Riprap, also known as rip rap, rip-rap, shot rock, rock armour or rubble, is rock or other material used to armor shorelines, streambeds, bridge abutments, pilings and other shoreline structures against scour, water or ice erosion.
It is made from a variety of rock types, commonly granite or limestone, and occasionally concrete rubble from building and paving demolition. It can be used on any waterway or water containment where there is potential for water erosion.
- Ciria-CUR (2007) - Rock Manual - The use of rock in hydraulic engineering.
- N.W.H. Allsop (2002) - Breakwaters, coastal structures and coastlines.
- US Dept. of Transportation (2004) - Trail Construction and Maintenance Notebook
- Design example, USACE
- Ohio Dept. of Natural Resources riprap guide
- US Bureau of Reclamation publication on riprap for dam overtopping
- Minnesota DNR
- USGS Minerals Yearbook: Stone, Crushed