|Place of origin||India and Pakistan|
|Region or state||Kashmir|
|Main ingredient(s)||Lamb, Kashmiri mirch, alkanet root|
||This article's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. (April 2011)|
Rogan josh (or roghan josh) is an aromatic lamb dish of Persian origin, which is one of the signature recipes of Kashmiri cuisine. Rogan (روغن) means "oil" in Persian, while josh (جوش) means "heat, hot, boiling, or passionate". Rogan josh thus means cooked in oil at intense heat. Another interpretation of the name rogan josh is derived from the word rogan meaning "red color" (the same Indo-European root that is the source of the French "rouge" and the Spanish "rojo") and josh meaning passion or heat.
Rogan josh was brought to Kashmir by the Mughals, whose cuisine was in turn influenced by Persian cuisine. The unrelenting summer heat of the Indian plains took the Mughals frequently to Kashmir, which has a cooler climate because of its altitude.
Ingredients and cultural influence 
Rogan josh (or roghan josh) is a staple of Kashmiri cuisine: originally it was brought to Kashmir by the Mughals. It is one of the main dishes of the Kashmiri multi-course meal (the "Wazwan"). It consists of braised boneless lamb chunks cooked with a gravy based on browned onions or shallots, yoghurt, garlic, ginger and aromatic spices (cloves, bay leaves, cardamom, cinnamon). Its characteristic brilliant red color traditionally comes from liberal amounts of dried Kashmiri chiles that have been de-seeded to reduce their heat: these chillies (whose flavor approximates that of paprika) are considerably milder than the typical dried cayenne chiles of Indian cuisine. The recipe's spiciness is one of fragrance rather than heat, and the traditional dish is mild enough to be appreciated by Western palates that may not have been conditioned to tolerate the heat of chillies. In addition, dried flowers or root of Alkanna tinctoria are used in some variants of the recipe to impart a crimson color. Saffron is also part of some traditional recipes.
While the traditional preparation uses whole dried chillies that are de-seeded, soaked in water, and ground to a paste, non-traditional short cuts use either Kashmiri chili powder (available in Indian stores) or a mixture of paprika (predominantly) and cayenne pepper, adjusted to taste. (Madhur Jaffrey's recipe calls for a 4:1 ratio of paprika to cayenne).
A modified version of the dish is yogurt based but referred to by a slightly different name "Hindi Rogan Josh".
There has been commercial modification worldwide; in particular, a tomato-based lamb dish that imitates rogan josh while reducing cooking time and imparting a reddish color to the dish. Tomato, however, adds a flavor profile that, while fully acceptable, is distinct from that of the traditional dish.
See also 
- Collingham, Lizzie. Curry: A Tale of Cooks & Conquerors. Oxford University Press, 2007.
- Madhur Jaffrey's Rogan Josh recipe. http://www.recipesource.com/ethnic/asia/indian/03/rec0324.html