|Occupation||author, feminist, activist|
|Subject||Feminism, Gendercide, Women's rights|
|Literary movement||Women's rights, Human rights,|
Rita Banerji is an author, photographer and gender activist from India. Her non-fiction book Sex and Power: Defining History, Shaping Societies was published by Penguin Books, India, in 2008. She is the founder of The 50 Million Missing Campaign, a grassroots, advocacy campaign, supported by an online community,to raise global awareness about the ongoing female gendercide in India.
Banerji was born and raised in India. Her family moved frequently and so she grew up in 17 towns around the country. At age 18, she moved to the US, where she attended Mount Holyoke College in Massachusetts, and later, The George Washington University in Washington D.C.
Banerji started her career as an environmentalist. Her field of specialisation was in Conservation Biology. In 1995 she received the Amy Lutz award in Plant Biology from the Association for Women in Science (AWIS) in Washington D.C. for her PhD thesis work on the effects of acid rain on seed germination and seedling establishment of Zea mays (corn) . Other awards and recognitions she has received include: Morgan Adams Award in Biology for PhD Research; Sigma Xi Scientific Research Society, Associate member; Botanical Society of America’s Young Botanist Recognition Award; Charles A. Dana[disambiguation needed] Fellowship for Research in Ecology; Howard Hughes Grant for research in genetics. She is also received an award for Who’s Who Among Students in American Universities and Colleges in recognition of outstanding merit. Many of Banerji’s projects had a gender perspective. She has worked with the Chipko women’s grassroots movement in India, under the tutelage of eco-feminist Vandana Shiva. She has also worked with the policy think tanks, the Institute for Policy Studies and The World Resources Institute in Washington D.C.
Transition to Writing and Gender Activism
At the age of 30 Banerji returned to India and found herself at a career crossroad in her life. She now felt she needed a work venue through which she could more directly explore and articulate her vision, beliefs and understanding of the world. She began to write and do photography. Where her earlier projects dealt with gender roles in environmental and resource management, her writings now focused more intensely on the issues of gender equality and women's rights in India. Her writings and photos have been published in a range of journals and magazines in different countries In 2009 she received the Apex Award of Excellence for Magazine and Journal Writing.
Sex and Power
Banerji’s non-fiction book Sex and Power:Defining History, Shaping Societies was first published by Penguin Books, India in 2008. The book was the result of a five-year,detailed, social and historical study of sex and sexuality in India. In here, Banerji asks the question why India, which worships an icon like the lingam-yoni,that built temples in the past with erotic art like those at Khajuraho, and wrote literature like the Kama Sutra on the art and science of love-making, is squeamish about sex today. She concludes that for any community the precincts of sexual morality keep changing over time, and in any given period, is determined by whoever is in power at that time The book which was long-listed for The Vodafone Crossword Non-Fiction Book Award (2008) has been described as “an extraordinary take on a subject that is still considered a taboo, [and] a new interpretation of Indian history."
The 50 Million Missing Campaign
In December 2006 Banerji founded The 50 Million Missing Campaign, as an online advocacy campaign to raise global awareness about the female gendercide in India. The campaign was first launched on Flickr, a community platform for photo sharing and open discussions. The 50 Million Missing Photographers Group on flickr is now supported by more than 2400 photographers, and has thousands of photos of Indian girls and women to serve as powerful visual reminder of the women that have been eliminated from the country Since its launch the campaign has grown and spread to other social networking sites and also runs information blogs. It is a zero-fund campaign and runs on community effort and participation. The campaign was a consequence of Banerji’s book Sex and Power. She says, “The data on the systemic and mass-scale violence on Indian women and girls I was gathering for my book was playing out in its stark grotesqueness in my everyday reality. A baby girl is abandoned on the streets in my city, and as residents wait for the police to respond, street dogs kill her and start eating her…I saw the connection and for the first time felt uneasy, ashamed and outraged." In the final section of the book Banerji observes that the three worst disasters that India faces in the 21st-century, are population explosion, an AIDS epidemic, and the female gendercide. These she concludes are a result of India's deeply patriarchal and conservative approach to women and sexual morality, and the "socialized dichotomy" of men from women, and sex from the sacred. In an interview with The Big Issue in the NorthBanerji says the underlying problem with all three issues is a "virulent patriarchy that is self-indulgent...through [its practice of] multiple partners and irresponsible sex, and it essentially views women as sexual commodities to be used and discarded at will. A woman's only worth is in her production of sons for the continuation of the patriarchy. So daughters are routinely discarded before or soon after birth."
Contradictory views on India’s female Gendercide
Banerji has strongly argued against the accepted view that education and economic development are the solution to India’s female gendercide. . She points to the fact that India’s census data clearly shows that the sex ratio is worst in the top 20% of the population that is wealthiest and most educated. Furthermore, the sex ratio is closest to natural human sex ratio in the bottom 20% of the population that represents the nation’s poorest and illiterate sections. She says a comparative analysis of the sex ratios among villages, regions and states also clearly shows that with greater economic development, in terms of increased access to education, health care, jobs, and earnings, there is more sex-selective abortions against females and a corresponding decline in the overall sex ratio. She says, it is also seen that more the number of educational degrees women have, the more likely they are to eliminate daughters through sex-selection. Banerji also talks about how high-income earning, professional women in India too are victims of dowry violence and murder. Their education and wealth is no protection, because they are unable to fight off the family and cultural pressures on them to remain in the marriage, regardless of the violence they are subjected to. Banerji contends that it is not economics or education, but rather a cultural misogyny that is the prime factor in India’s female gendercide. She says this is most evident in how culture specific crimes like dowry murders and ‘honour' killings hound expatriate Indian women too, and sex-selected abortion is so prevalent, that the Indian communities in certain western countries like the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Norway too have sex ratios that are abnormally skewed against females. . Banerji asserts that the gendercide needs to be recognised as a gender based hate crime against women, what Diana Russell has termed as ‘Femicide,’ and be dealt with in the same manner as other hate crimes based on race, religion or ethnicity. . She explains that this lethal hatred of females is rooted in India’s history, religions and traditions, which over the centuries have created a socially permissive environment for extreme and deadly violence against females. She calls this “the acculturation of female homicide." She says,“terms [like] sati, bride-burning, dowry death, doodh-peeti, kuri-mar, and jauhar…[are each] a method of female homicide that was [or still is] widely practised, widely accepted, and culturally-specific to India... When a practice acquires a name in a society, it becomes acceptable at the subconscious level of that community's collective thinking. Its premise becomes sacrosanct, and the lines between crime and culture, and what is permissible and reprehensible, become blurred. It is this deep, historically-rooted acculturation of female homicide that is sustaining female genocide in India. ”
A Call for a Feminist Revolution in India
According to Banerji the women’s movement in India has never had a sexual revolution for women in India, the kind the feminist movements in the west have had. This she argues, is significant from the point of view of establishing each woman’s independent and individual rights and choices over her own body and sexuality. She believes it is very important for the women’s movement in India to have such a revolution particularly in context of putting the gendercide in perspective for Indian society. As she points out, this is because, “It is about the recognition of women as individuals with certain fundamental rights, including that of safety and personal choices, which no one, not even the family, can violate… A girl or woman, within the Indian cultural context, is regarded as a family’s property. She does not have the ownership of her own body… And so it is the parents, the husbands, and in-laws who have the prerogative to decide and make the choices regarding a girl or a woman’s being. Whether or not she is allowed to live [before or] after birth…Who she can or cannot marry… Her husband is entitled to sex whether she wants it or not. He decides when and how many children he wants and what sex they should be. He and his family can torture her to extort more dowry wealth, or subjugate her to repeated pregnancies and excruciating abortions to rid female progeny as always is the case with female feticides…[There is] yet another constrictive, dictatorial authority that asserts its power over an individual woman’s being in India – that of culture and society. It decides what constitutes the prototype of a "good Indian woman" – and directs everything from her demeanor and costume, to what her roles and goals in society ought to be.. ”
Women on Women's Rights: With Rita Banerji Women's Web, 26 September 2012
Alam Bains. Interview with Rita Banerji:Award-winning Author,Photographer, Gender Activist. Youth Ki Awaaz, 9 January 2012.
50 Million Missing Campaign. Heart to Heart Talks, 7 December 2011
Anjum Choudhry Nayyar.Author of Sex and Power, Rita Banerji Talks Marriage, Divorce and Raising Strong Daughters. Masalamommas: An Online Magazine for Today's Moms with a South Asian Connection, 31 October 2011
Colin Todhunter. Delink Wealth and Weddings. Deccan Herald. May 2011.
Soraya Nulliah. Interview with Rita Banerji – Part I. My He(Art) Full Blog. 8 March 2011.
Soraya Nulliah. Interview with Rita Banerji – Part II My He(Art) Full Blog. 13 April 2011
India’s Silent Gender Cleansing. The Asia Mag! 3 April 2009.
Power at Play. The Indian Express, 18 March 2009.
Ciara Leeming.Author Q and A: Rita Banerji. The Big Issue in the North, 20–26 July 2009.
Fifty Million Missing Women: Rita Banerji Fights Female Genocide. Mount Holyoke Alumnae Quarterly, 29 August 2008.
Anasuya Basu. Sex Through the Ages. The Telegraph, 15 March 2009.
Colin Todhunter.Where Have They All Gone? The Deccan Herald, 11 October 2008
- "wip.net/contributors". The WIP. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- On website www.ritabanerji.com (July–August 1995). AWIS Magazine,Vol.24,No.4, http://awisritabanerji.wordpress.com/2010/10/02/5/. Retrieved 4 May 2012. Missing or empty
- Website. http://www.ritabanerji.com. Retrieved 4 May 2012. Missing or empty
- Rita Banerji's website (Published works). http://ritabanerji.wordpress.com/non-fiction/. Retrieved May 019, 2012. Check date values in:
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- amazon.com. http://www.amazon.com/Rita-Banerji/e/B0027ID1FY. Retrieved 4 May 2012. Missing or empty
- The Wordworth Magazine. http://www.wordworth.com/greetings.htm. Retrieved 4 May 2012. Missing or empty
- Official website. http://www.ritabanerji.com. Retrieved May 019, 2012. Check date values in:
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- Anna Husson Isozaki (October 2009). "Review of 'Sex and Power: Defining History, Shaping Societies'". Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific, Issue 22. Retrieved 19 May 2012.
- Anindita Sengupta (17 January 2009). "Culture and Society: How We Came To Genocide". Tehelka Magazine. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
Rita Banerji’s book about attitudes towards sex raises tough questions.
- amazon.com. http://www.amazon.com/Rita-Banerji/e/B0027ID1FY. Retrieved 4 May 2012. Missing or empty
- Arnab Bhattacharya (30 January 2009). "Beyond the Concepts of Good and Evil; Review of 'Sex and Power: Defining History, Shaping Societies'". The Telegraph.
- Website. http://www.50millionmissing.info. Missing or empty
- The Deccan Herald. 11 October 2008 http://archive.deccanherald.com/Content/Oct112008/she2008101094393.asp. Retrieved 4 May 2012. Missing or empty
- Banerji, Rita. "Why We Slept Through A Genocide-Part II". It's A Girl! Movie Blog. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- Anindita Sengupta (17 January 2009). "How we came to Genocide". Tehelka Magazine, Vol 6, Issue 2,. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- Ciara Leeming (20–26 July 2009). "Author Q&A: Rita Banerji". The Big Issue in the North. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- Rita Banerji (12 June 2011). "Why Education and Economics are not the Solution to India’s Female Genocide.". The Gender Bytes Blog. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- Rita Banerji (22 February 2012). "Facebook Game 'Angry Brides' Trivializes Grave Human Rights Violations". The Women’s International Perspective (WIP). Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- Rita Banerji (19 May 2011). "Indian Girls "Missing" Worldwide". Pickled Politics. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- Rita Banerji (7 February 2012). "Girl Infants face pre-mediated murder under Femicide.". Women’s News Network (WNN). Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- Rita Banerji (October 2009). "Female Genocide in India and The 50 Million Missing Campaign". Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific, Issue 22. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- Rita Banerji (January 2010). "The Pink Panties Campaign and the Indian Women’s Sexual Revolution". Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific, Issue 23. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- Rita Banerji (2012). "Why Kali Won't Rage: A Critique of Indian Feminism". Gender Forum,Issue 38. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
- Rita Banerji (2 September 2011). "Slutwalk to Femicide: Making the Connection". The Women’s International Perspective (WIP). Retrieved 1 June 2012.