||This article possibly contains original research. (April 2012)|
|Sailor Moon character|
Makoto in her Super Sailor Jupiter form as seen in the anime.
|First appearance||(See below)|
|Created by||Naoko Takeuchi|
|Played by||(see below)|
Shadow Galactica (manga)
|Powers and abilities||Generation and manipulation of electricity, plant-related powers|
Sailor Jupiter (セーラージュピター Sērā Jupitā?) is a fictional lead character in the Sailor Moon media franchise. The alternate identity of Makoto Kino (木野 まこと Kino Makoto?, or Lita Kino in the English adaptations), a teenage Japanese schoolgirl, she is a member of the Sailor Soldiers, female supernatural fighters who protect the Solar System from evil.
Sailor Jupiter is the third Sailor Soldier to be discovered by Sailor Moon, and serves as the "muscles" of the group. She possesses powers associated with electricity and plants, and physical strength.
Aside from the main body of the Sailor Moon series, Makoto features in her own manga short story, Mako's Depression. A number of image songs mentioning her character have been released as well, including the contents of three different CD singles.
Makoto's strong, independent personality is hinted at in her most striking physical feature—her unusual height. She is stated at her first appearance in the series to be very tall, and considerable notice is taken in the original Japanese versions, although this trait is downplayed in English translations (as her relative height is not all that uncommon in most Europeans). She is also physically very strong, and in fact was rumored to have been kicked out of her previous school for fighting. She is introduced to the series after transferring to Azabu Jūban Junior High, where Usagi Tsukino and Ami Mizuno are students, and where she stands out all the more because her school uniform is different from everyone else's; unable to find anything in her size, her school's administration tells her to wear her old one. It has a long skirt, which when coupled with her curly hair, was a common visual cue for a tough or delinquent girl at the time the series was created. However, unlike these delinquent girls, her wavy hair is natural. Despite her tough appearance, she is very gentle. She always wears pink rose earrings and a green hair tie that decorates her ponytail.
One of the most consistent characters across the many versions of the series, Makoto is always depicted as simultaneously the most masculine and most feminine of the Sailor Soldiers. Her most closely held dream is to get married and own a cake and flower shop. After entering high school, she also joins the cooking and gardening clubs.
Her domestic talents are explained as a deliberate effort to overcome her tomboyishness. In the live-action series she enjoys shopping, but eschews "girly" things (she can be seen shopping for basketball shoes in one scene, for instance); she cooks, but also physically overpowers delinquents; she reorganizes her home, but does so with a sledgehammer. She insists that she is not the least bit feminine, and seems surprised and touched when someone tells her she is.
This dual nature comes from a need to be self-sufficient: in the manga continuity her parents died in a airplane accident when she was very young and she has since then looked after herself. She is self-sufficient almost to a fault, and gets shocked when an airplane passes overhead. In the anime, Makoto lives alone, but it is never explicitly stated that her parents are dead—in the DIC English adaptation, she says she cannot take care of a cat because her mother is allergic—and later in the series she is shown boarding an airplane without any mention of fear. In Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, Makoto's parents' death is told in a flashback in Act 6, but how they died is not mentioned.
Makoto has at least one former boyfriend; the importance of this subplot, as well as her level of obsession with cute men, varies wildly between adaptations. In the anime adaptation Makoto is extremely boy-crazy; a recurring gag is her obsession with people who look like the older classmate (senpai) who once broke her heart. In the original manga, her "senpai" is mentioned only once or twice, and in the live-action drama is an integral part of why Makoto feels she needs to be alone. In each version, there are mentions of other men who were very briefly a part of her life. Makoto is generally attracted to Motoki Furuhata, especially in the anime, but only in the live-action show do they become close. By the end of the direct-to-DVD Special Act, they are engaged to be married.
One quirk of Makoto's was made famous among English-speaking fans due to the translation of a particular scene in the anime adaptation. The girls are arguing over which of them should play the part of Snow White in a play. In the Japanese version, Makoto insists that she would be best for the role because she has the largest breasts. In the DIC English adaptation, she still points at her chest, but states instead that she has the most "talent."
Aspects and forms
As a character with different incarnations, special powers, transformations and extended longevity; a really long ageless lifetime virtually spanned between the Silver Millennium era and the 30th Century, Makoto gains multiple aspects and aliases as the series progresses.
Makoto's Soldier identity is Sailor Jupiter. She wears a sailor suit colored in green and pink, with rose-shaped earrings and green, laced-up boots with height just above the ankles. In the manga and live-action series she has a belt carrying a small ball of potpourri. She is given specific titles throughout the various series, including Soldier of Protection, Herculean Jupiter, Soldier of Thunder and Courage, and Soldier of Caring. Her personality is no different from when she is a civilian, although certain powers are unavailable to her in that form.
In Japanese, the name for the planet Jupiter is Mokusei (木星?), the first kanji meaning 'tree' and the second indicating a celestial object. Although the Roman planet-name is used, Sailor Jupiter's dominant element is wood due to this aspect of Japanese mythology. Unusually, most of her attacks are based on her secondary power, lightning, which is in reference to the Roman god Jupiter. She is by far the physically strongest of the Sailor Soldiers, able to lift a full-grown man above her head, even while ice skating or to stop a stone pillar from falling. In the early manga, she always has a short antenna coming from her tiara, which serves as a lightning rod; eventually this takes on the same role as in the anime, and extends upward only when she summons lightning. It does not appear in the live-action series.
As she grows much stronger and more powerful, Sailor Jupiter gains additional special abilities and powers, and at key points her Sailor Soldier uniform changes to reflect this. The first change takes place in Act 37 of the manga, when she obtains the Jupiter Crystal and her outfit becomes similar to that of Super Sailor Moon. She is not given a new title. A similar event is divided between Episodes 143 and 154 of the anime, and she is given the name Super Sailor Jupiter. A third, manga-only form appears in Act 42, unnamed but analogous to Eternal Sailor Moon (sans wings).
In Silver Millennium, Sailor Jupiter was also the Princess of her home planet. She was among those given the duty of protecting Princess Serenity of the Moon Kingdom. As Princess Jupiter, she dwelt in Io Castle and wore a green gown—she appears in this form in the original manga, as well as in supplementary art. Naoko Takeuchi once drew her in the arms of Nephrite, but no further romantic link between them was established in the manga or anime, In the stage musicals, it is stated that the two of them were in love at the time of the Moon Kingdom, and this is also implied in the Another Story video game.
Special powers and items
Makoto is portrayed as unusually strong for a teenage girl, but like the other Sailor Soldiers, she must transform in order to gain access to her celestial powers. She transforms into a Sailor Soldier by raising a special device (pen, bracelet, wand, or crystal) into the air and shouting a special phrase, originally "Jupiter Power, Make-up!" As she becomes more powerful and obtains new transformation devices, this phrase changes to evoke Jupiter Star, Planet, or Crystal Power.
In the manga, Sailor Jupiter's first named attack is Flower Hurricane, which is immediately followed by calling down lightning. Emphasis is quickly placed upon her electric-based powers, and these are the norm in all versions of the series. Her primary attack for the first story arc and most of the second is Supreme Thunder, for which she calls down lightning from the sky with a tiny lightning rod that extends from the stone on her tiara (or, in the live-action series, with her leg). Sometimes, before performing the attack she would call out "Waga shugo Mokusei yo! Arashi wo okose! Kumo wo yobe! Ikazuchi wo furaseyo!" (我が守護木星よ！嵐を起こせ！雲を呼べ！雷を降らせよ！; My guardian Jupiter! Brew a storm! Call the clouds! Bring down the lightning!). Although she channels this power, she is not immune to its effects, and can use her body to focus the electricity in a suicide move. It is upgraded twice for one-off attacks in the anime series: once to Supreme Thunder Dragon, and much later to Super Supreme Thunder.
In the second story arc Sailor Jupiter gains Sparkling Wide Pressure, which consists an attack of a lightning ball  which, aside from a manga-only power called Jupiter Coconut Cyclone, remains her primary attack for the rest of the second story arc, all of the third, and much of the fourth. When she takes on her second Soldier form (Super Sailor Jupiter in the anime), she acquires a special item, a wreath of oak leaves, which is described in the manga as "the emblem of thunder and lightning." It appears in her hair and enables her to use Jupiter Oak Evolution.
Sailor Jupiter's earrings, large pink roses, are occasionally significant. She wears them in both her Soldier and civilian forms, and can use them as a projectile weapon if she needs to. When they first meet in the manga, Usagi thinks the roses have a nice fragrance, and late in the anime the sight of them brings her back from temporary memory loss because it reminds her of Tuxedo Mask. Much more important, in the manga, are the Jupiter Crystal and Leaves of Oak. The former is Makoto's Sailor Crystal and the source of all of her power, which becomes especially important in the fifth story arc. In the live-action series, she frequently uses unnamed electric attacks, and is given a tambourine-like weapon (the Sailor Star Tambo) by Artemis. In the final episode, the Tambo transforms into a lance.
Makoto is present in the original proposal for a hypothetical Codename: Sailor V anime, but her name is given as Mamoru Chino. Creator Naoko Takeuchi confirms that this character eventually became Makoto, and writes that the original concept was quite different—Makoto was not only tough, but in fact was meant to be the leader of a female gang as well as a smoker. A very similar name was later given to the series' male protagonist, Mamoru Chiba.
Sailor Jupiter's original costume design, like the others', was fully unique. It featured buckles, very long gloves, blue and yellow highlights, a bare lower torso, and a profusion of thin, dark pink ribbons—along with a face-plate and communicator. Later, Takeuchi was surprised by these sketches and stated that she did not remember drawing them. Her instructions to the animators included a note that Makoto should appear muscular, "a little meatier than normal."
The kanji of Makoto's surname translate as "tree" or "wood" or "spirit" (木 ki?) and "field" or "civilian" (野 no?). Her given name is in hiragana makoto (まこと?) and therefore difficult to translate. Possible meanings include "truth," "wisdom," and "sincerity." The given name "Makoto" is a unisex name although it is usually given to male name, but is sometimes given to girls; its use here highlights Makoto's tomboyishness.
In the DIC/Cloverway English adaptation, her name was changed to "Lita" and was voiced by Susan Roman, who has said of her character, "[She] has so many different sides to her personality, the way we all do. She isn’t a one-dimensional cardboard character, she isn’t a stereotype, and she certainly isn’t predictable. I just loved being able to go to so many different places with her." Lita is the only significant human character in the English adaptation to be played by the same voice actress through the entire series run. Patricia Tollett also provided English vocals for songs sung by the character in the original English adaptation. In the Viz Media English adaptation, her voice is supplied by Amanda Miller. A longtime Sailor Moon fan, Miller auditioned for every female part in the series, but became ecstatic when she discovered that she was cast as Sailor Jupiter. Miller cites Sailor Jupiter as her favorite character. On describing the similarities between her and Sailor Jupiter, Miller said, "I’m a lot like Makoto, because we were both the tallest kid in our class. I was, like, 5’7” when I was in fifth grade … I did play hockey on a boys’ team. I played goalie. So, I think that I have the tomboy aspect—and I love green—but also what I love about the character is that she was very tough but she was also equally as feminine. She was just so ‘I like to ice skate, I like to nerd out over cute boys,’ and I just love that about her. I think we both share that. Like we’re both feminine, but we’ll also kick your butt."
In the stage musicals, Makoto has been portrayed by 13 actresses: Noriko Kamiyama, Marie Sada, Takako Inayoshi, Emika Satoh, Akari Tonegawa, Chiho Oyama (whose older sister Anza was the first to play Sailor Moon), Emi Kuriyama, Yuriko Hayashi, Ayano Sugimoto, Kaori Sakata, Karina Okada, Mai Watanabe and Yu Takahashi.
Reception and influence
The official Sailor Moon character popularity polls listed Makoto Kino and Sailor Jupiter as separate entities. In 1992, readers ranked them at eleventh and fifth respectively, out of thirty eight choices. One year later, now with fifty choices, Jupiter dropped to the eleventh most popular while Makoto was twelfth most popular. In 1994, with fifty one choices, Sailor Jupiter was the seventeenth most popular character and Makoto was eighteenth. In early 1996, with fifty one choices, Makoto was the twenty third most popular character and Jupiter was the twenty seventh.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (September 1999). Materials Collection. Kodansha. p. 12. ISBN 4-06-324521-7.
- Cherry, Kittredge (1987). "Christmas Cake Sweepstakes: Girlhood to Wedding". Womansword: What Japanese Words Say about Women (paperback) (First mass market edition, 1991 ed.). 17-14 Otowa 1-chrome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112: Kodansha International Ltd. pp. 51–52. ISBN 4-7700-1655-7.
- In her first manga appearance, a teacher questions her about her hair.
- Takeuchi, Naoko. "Act 37". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon vol. 13. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178820-5.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (September 6, 1996). "Act 43". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon vol. 16. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178841-8.
- "Cold-Hearted Uranus? Makoto in Trouble". Sailor Moon. Series 3. Episode 96. May 14, 1994. Toei. Asahi.
- Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, Act 49.
- Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, Act 10.
- Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, Act 31. In this act, Mako and Motoki date, but they "break up" shortly thereafter.
- Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, Act 6.
- Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, Special Act. Motoki catches Usagi's bridal bouquet and proposes to Mako on the spot.
- "Steal Mamoru's Kiss! En's Snow White Strategy". Sailor Moon. Series 2. Episode 56. May 29, 1993. Toei. Asahi.
- The belt that Jupiter wears was only shown in the revised manga that was released during the run of Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon
- Takeuchi, Naoko (July 6, 1994). "Act 23". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon vol. 7. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178781-0.
- The exact title given is "Kairiki Jupiter," meaning "Superhuman Strength Jupiter." This term was equated with the English word "Herculean" by Alex Glover. Takeuchi, Naoko. "Act 37". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon vol. 13. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178820-5.
- 1997 Winter Special Musical - Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Sailor Stars (Revised)
- Takeuchi, Naoko (July 6, 1992, September 5, 1996). "Act 5". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon vol. 1. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178721-7.
- Drazen, Patrick (October 2002). Anime Explosion! The What? Why? & Wow! of Japanese Animation. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. p. 286. ISBN 1-880656-72-8. OCLC 50898281.
- Episodes 25
- 39. Mercury remarks that "It's a technique no one in the world has accomplished yet" upon seeing this
- Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon Act 21
- Takeuchi, Naoko (July 5, 1996). "Act 42". Pretty Sailor Sailor Moon vol. 15. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178835-3.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (July 5, 1996). "Act 41". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon vol. 15. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178835-3.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (September 1996). Pretty Soldier Sailormoon vol. IV Original Picture Collection. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-324519-5.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (August 1994). Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon vol. I Original Picture Collection. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-324507-1., Naoko Takeuchi quote about it from the artbook: "This is the title page for the conclusion of the first series of Sailor Moon. It had a great deal of impact on the first series. Probably because the four couplings on the right side were very unexpected. I was thinking of love stories of the previous lives of these couples. I'd like to be able to draw that someday..."
- Described by Luna and Artemis in Gaiden Dark Kingdom Fukkatsu Hen, the first musical.
- Angel (September 22, 1995). Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon: Another Story (in Japanese). Super Famicom. Angel.
- Allison, Anne (2000). "A Challenge to Hollywood? Japanese Character Goods Hit the US". Japanese Studies (Routledge) 20 (1): 67�?8. doi:10.1080/10371390050009075.
- First used in each of Sailor Jupiter's first appearances, except the manga, where it is delayed to Act 10. In the English versions, Makoto does not say 'Make up' when transforming.
- "Star Power" starting in manga Act 15, anime Episode 62, when she acquires the Star Power Stick. "Planet Power" starting in Act 24 of the manga only. "Crystal Power" starting in Act 37, when she acquires the Jupiter Crystal and her second uniform, and in Episode 151, when she acquires the Crystal Change Rod and becomes Super Sailor Jupiter.
- Act 5. In the re-released edition of the manga, rather than simply calling lightning she uses the incantation Jupiter Thunderbolt. Neither this attack nor Flower Hurricane appears in the anime, but both are used in the live-action series.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (September 22, 2003). "Act 5". Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon Shinzōban vol. 1. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-334776-1.
- First used in Act 7 of the manga, Episode 25 of the anime, and Act 6 of the live-action series. In the English anime it is variously called Jupiter Thunder Crash, Supreme Thunder Crash and Jupiter Thunderbolt Crash.
- "The Sailor Warriors Die! The Tragic Final Battle". Sailor Moon. Series 1. Episode 45. February 27, 1992. Toei. Asahi.
- Appears only in Episode 55, and in English is renamed Jupiter Thunder Dragon.
- Appears only in Episode 147, and in English is renamed Superior Sparkling Thunder.
- Act 15 of the manga, Episode 65 of the anime. In the English Dic adaptation, it was primarily called Jupiter Thunderclap Zap in the second season, though it retained its original name most of the time when Cloverway dubbed the anime but other names included the original name, Jupiter Thunder Power, Superior Sparkling Thunder, Supreme Thunder Crash, or, on one occasion, "Thunder!"
- Takeuchi, Naoko (June 6, 1995). "Act 36". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon vol. 10. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178806-X.
- "Jupiter, the Brawny Girl in Love". Sailor Moon. Series 1. Episode 25. September 5, 1992. Toei. TV Asahi.
- "For the Sake of Love! Endless Battle of the Evil World". Sailor Moon. Series 5. Episode 171. April 27, 1996. Toei. Asahi.
- Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon Act 26
- Glover, Alex. "The Manga of Takeuchi Naoko - Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon Volume 3". Retrieved 2007-07-11.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (September 6, 1992, April 6, 1996). Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 2. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178731-4.
- "The Name Origin and the Name Meaning of Makoto". Retrieved 2007-05-26.
- "Kotono Mitsuishi Leads Sailor Moon Crystal Cast". Anime News Network. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
- Mammaro, Michael (July 7, 2014). "Sailor Moon Blu-ray/DVD Details, Voice Cast, and Release Date". DoGTech. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
- Takeuchi, Naoko; Bandai (2009-07-03). "Sailor Moon Musical News". Retrieved 2009-09-21.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (April 6, 1993). Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 3. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178744-6.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (July 6, 1994). Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 7. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178781-0.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (June 6, 1995). Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 10. Kodansha. pp. 138�?39. ISBN 4-06-178806-X.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (July 5, 1996). Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 15. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178835-3.
- Kino Makoto Official Fan Book
- Amazon.com: Meet Sailor Jupiter: Thunder: Books: Naoko Takeuchi,Mixxent,Kondo Kunishiro,Ben Ettinger,K. J. Keiji Karvonen