Armor (hydrology)

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Armor, in hydrology and geography is the association of surface pebbles, rocks or boulders with stream beds or beaches. Most commonly hydrological armor occurs naturally; however, a man-made form is usually called riprap, when shorelines or stream banks are fortified for erosion protection with large boulders or sizable manufactured concrete objects. When armor is associated with beaches in the form of pebbles to medium-sized stones grading from two to 200 millimeters across, the resulting landform is often termed a shingle beach. Hydrological modeling indicates that stream armor typically persists in a flood stage environment.[1]

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  1. ^ Wilcock, Peter R.; DeTemple, Brendan T. (April 2005). "Persistence of armor layers in gravel-bed streams". Geophysical Research Letters 32 (8): L08402. Bibcode:2005GeoRL..3208402W. doi:10.1029/2004GL021772.