Sailor Moon

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This article is about the media franchise. For the title character, see Sailor Moon (character). For other uses, see Sailor Moon (disambiguation).
"Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon" redirects here. For the 2003 TV series, see Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon (live-action series).
Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon
SMVolume1.jpg
First tankōbon volume, released in Japan on July 6, 1992.
美少女戦士セーラームーン
(Bishōjo Senshi Sērāmūn)
Genre Magical girl
Manga
Written by Naoko Takeuchi
Published by Kodansha
English publisher
Random House Australia
Turnaround Publisher Services
Demographic Shōjo
Magazine Nakayoshi, Run Run
English magazine
Original run December 28, 1991 (1991-12-28)February 3, 1997 (1997-02-03)
Volumes 18 (List of volumes)
Anime television series
Sailor Moon (anime)
Directed by Junichi Satō
Kunihiko Ikuhara
Takuya Igarashi
Produced by Iriya Azuma
Kenji Ōta
Toshihiko Arisako
Kōichi Yada
Written by Sukehiro Tomita
Yōji Enokido
Ryōta Yamaguchi
Music by Takanori Arisawa
Studio Toei Animation
Licensed by
Network TV Asahi
English network
Neon Alley ((Viz Dub 2014-))
Original run March 7, 1992 (1992-03-07)February 8, 1997 (1997-02-08)
Episodes 200 (List of episodes)
Original net animation
Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon Crystal
Directed by Munehisa Sakai
Produced by Junichirō Tsuchiya
Yū Kaminoki
Written by Yuji Kobayashi
Music by Yasuharu Takanashi
Studio Toei Animation
Licensed by
Released July 5, 2014 (2014-07-05) – ongoing
Episodes 26 (List of episodes)
Other media
Portal icon Anime and Manga portal

Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon[1] (美少女戦士セーラームーン Bishōjo Senshi Sērā Mūn?)—later retitled Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon[2][3]—is a Japanese shōjo manga series written and illustrated by Naoko Takeuchi. It was originally serialized in Nakayoshi from 1991 to 1997; the 52 individual chapters were published in 18 tankōbon volumes. The series follows the adventures of Usagi Tsukino as she transforms into the titular character to search for a princess and an artifact called the "Legendary Silver Crystal" (「幻の銀水晶」 Maboroshi no Ginzuishō?, lit. "Phantom Silver Crystal"). During her journey, she leads a diverse group of comrades, the Sailor Soldiers (セーラー戦士 Sērā Senshi?)—Sailor Guardians in later editions—as they battle against villains to prevent the theft of the Silver Crystal and the destruction of the Solar System.

The 18 manga volumes have been adapted into an anime series titled Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon which was produced by Toei Animation.[4][5] The series was broadcast from 1992 to 1997 in Japan over the course of five seasons. Toei Animation also developed three feature films, one television special, three short films and a live-action television adaptation titled Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. A reboot of the anime series, titled Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon Crystal, began simulcasting in 2014. Several companies have developed merchandising based on the series, including light novels, collectible trading card games, action figures, musical theater productions, several collections of soundtracks and a large number of video games. The manga series was licensed for an English language release by Kodansha Comics USA in North America, and in Australia and New Zealand by Random House Australia. The entire anime series has been licensed by Viz Media for an English language release in North America.

Since its release, Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon has received wide critical acclaim and has become one of the most popular manga and anime series worldwide. The manga's 18 volumes have sold over one million copies worldwide and reviewers have praised the art, characterization and humor of the story. The anime is popular in several countries and is arguably one of the most influential in boosting the popularity of Japanese animation in Western culture. Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon is often cited with popularizing the concept of a team of magical girls and for revitalizing the magical girl genre. The franchise is also credited with redefining the genre, as previous magical girls did not use their powers to fight evil and the concept is now considered one of its standard archetypes.

Plot[edit]

A middle school student named Usagi Tsukino befriends Luna, a talking cat that gives her a magical brooch enabling her to become Sailor Moon: a "pretty soldier in a sailor suit" destined to save Earth from the forces of evil. Luna and Usagi assemble a team of fellow Sailor Soldiers to find their princess and the "Legendary Silver Crystal." They encounter the studious Ami Mizuno, who awakens as Sailor Mercury, Rei Hino, a local shrine maiden who awakens as Sailor Mars, Makoto Kino, a transfer student who awakens as Sailor Jupiter and Mamoru Chiba, a high school student who assists them as Tuxedo Mask. A young, aspiring idol named Minako Aino, who also operates as Sailor Venus, later joins them accompanied by her feline companion Artemis.

In the first arc, the group battles the Dark Kingdom. Led by Queen Beryl, a team of generals—the Four Kings of Heaven (四天王 Shiten'ō?, lit. "Four Heavenly Kings")—attempt to find the Silver Crystal to free an imprisoned, evil entity called Queen Metaria. Usagi and her team discover that in their previous lives they were members of the ancient moon kingdom called Silver Millennium. The Dark Kingdom waged war against them, resulting in the moon kingdom's destruction. Its ruler Queen Serenity later sent her daughter Princess Serenity, her guardians the Sailor Soldiers, their feline advisers Luna and Artemis, and the princess's true love Prince Endymion into the future to be reborn through the power of the Silver Crystal. The team realize Usagi is the reincarnated Serenity and that Mamoru is Endymion. The Four Kings are killed by the Soldiers and are revealed to have been Endymion's guardians who defected in their past lives. In a final confrontation with the Dark Kingdom, Minako kills Queen Beryl; she and the other Soldiers then sacrifice their lives in an attempt to destroy Queen Metaria. Using the Silver Crystal, Usagi succeeds in killing Metaria and resurrects her friends.

At the beginning of the second arc, Usagi and Mamoru's daughter Chibiusa arrives from the future to find the Silver Crystal. As a result, the Soldiers encounter Wiseman and his Black Moon Clan, who are pursuing her. Chibiusa takes the Soldiers to the future city Neo-Tokyo, where her parents rule as Neo-Queen Serenity and King Endymion. During their journey they meet Sailor Pluto, guardian of the Time-Space Door. Sailor Pluto stops the Clan's ruler Prince Demand from destroying the time-space continuum, leading to her death. Chibiusa later awakens as a Soldier—Sailor Chibi Moon—and helps Usagi kill Wiseman's true form, Death Phantom.

The third arc revolves around a group of lifeforms called Death Busters, which were created by Professor Soichi Tomoe, who seek to transport the entity Pharaoh 90 to Earth to merge with the planet. Tomoe's daughter Hotaru is absorbed by the entity Mistress 9, who must open the dimensional gateway through which Pharaoh 90 must travel. Auto racer Haruka Tenoh and violinist Michiru Kaioh appear as Sailor Uranus and Sailor Neptune, who guard the outer rim of the Solar System from external threats. The protagonists are joined by physics student Setsuna Meioh, Sailor Pluto's reincarnation. Usagi obtains the Holy Grail, transforms into Super Sailor Moon, and attempts to use the power of the Grail and the Silver Crystal to destroy Pharaoh 90. This causes Hotaru to awaken as Sailor Saturn, who is initially perceived as a threat by Haruka, Michiru and Setsuna. As the harbinger of death, Hotaru uses her power of destruction to sever Pharaoh 90 from the Earth and instructs Setsuna to use her power over time-space to close the dimensional gateway. Usagi, as Princess Serenity, then uses her power to recreate the planet.

The next arc introduces the Dead Moon Circus, led by Queen Nehelenia, the self-proclaimed "rightful ruler" of both Silver Millennium and Earth. Nehelenia invades Elysion, which hosts the Earth's Golden Kingdom, capturing its High Priest Helios and instructs her followers to steal the Silver Crystal. As Prince Endymion, Mamoru is revealed to be the owner of the Golden Crystal—the sacred stone of the Golden Kingdom. Mamoru and the Soldiers combine their powers with those of the Holy Grail, enabling Usagi to transform into Eternal Sailor Moon and kill Nehelenia. Four of Nehelenia's henchmen, the Amazoness Quartet, are revealed to be Soldiers called the Sailor Quartet, who are destined to become Chibiusa's guardians. They had been awakened prematurely and corrupted by Nehelenia.

In the final arc, Usagi and her friends enter high school and are drawn into a battle against Shadow Galactica, a group of false Sailor Soldiers. Their leader Sailor Galaxia plans to steal the Sailor Crystals of true Soldiers to overthrow the galaxy and kill an evil life form known as Chaos. After killing Mamoru and most of the Sailor Soldiers, Sailor Galaxia steals their Sailor Crystals. Usagi travels to the Galaxy Cauldron to defeat Galaxia and revive her teammates. Joining Usagi are the Sailor Starlights who come from the planet Kinmoku, their ruler Princess Kakyuu and the infant Sailor Chibichibi who came from a distant future. Later, Chibiusa and the Sailor Quartet join Usagi and company. After numerous battles as well as the death of Galaxia, Sailor Chibichibi reveals her true form as Sailor Cosmos. Usagi then destroys Chaos with the "Legendary Silver Crystal." Mamoru and the Sailor Soldiers are revived and return to Earth with Usagi. Six years later Usagi and Mamoru are wed.

Production[edit]

Naoko Takeuchi redeveloped Sailor Moon from her 1991 manga serial Codename: Sailor V, which was first published on August 20, 1991, and featured Sailor Venus as the main protagonist.[6] Takeuchi wanted to create a story with a theme about girls in outer space. While discussing with her editor Fumio Osano, he suggested the addition of Sailor fuku.[7] When Codename: Sailor V was proposed for adaptation into an anime by Toei Animation, Takeuchi redeveloped the concept so Sailor Venus became a member of a team.[8][9] The resulting manga series became a fusion of the popular magical girl genre and the Super Sentai series, of which Takeuchi was a fan.[10] Recurring motifs include astronomy,[7] astrology, Greek and Roman myth,[11] geology, Japanese elemental themes,[12] teen fashions,[11][13] and schoolgirl antics.[13]

Takeuchi said discussions with Kodansha originally envisaged a single story arc;[14] the storyline was developed in meetings a year before serialization began.[15] After completing the arc, Toei and Kodansha asked Takeuchi to continue the series. She wrote four more story arcs,[14] which were often published simultaneously with the five corresponding seasons of the anime adaptation. The anime ran one or two months behind the manga.[15] As a result, the anime follows the storyline of the manga fairly closely, although there are deviations.[16] Takeuchi later said because Toei's production staff were mostly male, she feels the anime has "a slight male perspective."[16]

Takeuchi later said she planned to kill off the protagonists, but Osano rejected the notion and said, "[Sailor Moon] is a shōjo manga!" When the anime adaptation was produced, the protagonists were killed in the final battle with the Dark Kingdom, although they were revived. Takeuchi resented that she was unable to do that in her version.[17] Takeuchi also intended for the Sailor Moon anime adaptation to last for one season, but due to the immense popularity, Toei asked Takeuchi to continue the series. At first, she struggled to develop another storyline to extend the series. While discussing with Osano, he suggested the inclusion of Usagi's daughter from the future, Chibiusa.[18]

Media[edit]

Manga[edit]

Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon was written and illustrated by Naoko Takeuchi. It spans 52 chapters known as "acts," and ten separate side-stories. It was first serialized in the monthly manga anthology Nakayoshi starting on December 28, 1991; the series ended on February 3, 1997.[6] The side-stories appeared simultaneously in RunRun—another of Kodansha's manga magazines.[6] The 52 chapters were published in 18 tankōbon volumes by Kodansha from July 6, 1992, to April 4, 1997.[19][20] In 2003, the chapters were re-released in a collection of 12 shinzōban volumes to coincide with the release of the live-action series.[21] The manga was retitled Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon and included new cover art,[22] and revised dialogue and illustrations. Volumes 1 and 2 of Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon Short Stories were also published.[23][24] In 2013, the chapters were once again re-released in 10 kanzenban volumes to commemorate the manga's 20th anniversary, which includes digitally remastered artwork, new covers and color artwork from its Nakayoshi run.[25] The books have been enlarged from the typical Japanese manga size to A5.[26][27] The short stories were republished in two volumes, with the order of the stories shuffled. Codename: Sailor V was also included in the third edition.[27]

The Sailor Moon manga was initially licensed for an English release by Mixx (later Tokyopop) in North America. The manga was first published as a serial in MixxZine beginning in 1997, but was later removed from the magazine and made into a separate, monthly comic to finish the first, second and third arcs. At the same time, the fourth and fifth arcs were printed in a secondary magazine called Smile.[28] The series was later collected into three-part graphic novels spanning eighteen volumes, which were published from December 1, 1998, to September 18, 2001.[29][30] Tokyopop's license expired in 2005 and its edition went out of print.[31] Daily pages from the Tokyopop version ran in the Japanimation Station, a service accessible to users of America Online.[32] In May 2005, Tokyopop's license to the Sailor Moon manga expired, and its edition went out of print.[33]

In 2011, Kodansha Comics USA announced it would publish the Sailor Moon manga and the lead-in series Codename: Sailor V in English.[34] It would also re-publish the twelve volumes of Sailor Moon simultaneously with the two-volume edition of Codename Sailor V, from September 2011 to July 2013.[35][36][37] The first volume of the two related short stories was published on September 10, 2013;[38] the other was published on November 26.[39]

The manga has also been licensed in other English-speaking countries. In the United Kingdom, the volumes are distributed by Turnaround Publisher Services.[40] In Australia, the manga is distributed by Random House Australia.[41]

Anime series[edit]

Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon[edit]

Toei Animation produced an anime television series based on the manga, also titled Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon.[4][5] It was directed by Junichi Satō, Kunihiko Ikuhara and Takuya Igarashi.[42] The was aired in Japan on TV Asahi between March 7, 1992, and February 8, 1997 and had 200 episodes overall, among specials and films.

Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon Crystal[edit]

The theme music is performed by idol group Momoiro Clover Z whose members have signature colors as with the protagonists of Sailor Moon.

On July 6, 2012, Kodansha and Toei Animation announced that it will produce a new anime adaptation for a simultaneous worldwide release in 2013 as part of the series' 20th anniversary celebrations.[43][44] The idol group Momoiro Clover Z would perform the opening and closing theme music.[45] In April 2013, it was announced the new anime had been delayed.[46] On August 4, it was confirmed the new anime will be streamed late in the year.[45]

On January 9, 2014, it was announced the anime will premiere in July.[47] On March 13, 2014, the new anime's official website was updated to show a countdown beginning on March 14 for an announcement due to occur on March 21.[48] That day, Toei's website showed an image displaying the key visual art, synopsis, and staff for the new anime. It also revealed the anime would be called Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon Crystal (美少女戦士セーラームーンCrystal Bishōjo Senshi Sērāmūn Kurisutaru). The series is animated by Toei Animation and directed by Munehisa Sakai.[49]

The cast and premiere date were announced at the 20th Anniversary Project Special Stage on April 27, 2014; the anime would premiere on July 5, 2014, and episodes would premier on the first and third Saturdays of each month.[50] On April 30, Toei confirmed the series will run for 26 episodes, streaming worldwide on video sharing service Niconico with subtitles in 12 languages on the first and third Saturdays of each month.[51]

Viz licensed the Sailor Moon Crystal anime for an English-language release in North America as Sailor Moon Crystal.[52] The series began streaming on Hulu and Neon Alley simultaneously on July 5, 2014. Crunchyroll also began streaming the series on its website during the simulcast.[53] At the 2014 Anime Expo convention, Viz marketing director Charlene Ingram announced that the cast used for the Sailor Moon re-dub will also reprise their roles in Crystal.[54]

Films and television specials[edit]

Three animated theatrical feature films based on the original Sailor Moon series have been released in Japan. The films are side-stories that do not correlate with the timeline of the original series. A one-hour television special was aired on TV Asahi in Japan on April 8, 1995.[55]

Companion books[edit]

There have been numerous companion books to Sailor Moon. Kodansha released some of these books for each of the five story arcs, collectively called the Original Picture Collection. The books contain cover art, promotional material and other work by Takeuchi. Many of the drawings are accompanied by comments on the way she developed her ideas, created each picture and commentary on the anime interpretation of her story.[56][57][58][59][60] Another picture collection, Volume Infinity, was released as a self-published, limited-edition artbook after the end of the series in 1997. This artbook includes drawings by Takeuchi and her friends, her staff, and many of the voice actors who worked on the anime. In 1999, Kodansha published the Materials Collection; this contained development sketches and notes for nearly every character in the manga, and for some characters that never appeared. Each drawing includes notes by Takeuchi about costume pieces, the mentality of the characters and her feelings about them. It also includes timelines for the story arcs and for the real-life release of products and materials relating to the anime and manga. A short story, Parallel Sailor Moon is also featured, celebrating the year of the rabbit.[61]

Stage musicals[edit]

Main article: Sailor Moon musicals

In mid-1993, the first musical theater production based on Sailor Moon premiered; Anza Ohyama starred as Sailor Moon. As of August 2014, 30 such musicals have been produced, with one in pre-production. The shows' stories include anime-inspired plotlines and original material. Music from the series has been released on about 20 memorial albums.[62] The popularity of the musicals has been cited as a reason behind the production of the live action television series, Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon.[63]

During the original run musicals ran in the winter and summer of each year, with summer musicals staged at the Sunshine Theater in the Ikebukuro area of Tokyo. In the winter, musicals toured to other large cities in Japan, including Osaka, Fukuoka,[64] Nagoya, Shizuoka, Kanazawa, Sendai,[65] Saga, Oita, Yamagata and Fukushima.[66] The final incarnation of the first run, New Legend of Kaguya Island (Revised Edition) (新・かぐや島伝説 <改訂版> Shin Kaguyashima Densetsu (Kaiteban)?), went on stage in January 2005, following which, Bandai officially put the series on a hiatus.[67] On June 2, 2013, Fumio Osano announced on his Twitter page that the Sailor Moon musicals would begin again in September 2013.[68] The 20th anniversary show La Reconquista ran from September 13 to 23 at Shibuya's AiiA Theater Tokyo, with Satomi Ōkubo as Sailor Moon. Satomi Ōkubo will reprise the role in the 2014 production Petite Étrangèr which it is planned will run from August 21 to September 7, 2014 again at AiiA Theater Tokyo.

Trading figures[edit]

In early 2014, Megahouse released a set of Sailor Moon trading figures consisting of twelve figurines, two for each Sailor Soldier and two for Tuxedo Mask.[69]

Live-action series[edit]

American remake[edit]

In 1995, Renaissance-Atlantic Entertainment, Bandai and Toon Makers, Inc. conceptualized their own version of Sailor Moon, which was half live-action and half Western-style animation. Toon Makers produced a 17-minute proof of concept presentation video as well as a two-minute music video, both of which were directed by Rocky Sotoloff, for this concept. Renaissance-Atlantic presented the concept to Toei, but it was turned down as their concept would have cost significantly more than simply exporting and dubbing the anime adaptation.[70]

At the 1998 Anime Expo convention in Los Angeles, the music video was shown. It has since been copied numerous times and has been viewed on many streaming video sites. Because of the relatively poor quality of the source video and circulated footage, many anime fans thought that the music video was actually a leaked trailer for the project. Additional copies of the footage have since been uploaded to the Internet and served only to bolster the mistaken assumption, in addition to incorrectly citing the production to Saban Entertainment, who became known for a similar treatment that created the Power Rangers series.[70]

Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon[edit]

In 2003, Toei Company produced a Japanese live-action Sailor Moon television series using the new translated English title of Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. Its 49 episodes were broadcast on Chubu-Nippon Broadcasting from October 4, 2003 to September 25, 2004.[71][72] The series was an alternate retelling of the Dark Kingdom arc, adding a storyline different from that in the manga and first anime series, with original characters and new plot developments.[63][73] In addition to the main episodes, two direct-to-video releases appeared after the show ended its television broadcast. "Special Act" is set four years after the main storyline ends, and shows the wedding of the two main characters. "Act Zero" is a prequel showing the origins of Sailor V and Tuxedo Mask.[74]

Video games[edit]

The Sailor Moon franchise has spawned several video games across various genres and platforms. Most were made by Bandai and its subsidy Angel; others were produced by Banpresto. The early games were side-scrolling fighters; later ones were unique puzzle games, or versus fighting games. Another Story was a turn-based role-playing video game.[75] The only Sailor Moon game produced outside Japan, 3VR New Media's The 3D Adventures of Sailor Moon, went on sale in North America in 1997.[76] A video game called Sailor Moon: La Luna Splende (Sailor Moon: The Shining Moon) was released in early 2011 for the Nintendo DS.[77]

Reception[edit]

Sailor Moon is one of the most popular manga series of all time and continues to enjoy high readership worldwide. By the end of 1995, more than one million copies of its tankōbon volumes had been sold in Japan.[78] The manga won the Kodansha Manga Award in 1993 for shōjo.[79] The English adaptations of both the manga and the anime series became the first successful shōjo title in the United States.[80]

Sailor Moon has also become popular internationally. Sailor Moon was broadcast in Spain and France beginning in December 1993; these became the first countries outside Japan to broadcast the series.[81] It was later aired in Australia, South Korea, the Philippines, Poland, Italy, Peru, Brazil, Sweden and Hong Kong, before North America picked up the franchise for adaptation. In the Philippines, Sailor Moon was one of its carrier network's main draws, helping it to become the third-biggest network in the country.[82] In 2001, the Sailor Moon manga was Tokyopop's best selling property, outselling the next-best selling titles by at least a factor of 1.5.[83] In Diamond Comic Distributors's May 1999 "Graphic Novel and Trade Paperback" category, Sailor Moon Volume 3 was the best-selling comic book in the United States.[84]

Both the manga editorial video and the anime series were released in Mexico twice in a quite accurate translation by Imevisión—now Azteca. In the United States, a censored version was aired on the Cartoon Network; this was quickly taken off the air because of the lack of viewers compared to the original version. This occurred because a Catholic parents' group concerned about sensitive or controversial topics exerted pressure to take it off the market[where?]. This partially succeeded after the whole series and some of the movies had been aired once.[85]

In his 2007 book Manga: The Complete Guide, Jason Thompson gave the manga series three stars out of four. He enjoyed the blending of shōnen and shōjo styles, and said the combat scenes seemed heavily influenced by Saint Seiya, but shorter and less bloody. He also said the manga itself appeared similar to Super Sentai television shows. Thompson found the series fun and entertaining, but said the repetitive plot lines were a detriment to the title, which the increasing quality of art could not make up for; even so, he called the series "sweet, effective entertainment."[80] Thompson said although the audience for Sailor Moon is both male and female, Takeuchi does not use excessive fanservice for males, which would run the risk of alienating her female audience. Thompson said fight scenes are not physical and "boil down to their purest form of a clash of wills", which he says "makes thematic sense" for the manga.[86]

Comparing the manga and anime, Sylvain Durand said the manga artwork is "gorgeous", but its storytelling is more compressed and erratic and the anime has more character development. Durand said "the sense of tragedy is greater" in the manga's telling of the "fall of the Silver Millennium," giving more detail about the origins of the Shitennou and on Usagi's final battle with Beryl and Metaria. Durand said the anime omits information that makes the story easy to understand, but judges the anime more "coherent" with a better balance of comedy and tragedy, whereas the manga is "more tragic" and focused on Usagi and Mamoru's romance.[87]

For the week of September 11, 2011, to September 17, 2011, the first volume of the re-released Sailor Moon manga was the best-selling manga on the The New York Times Manga Best Sellers list, with the first volume of Codename: Sailor V in second place.[88][89] The first print run of the first volume sold out after four weeks.[90]

The first episode of Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon Crystal earned a viewership of over one million on Niconico during the first two days of streaming it.[91]

Legacy[edit]

The manga and anime series have been cited as reinvigorating the magical girl genre by adding dynamic heroines and action-oriented plots. After its success, many similar magical girl series, including Magic Knight Rayearth, Wedding Peach, Nurse Angel Ririka SOS and Pretty Cure, emerged.[92][93] Sailor Moon has been called "the biggest breakthrough" in English-dubbed anime until 1995, when it premiered on YTV,[82] and "the pinnacle of little kid shōjo anime."[94] Cultural anthropologist Matt Thorn said that soon after Sailor Moon, shōjo manga began to be featured in book shops rather than fandom-dominated comic shops.[95] The series are credited as beginning a wider movement of girls taking up shōjo manga.[80][96][97] Canadian author Gilles Poitras defines a generation of anime fans as those who were introduced to anime by Sailor Moon in the 1990s, saying they were both much younger than other fans and were also mostly female.[93]

Historian Fred Patten credits Takeuchi with popularizing the concept of a Super Sentai-like team of magical girls,[98][99] and Paul Gravett credits the series with revitalizing the magical girl genre itself.[100] A reviewer for Them Anime Reviews also credited the anime series with changing the genre—its heroine must use her powers to fight evil, not simply have fun as previous magical girls had done.[101]

In western culture, Sailor Moon is sometimes associated with the feminist and Girl Power movements and with empowering its viewers,[96] especially regarding the "credible, charismatic and independent" characterizations of the Sailor Soldiers, which were "interpreted in France as an unambiguously feminist position".[102] Although Sailor Moon is regarded as empowering to girls, and feminist in concept through the aggressive nature and strong personalities of the Sailor Soldiers,[103] it is a specific type of feminist concept where "traditional feminine ideals [are] incorporated into characters that act in traditionally male capacities".[103] While the Sailor Soldiers are strong, independent fighters who thwart evil—which is generally a masculine stereotype—they are also ideally feminized through the transformation of the Sailor Soldiers from teenage girls into magical girls, which heavy emphasis on jewelery, make-up and their highly sexualized outfits with cleavage, short skirts and accentuated waists.[11]

The most notable hyper-feminine features of the Sailor Soldiers—and most other females in Japanese girls' comics—are the girls' thin bodies, extremely long legs, and, in particular, round, orb-like eyes.[11] Eyes are commonly known as the primal source within characters where emotion is evoked—sensitive characters have larger eyes than insensitive ones.[103] Male characters generally have smaller eyes that have no sparkle or shine in them like the eyes of the female characters.[103] The stereotypical role of women in Japanese culture is to undertake romantic and loving feelings;[11] therefore, the prevalence of hyper-feminine qualities like the openness of the female eye in Japanese girls' comics is clearly exhibited in Sailor Moon. Thus, Sailor Moon emphasizes a type of feminist model by combining traditional masculine action with traditional female affection and sexuality through the Sailor Soldiers.[103] Its characters have been described as "catty stereotypes", with Sailor Moon's character in particular being singled out as less than feminist.[104]

Sailor Moon has also been compared with Mighty Morphin Power Rangers,[11][105] Buffy the Vampire Slayer[106][107][108] and Sabrina, the Teenage Witch.[109]

James Welker said Sailor Moon's futuristic setting helps to make lesbianism "naturalized" and a peaceful existence. Yukari Fujimoto said although there are few "lesbian scenes" in Sailor Moon, it has become a popular subject for yuri parodic dōjinshi. She cites this to the source work's "cheerful" tone, although she says "though they seem to be overflowing with lesbians, the position of heterosexuals is earnestly secured."[110]

In English-speaking countries, Sailor Moon developed a cult following among anime fans and male university students.[11] Patrick Drazen says the Internet was a new medium that fans used to communicate and played a role in the popularity of Sailor Moon.[106] Fans could use the Internet to communicate about the series, organize campaigns to return Sailor Moon to U.S. broadcast, to share information about episodes that had not yet aired, or to write fan fiction.[104][111] In 2004, one study said there were 3,335,000 websites about Sailor Moon, compared to 491,000 for Mickey Mouse.[112] NEO magazine said part of the series' allure was that fans communicated via the Internet about the differences between the dub and the original version.[113] The Sailor Moon fandom was described in 1997 as being "small and dispersed."[114] In a United States study, twelve children paid rapt attention to the fighting scenes in Sailor Moon, although when asked whether they thought Sailor Moon was violent, only two said yes and the other ten described the episodes as "soft" or "cute."[115]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Takeuchi, Naoko (1994). Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Original Picture Collection vol. I (1st ed.). Japan: Kodansha. p. "Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon" is spelled out in English on the book's front cover. ISBN 4-06-324507-1. 
  2. ^ "美少女戦士セーラームーン新装版(1)". kc.kodansha.co.jp. Kodansha Comics. Retrieved 12 August 2014. 
  3. ^ "美少女戦士セーラームーン 完全版(1)". kc.kodansha.co.jp. Kodansha Comics. Retrieved 12 August 2014. 
  4. ^ a b "美少女戦士セーラームーン DVD‐COLLECTION Vol.1". toei-video.co.jp. Toei Video. Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  5. ^ a b "美少女戦士セーラームーン DVD‐COLLECTION Vol.2(完)". toei-video.co.jp. Toei Video. Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
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