Rose of Sharon
Rose of Sharon is a common name that applies to several different species of flowering plants that are highly valued throughout the world. The name's colloquial application has been used as an example of the lack of precision of common names, which potentially causes confusion. "Rose of Sharon" has also become a frequently used catch phrase in lyrics and verse.
Chavatzelet HaSharon (Hebrew חבצלת השרון) is an onion-like flower bulb. (Hebrew חבצלת ḥăḇaṣṣelaṯ) is a flower of uncertain identity translated as the rose of Sharon in English language translations of the Bible. Etymologists have inconclusively linked the biblical חבצלת to the words בצל beṣel, meaning 'bulb', and חמץ ḥāmaṣ, which is understood as meaning either 'pungent' or 'splendid' (The Analytical Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon). The name "rose of Sharon" first appears in English in 1611 in the King James Version of the Bible. According to an annotation of Song of Solomon 2:1 by the translation committee of the New Revised Standard Version, "Rose of Sharon" is a mistranslation of a more general Hebrew word for crocus.
The most accepted interpretation for the Biblical reference is Pancratium maritimum, which blooms in the late summer just above the high-tide mark. The Hebrew name for this flower is חבצלת or חבצלת החוף (coastal ḥăḇaṣṣeleṯ). It is commonly assumed by most people in Israel that, the Sharon Plain being on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, the Biblical passage refers to this flower.
Varying scholars have suggested that the biblical rose of Sharon may be one of the following plants:
- A kind of crocus ("Sharon", Harper's Bible Dictionary) or a crocus that grows in the coastal plain of Sharon (New Oxford Annotated Bible);
- Tulipa montana, "a bright red tulip-like flower ... today prolific in the hills of Sharon" ("rose", Harper's Bible Dictionary);
- Tulipa agenensis, the Sharon tulip, a species of tulip suggested by a few botanists
- Lilium candidum, more commonly known as the Madonna lily, a species of lily suggested by some botanists, though likely in reference to the lilies of the valley mentioned in the second part of Song of Solomon 2.1.
Recently however, some scholars insist on translating ḥăḇaṣṣeleṯ into "a budding bulb" in consideration of the genealogical research of multilingual versions and lexicons.
The name "Rose of Sharon" is also commonly applied to two different plants, neither of which is likely to have been the plant from the Bible:
- Hypericum calycinum, an evergreen flowering shrub native to southeast Europe and southwest Asia
- Hibiscus syriacus, a deciduous flowering shrub native to east Asia
- Rose of Sharon (Hibiscus syriacus) is the national flower of South Korea. The first record of the Rose of Sharon (mugunghwa: 무궁화) grown in Korea is mentioned in an article produced 1,400 years ago. A mythological fiction, Xuanzhongji (Hanja:玄中記), written in the Eastern Jin Dynasty (Hanja:東晉) of China mentions, "The Land of Wisemen is spread for 1,000 li where mugungwha flowers bloom plentifully."(君子之國，地方千里，多木槿之華) The name "mugungwha" was first used by the poet Lee Gyu-bo (이규보,1168 – 1241) of Goryeo Dynasty.
- In the USA, the 'White Rose of Sharon' is the official flower of Phi Beta Chi, a national Lutheran-based Greek social letter sorority.
- In Canada, Rose of Sharon is a charity that focuses on helping pregnant and parenting young women under the age of 25
- In The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck, Rose of Sharon (often called "Rosasharn") is a major character, the eldest daughter of the Joad family and the sister of the protagonist Tom Joad. Throughout much of the novel, she is depicted as fragile because of her pregnancy.
- Leonard Bernstein's Kaddish Symphony takes the form of a monologue by a narrator self-identified as Chavatzelet HaSharon, "the lily that man has picked and thrown away."
- The song "King's Ransom" from the 1986 Petra album Back to the Street contains a lyric in which the Rose of Sharon symbolizes Jesus Christ.
- The Rose of Sharon is also referenced in the Kate Bush recording "The Song of Solomon" from her 1993 album The Red Shoes.
- The Rose of Sharon is referenced in the Killswitch Engage song "Rose of Sharyn" from their 2004 album The End of Heartache.
- There is a song entitled "Rose of Sharon" on Xiu Xiu's 2005 album La Forêt. The lyrics seem to allude to both the Song of Solomon and to Steinbeck's novel.
- The Ragnarok Online background music set includes a track called "Rose of Sharon".
- The village of Rosharon, Texas is named after the "Rose Of Sharon" from the Cherokee Roses that grew nearby.
- The Rose of Sharon is referenced in the Bob Dylan song "Caribbean Wind." The song appeared on the compilation album Biograph but was originally recorded during the sessions for Shot of Love.
- Leonard Cohen in his original poem The Traitor (on which the song "The Traitor" is based) also refers to the Rose of Sharon.
- Rose of Sharon is a homeless character in Sherman Alexie's short story What You Pawn I Will Redeem, published April 21, 2003 in The New Yorker.
- In Brazil, Rosa de Saron (pt) (Portuguese for Rose of Sharon) is the name of a well-known white rock group, that has include recorded some songs in English.
- Sephardic Hebrew poetry from the 10th-15th century demonstrates prolific use of the חבצלת (ḥăḇaṣṣeleṯ) translated into English consistently as "Rose of Sharon"; there are a few renderings as "lily" (see Gate 47 of the Tahkemoni) . The term and trope are found throughout the Sefer Tahkemoni by Yehuda Alharizi (1165–1225) and much of the poetic corpus of the Golden Age of Iberian Jewish belles lettres, which includes the works of such poets as Shmu'el HaNagid (993-1056), Moses Ibn Ezra (c.1055-after 1138), Yehuda Halevi (c.1075-1141), and Abraham Ibn Ezra (c.1093-c.1167) among others.
- Judah Robertson has an album entitled "Rose of Sharon".
- "Rose of Sharon" is a song written and performed by Eliza Gilkyson on her 1997 album Redemption Road.
- "Rose of Sharon Cassidy" is a NPC in the video game Fallout: New Vegas. She implies she is named after the Steinbeck character.
- "Rose of Sharon" muttered by the character Just the Job in Maxim Gorky's My Childhood.
- "Rose of Sharyn" is a song by Killswitch Engage on their "The End of Heartache" LP released in 2004
- Crawford, P. L. (1985). "Rose". In Paul J. Achtemeier (gen. ed.). Harper's Bible Dictionary. San Francisco: Harper. p. 884.
- Davidson, Benjamin (1970) . The Analytical Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon (1st softcover ed. ed.). Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan. p. 246. ISBN 0-310-39891-6.
- Lapp, N. L. (1985). "Sharon". In Paul J. Achtemeier (gen. ed.). Harper's Bible Dictionary. San Francisco: Harper. pp. 933–4.
- Scott, R. B. Y. (1991). "Annotations to Song of Solomon". The New Oxford Annotated Bible. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 854 OT.
- Botanic Gardens Trust, Sydney, Australia: Why use a scientific name?
- Satoshi Mizota. Origin of 'Rose of Sharon' : An Analysis of Various Translations Having a Bearing on The Authorized Version Text. Dissertation for MA: Aich University, 2008.
- Rose of Sharon: Services for Young Mothers[dead link]
- Alharizi, Judah. The Book of Tahkemoni, Translation: David Simha Segal. The Littman Library of Jewish Civilization, London. 2001
- Cole, Peter. The Dream of the Poem. Translation: Peter Cole. Princeton University Press, Princeton. 2007