|Polyphony||12 voices in 'WHOLE' and 'SPLIT' mode, 6 voices in 'DUAL' mode|
|Timbrality||2 ('SPLIT'/'DUAL' modes)|
|Oscillator||2 [DCO]s per voice/4 in 'DUAL' mode. Waveforms: SAW/SQUARE/FIXED PULSE/NOISE. Oscillator sync, xmod.|
|LFO||1 sine/square/random=noise with delay and rate|
|Synthesis type||Analog Subtractive|
|Attenuator||2 ADSR Envelopes/4 in 'DUAL' Mode. They both have 3 levesl (and '0') of "Key Follow"|
|Memory||50 preset tones/50 user tones/64 patches, optional M64C memory cardtridges holding 50 tones|
|Effects||chorus, delay ('chase play' using voices, not a 'real' delay FX)|
|Left-hand control||Pitch bend Lever with upward moving controlling LFO|
|External control||MIDI for playing notes/PG-800 programmer for sound editing|
The Roland JX-10 (also known as the Roland Super JX) was a 12-voice analog synthesizer keyboard produced from 1986 to 1989, along with a rack-mounted version, the MKS-70. It was the last true analog synthesizer made by Roland and has been critically acclaimed as one of their classic analog instruments. The design is essentially two Roland JX-8P synthesizers put together, with a 76-note velocity-sensitive keyboard with aftertouch. It also includes features not found on the JX-8P, including a simple 1-track sketchbook sequencer and a delay effect (which works like a "MIDI delay" by delaying one tone rather than acting as a true DSP delay effect). However, the JX-10 is not exactly the same as "two JX-8P's" because the chorus is not identical to the JX-8P (hence the chorus sounds different between the JX-8P and the JX-10 with single patches). The JX-10 also has a slightly different amplifier section as well as different electronic components which further distinguish its sound from its predecessor, the JX-8P.
Like most synthesizers of the time, the JX-10 is programmed by selecting a parameter through a small keypad and editing the parameter using a data wheel (which Roland dubbed the "alpha-dial"). Like the JX-8P, this can be bypassed by connecting a PG-800 programmer to the synthesizer. The PG-800 connects to a specific PG-800 port on the back of the synthesiser. Alternatively the JX-10 and MKS-70 can be programmed over MIDI using a controller device such as the KiwiTechnics Patch Editor (a firmware update is required on the JX-10).
The JX-10 and MKS-70's factory presets were created by Eric Persing and Dan DeSousa.
The JX-10 combines two completely separate 6-voice Tone Modules (A-Upper and B-Lower) which allow it to function as a single 12-voice synthesizer or as two 6-voice synths capable of layering or splitting two different Tones simultaneously. There are six playing modes:
- Dual Mode - layers sounds from both Tone modules which can be balanced
- Split Mode - allows for split-keyboard play of the Tone modules, upper and lower sections can overlap
- Whole A - Upper Tone Module controls all 12 voices
- Whole B - Lower Tone Module controls all 12 voices
- Touch Voice Mode - adds velocity switching
- Cross-Fade Mode - controlled by the amount of velocity, one tone fades in while the other tone fades out
The JX-10 has space for 64 patches in its internal memory, each of which can be composed with one (12-voice) or two tones (rendering the synth 6-voice polyphonic). These tones can be selected individually, combined together, or split. Of the 100 available tones, 50 of them can be edited and saved to memory; the other 50 are factory patches. The JX-10's memory can also be expanded by plugging in a M-16C, M-32C (very rare, originally only available on the Japanese market) or M-64C memory cartridge. If a cartridge is inserted, the JX-10's built in sketchbook sequencer can be used (it can only be used if a cartridge is present). The JX-10 / MKS-70 can also read and write tone data for the JX-8P this way (which in turn can only use the M-16C). The M-64C can store 64 patches and 100 tones; the M-16C can store 32 tones only (no patches).
The MIDI implementation on the JX-10 is somewhat faulty and lacks common features. Most importantly it cannot send or receive Tone or Patches by MIDI SysEx. The MKS-70 (rack version of the JX-10) does however send and receive tones and patches over SysEx because it has different firmware in EPROM. If the firmware in the JX-10 is updated then it will support SysEx.
It can also be noted that the JX-10 transmits MIDI Control Change 123 (all notes off) instead of "normal" MIDI Note-Off messages every time a key is released (apparently the JX-8P does this as well). This can be filtered out by editing CC 123 in the sequencer if it should create any problems; normally it does not.
The JX-10 also has a 2U rack-mounted counterpart called the MKS-70. It is basically the same as the JX-10, except that the MKS-70's tones can be edited through MIDI using SysEx (this can be rectified on the JX-10, see below).
The JX-8, JX-10 and the MKS-70 use vacuum fluorescent displays which give the instruments their characteristic green/blue glowing read-out. In some cases these displays can fail with age, displaying 888888888888 or having other issues. One cause of these problems is the corrosion of a small coil component in the display driver circuit. While Roland used similar displays across a number of products at this time, interchangeability of displays between products is limited. Replacement parts are scarce and some experimenters have replaced the vacuum display with an LCD device and supporting circuitry. In January 2014 a custom supply of new coils became available for the JX-8/JX-10 and the MKS-70.
Firmware and CPU Update
Colin Fraser has released a modified firmware for the Roland JX-10 only which adds SysEx editing of tone parameters via MIDI (the standard Roland firmware for the JX-10 did not support editing over MIDI; the MKS-70 does). Unfortunately, an update means desoldering and replacing the EPROM chip (a 32k 27C256).
In March 2013, a request was made on the GearSlutz electronic music forum for beta testers to test a new version of the Roland MKS-70 firmware. The replacement firmware adds features to both JX-10 and MKS-70 instruments, including faster envelopes and a new MIDI implementation. Two versions of the firmware are in development: for the full upgrade, CPU replacement (Intel 8031 to 80C320) is required on the two sound boards, and three new EPROMs.
- Vince Clarke of Erasure - Can be heard on the The Circus, The Innocents and Wild! albums
- Pink Floyd - On A Momentary Lapse of Reason
- Tangerine Dream - On Underwater Sunlight
- Duran Duran - On Notorious
- The Cure (e.g. synth brass on "Why Can't I be You?")
- Tim Simenon - On Neneh Cherry's single "Buffalo Stance" - ascending hook riff
- Grace Jones - On Slave to the Rhythm
- Nik Kershaw - On Radio Musicola and The Works
- Angelo Badalamenti - On the soundtracks of "Twin Peaks"
- Journey - On Raised On Radio
- Lyle Mays - On the Pat Metheny Group albums: Still Life (Talking), Letter from Home, The Road to You, We Live Here, Imaginary Day, Speaking of Now and The Way Up. The JX-10 was also used on his solo album Street Dreams and the Pat Metheny album Secret Story. The "Mays Pad" patch is named after him and is based on his signature Prophet 5 / Oberheim 4 lead voice sound
- André Sachs on the soundtracks "Jogo da Velha", "O Crime da Gávea", and the CD Fruto Maduro (With Paulo Moura and "Animaltopea")
- The K2 Plan (Shekhar Raj Dhain) - Used on Arkpan Mart E.P. and In Perfekter Bedingung E.P. Also uses on a lot of scoring work.
- Human League
- Jean Michel Jarre
- Jane Child
- Yellow Jackets
- Astral Projection
- Josh Wink
- Sound on Sound retrospective review of the Roland JX-10
- A page dedicated to the JX-10 and MKS-70
- Vintage Synth Explorer's JX-10 page
- Vintage Synth Explorer's MKS-70 page
- Synthmuseum JX-10 page
- Replacement coils for vacuum fluorescent displays
- A modified firmware for the JX-10 which provides MIDI SysEx implementation
- New beta firmware for JX-10 and MKS-70