|Languages||Haryanvi, Khariboli, Hindi|
|Populated States||Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal, Uttarakhand|
|Subdivisions||Chaurāsi, Bānggar, Khāddar, Nardak|
The Ror is a community found mainly in India.
Ror clans historically ruled from Rori, the capital of Sind for a long time. Rori has been known by names such as Roruka and Rorik since antiquity. Buddhist Jataka stories talk about exchanges of gifts between King Rudrayan of Roruka and King Bimbisara of Magadh. Divyavadana, the Buddhist chronicle has said that Rori historically competed with Patliputra in terms of political influence. The scholar T. W. Rhys Davids described Roruka as one of the most important cities of India in the 7th century BC.
Shortly after the reign of Rudrayan, in the times of his son Shikhandi, Roruka got wiped out in a major sand storm. This event is recorded in both Buddhist (Bhallatiya Jataka) and Jain (Story of Udayan and the town of Vitabhaya) annals. It was then that the legendary Dhaj, Ror Kumar built Rori Shankar (the current Rohri and Sukkur) in the year 450 BC. Ror branch live badli in thousand years ago balandev come to gujrat badli branch ror vanshi king balndev sarng dev his poojay devta (pitrr)
The first few centuries of the AD. and a couple of centuries prior to that constitute the golden age of Ror history. Not only did Rors have ruling seats of power in Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana and Sindh; during the times of Rai Dewaji in the 5th century AD, they consolidated their influence in the entire region from Afghanistan to Kanauj in India.
In the golden era of their history, the Rors built many forts, a few of which still bear their name. Examples are Behror near Alwar, Dadror, and Kahror near Multan. The fort at BhainsRor in Southern Rajasthan is supposed to have come up in the 2nd century BC and the Kagarol (Kaga Ror) ruins near present-day Agra have also pointed to a similar time-line for another branch of Rors who ruled from there. The coins found in the Agra circle by Alexander Cunningham seem to indicate a close relationship between the Ror rulers of the area and the rulers of Hastinapur and Indraprastha. A few coins found close to the site have been dated to the 3rd century CE by Cunningham as a result of the general style of the coins and the type of Sanskrit used.
Ror rulers of Sindh
Wink reports on the possibility of the corruption of the Sanskrit names and renders them as related in parenthesis in the following chronology of the Ror Rai rulers (489 – 632 AD) of Rori or Alor in Sindh:
- Rai Dewaji (Devaditya)
- He was a powerful chief who forged alliances and extended his rule east of Makran and west of Kashmir and Kannauj, south to the port of Surat and north to Kandahar
- Rai Sahir as (Shri Harsha)
- Rai Sahasi (Sinhasena)
- Rai Sahiras II
- Rai Sahasi II (Brother of Rana Maharath of Chittor)
Loss of Sindh
Rors continued to hold several big forts in Sindh till the Arab invasion of AD 711 and some of the longest battles between the Arabs and Indians were fought at the three forts of Rori (Raor), BahRor and AghRor.
8th century – 12th century
The Ror connection with Chittor is very old and an eternal monument to the Ror-Mewar relationship is the "thikana" of BhainsRor, which is named after Rors. This is a lasting proof of the ascendancy of Rors around Mewar as scholars believe BhainsRor has been inhabited and fortified since the 2nd century BC at least. Raja Gandharv Sen, the father of "Samrat" Vikramaditya I and the King of Malwa, was the person who built the fort back then. Gandharv Sen is also called Gardabharupa as well as Gardabhilla as also Raja Gaj in the local tongue at different places.
Battle of Badli
In 1207 AD Chanda Rawal was king in Badli, Jhajjar. Rors had been ruling from there for more than a thousand years, since Rudradaman I and his 150 AD campaign against the Yaudheya. But times had suddenly turned hostile with the Turks having got the better of Prithviraj Chauhan and the Hindu army by attacking in the early hours of dawn when the Indian army was still sleeping on the banks of the Ghaggar. The Turks under the Slave Qutbuddin Aibak were particularly nasty and demanded 'dola' from all the kings around Delhi in order to rub salt into the wounds left by an undeserving defeat. They demanded the Rawal's daughter and the Rors refused.
The Turks immediately laid a siege on Badli and the battle started in Samvat 1265 (AD 1207). It was a long siege and the Rors did not give ground to the forces of Aibak. All the Ror clans poured into Badli from their nearby seats of Dadror, Behror and Kaga Ror to fight against the Turks and Kachhwaha king Malaya Si, son of Pajjuna, sent 31 sons of his own to help defeat the invaders. After a year of unending warfare, the Turks scored a break as the "Raj-Purohit" defected and told them to attack on Govardhan Puja just before the festival of Diwali. The Turks attacked on Govardhan Puja when all the warriors were worshipping their weapons after collecting them in the center of the fort. The invaders massacred the unarmed Kshatriyas by staying true to their deceitful nature yet again.
The state of Haryana was a part of the United Punjab province during the period of British rule in India. Sir Denzil Ibbetson classified Rors of United Punjab as one of the "Other dominant tribes", a classification for which his definition was "All those castes which, while hardly less important in their particular territories, are less numerous and less widely distributed than the four great races already specified. Such are the Gakhars and Awans of the Salt Range, the Kharrals and Daudpotras of the Western Plains, the Rors and Dogars of the Eastern Plains, the Meos of Gurgaon and the Gujars of the hills". Blunt, while compiling his work on the caste system in North India, classified Rors with Rajputs and Brahmins in a hierarchy prepared according to the severity of rules regarding the eating of cooked and uncooked food with other castes.
Writing about the Rajputs or the warrior clans of Western Uttar Pradesh in his book A sociological study of folklore: projected research in Kuru region, the author Satya Prakash Arya speaks thus about them,
A few villages in Jhansi district have some Ror populations residing there. Some of these villages are Shimla, Bakshiya, Nagarka etc. The Rors living in Bundelkhand are known as Ror Rajputs and share good relations with other Rajput clans of the area.
Role as arbitrators
Ror elders were considered excellent judges by not just their own brethren but even by the people of other castes. Usually, the problems related to any particular caste were arbitrated upon by its own senior people (the Panch), but if they failed to do so, the elderly Ror in that village played the role of arbitrators and these decisions were accepted as binding.
- "The Divyavadana (Tibetan version) reports: 'The Buddha is in Rajgriha. At this time there were two great cities in Jambudvipa: Pataliputra and Roruka. When Roruka rises, Pataliputra declines; when Pataliputra rises, Roruka declines.' Here was Roruka of Sindh competing with the capital of the Magadha empire." Chapter 'Sindhu is divine', The Sindh Story, by K. R. Malkani from Karachi, Publisher: Sindhi Academy (1997), ISBN 81-87096-01-2
- Page 317, Lord Mahavira and His Times, by Kailash Chand Jain, Published 1992 by Motilal Banarsidass Publications, ISBN 81-208-0805-3
- Page 174, Alexander's campaigns in Sind and Baluchistan and the siege of the Brahmin town of Harmatelia, Volume 3 of Orientalia Lovaniensia analecta, by Pierre Herman Leonard Eggermont, Peeters Publishers, 1975, ISBN 90-6186-037-7, ISBN 978-90-6186-037-2
- Page 14, "Ror Itihaas ki Jhalak" (Hindi) by Dr. Raj Pal Singh, Pal Publications, Yamunanagar (1987)
- "The ancient fort buried under this place (village Khangar Ror or Kaga Ror) was founded by a Ror Raja, son of Raja Khangar", Pages 210–212, Archaeological Survey of India, Report for the year 1871–72, Volume IV, Agra circle covered by A.C.L. Carlleyle, Under the supervision of Alexander Cunningham
- Page 96, Archaeological Survey of India, Report for the year 1871–72, Volume IV, Agra circle covered by A.C.L. Carlleyle, Under the supervision of Alexander Cunningham
- Pages 89–92, Ror Itihaas Ki Jhalak, by Dr. Raj Pal Singh, Pal Publications, Yamunanagar (1987)
- Wink, Andre, Al Hind the Making of the Indo Islamic World, Brill Academic Publishers, Jan 1, 1996, ISBN 90-04-09249-8, pg.152
- Page 156, Volume I, The Chachnamah, Translated from Persian by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg, Printed in 1900 at the Commissioner's Press, Karachi
- Pages 209–210, Volume IV, Archaeological Survey of India, Report for the year 1871–72, Agra circle covered by A.C.L. Carlleyle, Under the supervision of Alexander Cunningham
- "Ror Itihaas ki Jhalak" (Hindi) by Dr. Raj Pal Singh, Pages 36–37, Pal Publications, Yamunanagar
- Page 26, Panjab Castes, Author: Ibbetson, Denzil, Sir, 1847–1908, Lahore : Printed by the Superintendent, Government Printing, Punjab in 1916
- Page 93, The Caste System of Northern India, By E.A.H. Blunt, 1931, Re-published 1964, S.Chand, Delhi
- P 13, A sociological study of folklore: projected research in Kuru region (Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Meerut, Bulandshahar, and Bijnor Districts of Western Uttar Pradesh), Issue 25 of Indian publications folklore series, by Satya Prakash Arya, published by Indian Publications, 1975
- Page 109, The Journal of intercultural studies, Issue 11, by Kansai Gaikokugo Daigaku and Kokusai Bunka Kenkyūjo, published by Intercultural Research Institute, Kansai University of Foreign Studies, 1984
- Page 95, Ror Itihaas Ki Jhalak, by Dr. Raj Pal Singh, Pal Publications, Yamunanagar (1987)
- People of India: Haryana, Volume XXIII, General Editor K.S.Singh (Part of Anthropological survey of India Series), ISBN 81-7304-091-5, Page: 427
- Lord Mahavira and His Times, by Kailash Chand Jain, Motilal Banarsidass Publications, ISBN 81-208-0805-3
- Charles Allen & Sharada Dwivedi, Lives of the Indian Princes, ISBN 81-86982-05-1, Pub: Business Publications Inc.