or lick-like ostinatos in modal music. Latin jazz often uses guajeo-based riffs.

Riff driven[edit]

The term 'riff driven' describes a piece of music that relies on a repeated instrumental riff as the basis of its most prominent melody, cadence, or (in some cases) leitmotif. Riff-driven songs are largely a product of jazz, blues, and post-blues era music (rock and pop).[26] The musical goal of riff-driven songs is akin to the classical continuo effect, but raised to much higher importance (in fact, the repeated riff is used to anchor the song in the ears of the listener). The riff/continuo is brought to the forefront of the musical piece and often is the primary melody that remains in the listener's ears. A call and response often holds the song together, creating a "circular" rather than linear feel.[27]

A few examples of riff-driven songs are "Whole Lotta Love" and "Black Dog" by Led Zeppelin,[28][29]"Day Tripper", and "I Feel Fine" by The Beatles,[citation needed] "Brown Sugar" and "(I Can't Get No) Satisfaction" by The Rolling Stones,[30] "Hammer To Fall by Queen, "Outshined" by Soundgarden,[citation needed] "Enter Sandman" by Metallica,[citation needed] "Smoke on the Water" by Deep Purple,[citation needed] "Holy Wars... The Punishment Due" by Megadeth,[citation needed] "Mind Games" by John Lennon,[citation needed] "Message in a Bottle" by The Police,[citation needed] and "The Trooper" by Iron Maiden.[citation needed]

Vamp[edit]

Vamp riff typical of funk and R&B.[31] About this sound Play 

In music, a vamp is a repeating musical figure, section,[31] or accompaniment used in blues, jazz, gospel, soul, and musical theater.[32] Vamps are also found in rock, funk, reggae, R&B, pop, country, and post-sixties jazz.[31] Vamps are usually harmonically sparse:[31] A vamp may consist of a single chord or a sequence of chords played in a repeated rhythm. The term frequently appeared in the instruction 'Vamp till ready' on sheet music for popular songs in the 1930s and 1940s, indicating that the accompanist should repeat the musical phrase until the vocalist was ready. Vamps are generally symmetrical, self-contained, and open to variation.[31] The equivalent in classical music is an ostinato, in hip hop is the loop and in rock music is the riff.[31]

The slang term vamp[31] comes from the Middle English word vampe (sock), from Old French avanpie, equivalent to Modern French avant-pied, literally before-foot.[33]

Many vamp-oriented songwriters begin the creative process by attempting to evoke a mood or feeling while riffing freely on an instrument or scat singing. Well known artists that primarily build songs with a vamp/riff/ostinato based approach include John Lee Hooker "Boogie Chillen", "House Rent Boogie", Bo Diddley "Hey Bo Diddley", "Who Do You Love", Jimmy Page "Ramble On", "Bron Yr Aur", Nine Inch Nails, "Closer" "Ringfinger", and Beck, "Loser", "Where Its At", "Devils Haircut", etc.

Classic examples of vamps in jazz include "A Night in Tunisia", "Take Five", "A Love Supreme", "Maiden Voyage", "Cantaloupe Island",[7] and "Chameleon".[citation needed] Rock examples include the long jam at the ends of "Loose Change" by Neil Young and Crazy Horse and "Sooner or Later" by King's X.

Vamps are also common in video games due to the need to repeat musical themes to fill all of the airtime as a player completes a stage, which can mean an arbitrary length of playtime. A famous gaming music vamp is - appropriately - the eponymous theme from Vampire Killer, by Kinuyo Yamashita (also known as the Castlevania theme).

Jazz, fusion, and Latin jazz[edit]

In jazz, fusion, and related genres, a background vamp provides a performer with a harmonic framework upon which to improvise. In Latin jazz guajeos fulfill the role of piano vamp. A vamp at the beginning of a jazz tune may act as a springboard to the main tune; a vamp at the end of a song is often called a tag.

Examples[edit]

"Take Five" begins with a repeated, syncopated figure in 5/4 time, which pianist Dave Brubeck plays throughout the song (except for Joe Morello's drum solo and a variation on the chords in the middle section).

The music from Miles Davis's modal period (c.1958–63) was based on improvising songs with a small number of chords. The jazz standard "So What" uses a vamp in the two-note "Sooooo what?" figure, regularly played by the piano and the trumpet throughout. Jazz scholar Barry Kernfeld calls this music vamp music.[full citation needed] This period of Davis' music has also been called Impressionist jazz, because it uses some of the same musical features and devices as the so-called Impressionist style of classical music of Maurice Ravel and Claude Debussy.[citation needed]

Examples include the outros to George Benson's "Body Talk" and "Plum", and the solo changes to "Breezin'".[31] The following songs are dominated by vamps: John Coltrane, Kenny Burrell, and Grant Green's versions of "My Favorite Things", Herbie Hancock's "Watermelon Man" and "Chameleon", Wes Montgomery's "Bumpin' on Sunset", and Larry Carlton's "Room 335".[31] An example of vamp use in rock music is the ballad section of Queen's "Bohemian Rhapsody".[citation needed]

The Afro-Cuban vamp style known as guajeo is used in the be-bop/Latin jazz standard "A Night in Tunisia". Depending upon the musician, a repeating figure in "A Night in Tunisia" could be called an ostinato, guajeo, riff, or vamp. The Cuban/jazz hybrid spans the disciplines that encompass all these terms.

Gospel, soul, and funk[edit]

In gospel and soul music, the band often vamps on a simple ostinato groove at the end of a song, usually over a single chord. In soul music, the end of recorded songs often contains a display of vocal effects—such as rapid scales, arpeggios, and improvised passages. For recordings, sound engineers gradually fade out the vamp section at the end of a song, to transition to the next track on the album. Salsoul singers such as Loleatta Holloway have become notable for their vocal improvisations at the end of songs, and they are sampled and used in other songs. Andrae Crouch extended the use of vamps in gospel, introducing chain vamps (one vamp after the other, each successive vamp drawn from the first).[34]

1970s-era funk music often takes a short one or two bar musical figure based on a single chord that would be considered an introduction vamp in jazz or soul music, and then uses this vamp as the basis of the entire song (Funky Drummer by James Brown, for example). Jazz, blues, and rock are almost always based on chord progressions (a sequence of changing chords), and they use the changing harmony to build tension and sustain listener interest. Unlike these music genres, funk is based on the rhythmic groove of the percussion, rhythm section instruments, and a deep electric bass line, usually all over a single chord. "In funk, harmony is often second to the 'lock,' the linking of contrapuntal parts that are played on guitar, bass, and drums in the repeating vamp."[31]

Examples include Stevie Wonder's vamp-based "Superstition"[31] and Little Johnny Taylor's "Part Time Love", which features an extended improvisation over a two-chord vamp.[34]

Musical theater[edit]

In musical theater, a vamp, or intro, is the few bars, one to eight, of music without lyrics, which begin a printed copy of a song[35] and which the orchestra or other accompaniment repeats during dialogue or stage business, to provide musical accompaniment for onstage transitions of indeterminate length. The score provides a one or two bar vamp figure, and indicates, "Vamp 'till cue," by the conductor. The vamp gives the onstage singers time to prepare for the song or the next verse, without requiring the music to pause. Once the vamp section is over, the music continues to the next section.

The vamp may be written by the composer of the song, a copyist employed by the publisher, or the arranger for the vocalist.[35] The vamp serves three main purposes: it provides the key, establishes the tempo, and provides emotional context.[36] The vamp may be as short as a bell tone, sting (a harmonized bell tone with stress on the starting note), or measures long.[36] The rideout is the transitional music that begins on the downbeat of the last word of the song and is usually two to four bars long, though it may be as short as a sting or as long as a Roxy Rideout.[37]

Electronic music[edit]

The first ostinatos in Electronic music were created on Moog modular synthesizers systems that used sequencers as well as Buchla instruments.[citation needed] In the Berlin School of electronic music, Tangerine Dream and Klaus Schulze employed both ground bass ostinati as well as other sequences repeated through their pieces. Initially analog, sequences that make up these ostinati were entered by setting knobs on the Moog 960 sequencer or sliders on the ARP Sequencer. In the mid-seventies, Oberheim introduced the DS-2 Digital Sequencer, which allowed for up to 72 events to be stored. As the electronic music world developed, sequencers began to be added to synthesizers as Arpeggiators. For examples of the above, see Tangerine Dream's Phaedra, Klaus Schulze's Moondawn, and Synergy's (Larry Fast's) Electronic Realizations for Rock Orchestra. Many Synth Pop bands such as Tubeway Army used ground bass ostinati created on arpeggiators.

Electronic music, especially that of the dance variety, has relied on ostinato-like basslines, for example generated by the Roland TB-303 synthesizer (which was originally developed in 1982 by Roland as a "bass-player substitute" for guitarists, but gained more favor in later years as a bassline synthesizer in its own right). Since the 303 also has a pattern sequencer as well and can be controlled to play back at various speeds, it is very easy to create ostinato basslines with it, and genres of electronic dance music such as acid house and psy trance consist of such, created by the 303 and similar synthesizers.

Indian classical music[edit]

In Indian classical music, during Tabla or Pakhawaj solo performances and Kathak dance accompaniments, a conceptually similar melodic pattern known as the Lehara (sometimes spelled Lehra) or Nagma is played repeatedly throughout the performance. This melodic pattern is set to the number of beats in a rhythmic cycle (Tala or Taal) being performed and may be based on one or a blend of multiple Ragas.

The basic idea of the lehara is to provide a steady melodious framework and keep the time-cycle for rhythmic improvisations. It serves as an auditory workbench not only for the soloist but also for the audience to appreciate the ingenuity of the improvisations and thus the merits of the overall performance. In Indian Classical Music, the concept of 'sam' (pronounced as 'sum') carries paramount importance. The sam is the target unison beat (and almost always the first beat) of any rhythmic cycle. The second most important beat is the Khali, which is a complement of the sam. Besides these two prominent beats, there are other beats of emphasis in any given taal, which signify 'khand's (divisions) of the taal. E.g. 'Roopak' or 'Rupak' taal, a 7-beat rhythmic cycle, is divided 3–2–2, further implying that the 1st, 4th, and 6th beats are the prominent beats in that taal. Therefore it is customary, but not essential, to align the lehara according to the divisions of the Taal. It is done with a view to emphasize those beats that mark the divisions of the Taal.

The lehara can be played on a variety of instruments, including the sarangi, harmonium, sitar, sarod, flute and others. The playing of the lehara is relatively free from the numerous rules and constraints of 'Raga Sangeet', which are upheld and honoured in the tradition of Indian Classical Music. The lehara may be interspersed with short and occasional improvisations built around the basic melody. It is also permissible to switch between two or more disparate melodies during the course of the performance. It is essential that the lehara be played with the highest precision in Laya (Tempo) and Swara control; which requires years of specialist training (Taalim) and practice (Riyaaz). It is considered a hallmark of excellence to play lehara alongside a recognised Tabla or Pakhawaj virtuoso as it is a difficult task to keep a steady pulse while the percussionist is improvising or playing difficult compositions in counterpoint. While there may be scores of individually talented instrumentalists, there are very few who are capable of playing the lehra for a Tabla / Pakhawaj solo performance.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bufe, Chaz (1994). An Understandable Guide to Music Theory: The Most Useful Aspects of Theory for Rock, Jazz, and Blues Musicians, p.59. ISBN 9781884365003.
  2. ^ a b Kamien, Roger (1258). Music: An Appreciation, p. 611. ISBN 0-07-284484-1.
  3. ^ Bella Brover-Lubovsky (2008). Tonal space in the music of Antonio Vivaldi, p. 151. ISBN 0-253-35129-4.
  4. ^ Gorbman, Claudia. "Film Music." Film Studies: Critical Approaches. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2000. p. 43. ISBN 0-19-874280-0
  5. ^ Kapilow, Rob (2008). All you have to do is listen, p. 151. ISBN 978-0-470-38544-9.
  6. ^ a b DeLone, Richard (1975). "Timbre and Texture in Twentieth-Century Music", Aspects of 20th Century Music, p. 123. Wittlich, Gary (ed.). Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13-049346-5.
  7. ^ a b c d Rawlins, Robert (2005). Jazzology: The Encyclopedia of Jazz Theory for All Musicians, pp. 132–133. ISBN 0-634-08678-2.
  8. ^ Bartlette, Christopher, and Steven G. Laitz (2010). Graduate Review of Tonal Theory. New York: Oxford University Press, pg 230 ISBN 978-0-19-537698-2
  9. ^ Copland, Aaron and Rich, Alan (2002). What to Listen for in Music, p. 117. ISBN 0-451-52867-0.
  10. ^ Peñalosa, David (2010). The Clave Matrix; Afro-Cuban Rhythm: Its Principles and African Origins pp. 22–26, 62. Redway, CA: Bembe Inc. ISBN 1-886502-80-3.
  11. ^ Peñalosa, David (2010). The Clave Matrix p. 22.
  12. ^ Roberts, John Storm. Afro-Cuban Comes Home: The Birth of Congo Music. Original Music cassette tape (1986).
  13. ^ Moore, Kevin (2011). "Ritmo Oriental's First Album of the 70s". Web. Timba.com. http://www.timba.com/artist_pages/1974-first-lp-of-the-70s
  14. ^ Kubik, Gerhard (1999). Africa and the Blues. Jackson, MI: University Press of Mississippi.
  15. ^ Lapidus, Ben (2008). Origins of Cuban Music and Dance; Changüí p. 16–18. Lanham, MA: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-6204-3
  16. ^ Mauleón, Rebeca (1993) Salsa Guidebook for Piano and Ensemble. p. 255. Petaluma, California: Sher Music. ISBN 0-9614701-9-4.
  17. ^ Capuzzo, Guy. "Neo-Riemannian Theory and the Analysis of Pop-Rock Music", pp. 186–87, Music Theory Spectrum, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 177–199. Autumn 2004.
  18. ^ New Harvard Dictionary of Music (1986) p. 708. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  19. ^ Middleton, Richard (2002) [1990]. Studying Popular Music. Philadelphia: Open University Press. ISBN 0-335-15275-9. 
  20. ^ Rooksby, Rikky (2002). Riffs: How to create and play great guitar riffs. San Francisco: Backbeat Books. pp. 6–7. ISBN 0-87930-710-2. 
  21. ^ BBC Radio 2 website
  22. ^ Rooksby (2002), p. 6
  23. ^ Middleton 1990, p. 125
  24. ^ "Riff", Dictionary.com.
  25. ^ Covach, John. "Form in Rock Music: A Primer", p. 71, in Stein, Deborah (2005). Engaging Music: Essays in Music Analysis. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517010-5.
  26. ^ Rolling Stone (1992). The Rolling Stone Illustrated History of Rock and Roll (3 Sub edition ed.). Random House. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-679-73728-5. 
  27. ^ Horner, Bruce (Editor), Swiss, Thomas (Editor) (1999). Key Terms in Popular Music and Culture (Paperback ed.). Blackwell Publishing Limited. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-631-21264-5. 
  28. ^ Fast, Susan; et al (2001). In the house of the Holy: Led Zeppelin and the power of Rock Music (1 ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 33. The song (Black Dog) represents a defining moment in the genre of hard rock, combining the elements of speed, power, an artful and metrically clever riff. ISBN 0-19-511756-5. 
  29. ^ "The Greatest Songs Ever! Black Dog". Blender Magazine. Retrieved March 2, 2010. [dead link]
  30. ^ Bogdanov, Vladimir; et al (2003). All Music Guide to the Blues. Backbeat Books. p. 477. ISBN 0-87930-736-6. 
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Marshall, Wolf (2008). Stuff! Good Guitar Players Should Know, p. 138. ISBN 1-4234-3008-5.
  32. ^ Corozine, Vince (2002). Arranging Music for the Real World: Classical and Commercial Aspects. Pacific, MO: Mel Bay. p. 124. ISBN 0-7866-4961-5. OCLC 50470629. 
  33. ^ "Vamp: Definition, Synonyms and Much More". Answers.com. Answers Corporation.
  34. ^ a b Jacqueline Cogdell DjeDje, Eddie S. Meadows (1998). California Soul, p. 224. ISBN 0-520-20628-2.
  35. ^ a b Craig, David (1990). On Singing Onstage, p. 22. ISBN 1-55783-043-6.
  36. ^ a b Craig (1990), p. 23.
  37. ^ Craig (1990), p. 26.

Further reading[edit]

  • Homo, Bruce; Swiss, Thomas (1999). Form and Music: Key Terms in Popular Music and Culture. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-21263-9. 

External links[edit]