Rusalka (Russian: Руса́лка) is an opera in four acts, six tableaux, by Alexander Dargomyzhsky, composed during 1848-1855. The Russian libretto was adapted by the composer from Pushkin's incomplete dramatic poem of the same name. It premiered on 4 May 1856 (Old Style) at the Theatre-circus, conducted by Konstantin Lyadov (father of Anatoly Lyadov), choreographed by Marius Petipa and Nikolay Goltz, but was badly received predominantly by the aristocracy.
In 1859, the opera was again presented at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow, but it was not until 1865, when it was staged at the Mariinsky Theatre, that it was finally well received. The conductor was Eduard Nápravník; the Prince was sung by Fyodor Petrovich Komissarzhevsky, the Princess by Darya Leonova, Miller by Osip Petrov, and Natasha by Yulya Platonova.
Although much of Dargomyzhsky's Rusalka is fairly conventional in musical form and style, its singular innovation for the history of Russian music in particular is the application of "melodic recitative" at certain points in the drama. This type of recitative consists of lyrical utterances which change continuously according to the dramatic situation, with likewise varied accompaniment in the orchestra. Dargomyzhsky was to apply this technique of vocal composition on a small scale in his songs and on a large scale in his final opera, The Stone Guest.
|Role||Voice type||Premiere Cast
4 May 1856 (Old Style)
(Conductor: Konstantin Lyadov ), Theatre-circus
|The Prince||tenor||Pavel Bulakhov|
|The Princess||mezzo-soprano||Darya Leonova|
|The Miller||bass||Osip Petrov|
|Natasha, his daughter, later a Rusalka||soprano||Anisya Bulakhova|
|Ol'ga, an orphan, devoted to the Princess||soprano||Emiliya Lileyeva|
|A Matchmaker||baritone||Pyotr Gumbin|
|Little Rusalka, 12 years old||non singing|
|Chorus: Boyars, boyarynyas, hunters, peasant men and women, and rusalki|
The action takes place by the Dnieper River
The plot tells of a maiden who, after being jilted by a prince, drowns herself (hence the designation "rusalka," or "drowned maiden"). The last act of the opera, which features a ballet, is somewhat unusual in that a 12-year-old rusalka speaks her lines over the music.
The bank of the Dnieper River. A mill near an oak tree.
A rich mansion. A princely wedding.
Scene 1: A tower chamber. A drawing room.
Scene 2: The bank of the Dnieper River. The ruined mill. Evening.
Scene 1: The bottom of the Dnieper. The underwater palace of the Rusalki.
Scene 2: The bank of the Dnieper River. The ruined mill.
Principal arias and numbers
- Aria: "Oh, it's just that all you young girls...", «Ох, то-то все вы, девки молодые...» (Miller)
- Naroditskaya, Inna (2006) (Ed. Linda Austern and Inna Naroditskaya), "Russian Rusalkas and Nationalism", Music of the Sirens, Indiana University Press. pp.216-249.