Schiavi di Abruzzo

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Schiavi
Comune
Comune di Schiavi di Abruzzo
Schiavi panorama cropped.jpg
Schiavi is located in Italy
Schiavi
Schiavi
Location of Schiavi in Italy
Coordinates: 41°49′N 14°29′E / 41.817°N 14.483°E / 41.817; 14.483Coordinates: 41°49′N 14°29′E / 41.817°N 14.483°E / 41.817; 14.483
Country Italy
Region Abruzzo
Province Chieti (CH)
Frazioni Badia, Canali di Taverna, Cannavina, Casali, Cupello, Salce, San Martino, San Martino Superiore, Taverna, Valli, Valloni
Government
 • Mayor Luciano Piluso
Area
 • Total 17.4 km2 (6.7 sq mi)
Population (Dec. 2004)
 • Total 1,265
 • Density 73/km2 (190/sq mi)
Demonym Schiavesi
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 66045
Dialing code 0873
Patron saint Saint Maurice
Saint day September 22
Landscape
View from "La Rotonda".
Via Umberto I, one of the main streets.
"Town hall"

Schiavi di Abruzzo is a hill town in the Apennine Mountains, in central part of the Italian Peninsula, in Italy.

It is in the Chieti province, in the southernmost portion of the Abruzzo region, on border with the Molise region.

It is 56 kilometres (35 mi), from the Adriatic Sea, and 225 kilometres (140 mi) from Rome.

It is known for its beautiful panoramic views.

Given its proximity, it has not experienced modern development, and thus it is a well preserved Medieval and Renaissance era town.

Geography[edit]

The historical center of the town is situated at the highest point of a mountain peak, at 1,170 metres (3,840 ft), and there are population centers or administrative divisions in the valleys on three sides of the mountain. Three quarters of the population lives in these surrounding valleys.

Heavy snowfall can occur in winter months.[1]

Language and dialect[edit]

The town populated by Italians and the Italian language is spoken, which is part of the family of Italic languages.

Also prevalent is a historical Italian dialect known as Schiavese.[2] For many centuries there have been different dialects even between towns in the same vicinity.[3] With the advent of television, the dialects have become less prevalent.

Population[edit]

The municipal boundaries cover 17.4 square miles (45 km2). With a population in 2004 of 1,265, the density was 73 persons per square mile.

The population in 1861 was 3,657. As was the case of the rural areas of Southern Italy, the town experienced a mass immigration (Italian diaspora) to North and South America between 1861 and 1914. This immigration lead an abrupt decline of the agricultural economy.

Nonetheless the population peaked in 1961 at 4,526. Since then there has been a steady decline due to residents having sought employment in the Italian cities (mostly Rome), and also throughout Europe.

Religion[edit]

The only church in the town is Roman Catholic, and it has been part of The Diocese of Trivento since about 300 AD.[4] The church building occupies the highest point.

Prior to World War II there was a Waldensian Evangelical Church (AKA Waldensians, congregations originating in the 12th century and thus predating the Protestant Reformation). The Waldensian church building was vacant for many years and as of 2008 became the town library and archives under the auspices of the Archeoclub d'Italia.[5]

History[edit]

From about 600 BC to 290 BC. the region was known as Samnium, home to the Samnites, a group of Sabellic tribes.[6] The first written mention of the town dates back to Middle Ages, in the first half of the 11th century. Also, the name Schavis and Sclavi appeared in the Libro delle decime (tithe book) of 1309 and of 1328.[7] It is commonly known that there was a colony of Slavs that became a fief of Roberto da Sclavo, from which the name of the town was probably derived.

Beginning in 1130 the town was part of the Norman Kingdom of Sicily, which from 1282 to 1816 became known as the Kingdom of Naples. The throne in Naples later passed from the Angevins of France (1285), to the Crown of Aragon of Spain (1494), to the Bourbons of Spain (1714), to Napoleon (1806).

From 1626[8] until 1806[9] the town was also a fief of the Caracciolo di SantoBuono a branch the Caracciolo clan of Naples, and administered from San Buono, a town 34 kilometres (21 mi) away. During the early modern period it was common in southern Italy and throughout Europe for towns to be bought and sold, and often held for many generations by the aristocracy, thus obtaining power to tax and administer local justice, while remaining subject to the monarchy.[10] Castiglione MM, a town adjacent to Schiavi was controlled by the same family.

From 1816–1861 it was part of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies, then becoming part of the Kingdom of Italy

Notable natives[edit]

  • Almerindo Portfolio (1877–1966), treasurer of New York City under Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia, was an immigrant to America in 1900. In 1908 he legally changed his name from Almerindo Porfilio.[11] He rose from a $2-a-week messenger to the presidency of the Bank of Sicily and the head of a cloak & suit concern (which in 1924 he gave to six employees).[12] Portfolio also worked as a newspaper publisher, commodity trader, and investment banker. Between 1917 and 1919 he paid 300,000 Lira ($1.5 million in 2006 US dollars[13]) to install the first electric service for Schiavi, and 50,000 Lira ($255,000 in 2006 US dollars[14]) for water utilities.[15] In 1940 Portfolio was a delegate to the Republican National Convention.[16] In 1945 he was a member of a joint committee of influential Italian Americans promoting Allied status for Italy in World War II.[17] Portfolio died on January 25, 1966 at the age of 88, in Gabriels, in upstate New York, at a tuberculosis cure facility.[18]
  • Auro D'Alba (1888–1965), Poet. See a poem he wrote about Schiavi.[19]

Templi Italici archaeological site[edit]

In the valley 200 metres (660 ft) below the town are the ruins of two temples dating from the period of Classical Antiquity, from about 3 BC, to the height of the Roman Empire. Known as the Templi Italici, referring to the Italic people who were Ancient peoples of Italy of whom the Samnites were a subgroup.

The Schiavi d’Abruzzo archaeological site is located in the Colle della Torre district, at 864 metres above sea level. It stands alongside the country road climbing from the bottom of the Trigno valley to the town. Its panoramic setting dominates the valley below and the Molise mountain chains home to Pietrabbondante. Two parallel temples, built one next to the other but at different times and using different construction techniques, are all that is visible today. They stand in a clearing terraced by a long wall of polygonal e ashlar masonry, comprising the western edge of the sanctuary. Recent exploration work has made it possible to increase our knowledge of the area, thanks to some important new finds: the monumental altar opposite the minor building, an extensive necropolis on the slope to the south-east of the temples, used from the 10th century B.C. to the height of Roman times, therefore partly contemporary with the nearby sanctuary, and another holy site a little further downhill, featuring a small two-room building abandoned shortly after the social war. The two-floor mediaeval tower is also visible today, built behind the polygonal masonry wall of the sanctuary. The area owes its name, Colle della Torre (Tower Hill), to this structure.[20]

The archeological digs have been conducted by the Abruzzo Department of Archaeological Assets. See an overview of the site: Abruzzi Region cultural site (in Italian), and a scientific archaeological description: Beni Archeologici Abruzzo, (in Italian).

Parks[edit]

Purgatorio Park provides a secluded and scenic walk among pine trees.

There is also a small park honoring Saint Padre Pio of Pietrelcina.

Attractions[edit]

A replica of the Grotto of the Madonna of Lourdes is being constructed in the valley just below the town and the Italic Temples. In 1995, town resident Franco Cirulli's wife received a miraculous cure after a pilgrimage to Lourdes. With that Mr. Cirulli received a vision from the Madonna that the grotto of Lourdes be replicated in Schiavi di Abruzzo. An organization was formed to raise funds, and it is supported by the local bishop, and town officials. The effort also has a website, and has received news coverage by the religious press. As of August 2011 the project was about 60% complete.[21]

Surnames[edit]

As witnessed by the World War I and World War II memorial, CIRULLI and FALASCA are the most common last names. Other surnames recorded in the municipality are

AGOSTINI * ALTOBELLI * AMICONE * ANGELILLI * ASPREA * BARILE * BOTTONE * BUCCI * CAMPATI * CAMPATI * CAPELLO * CARISSIMO * CASIGLI * CATALANO * CERVOSI * CESE * CIANCI * CICCHILLITTI * CIVICO * COLANGELO * COLETTA * D'ALONZO * D'AMARIO * D'AMICO * D'ONOFRIO * DAZIO * DE CESARIS * DE SIMONE * DI BELLO * DI CARLO * DI DOMENICA * DI LAZZARO * DI PINTI * DI SALVO * DIPINTI * DONATELLI * FABRIZIO * FALASCA * FANTILLI * FANTILLI DI CARLO * FELICE * FIORITO * FLAMINI * FORTE * FRANCESCHELLI * FRESA * GAGLIARDI * GIOVANNUCCI * GIUPPONE * GIZZI * GRIGUOLO * IACIANCI * LA MANO * LAMANO * LANGIANESE * LATTANZIO * LUCENTE * LUNGO * MANCINI * MASCIOTTA * MASTROSTEFANO * MELCHIORRE * MEO * MONACO * MOSCA * NINNI * NOCERA * ONOFRILLO * PALOMBA * PINTI * PETTI * PICCIONI * PILUSO * PINNELLA * PINTI * PORFILIO * PRIORI * PULSO * SALVATORE * SAVINELLI * SCACCHI * SCHIOPPA * SCIARRA * SEBASTIANO * SERAFINI * SFIRRI * SFORZA * SIGISMONDI * SORGINO * TREDICINA * TREDICINE * TREDICINI * TROIANO * TUCCI * TUNDO * VALENTE * VALENTINO * VECCI * VOLPINI * ZANNA * ZILLI * [22]

Transportation[edit]

There is daily bus service from Rome by "Cerella" that takes about four hours. The bus departs at about 11am from Piazza dell'Indipendenza,[23] a 12 minute walk[24] from the Roma Termini railway station.

By car from Rome, it takes about three hours via the A1 tollroad (Autostrade of Italy) south, in the direction of Naples. After 146 km (60 minutes) and just past Cassino, taking the San Vittore del Lazio exit, and following the signs to Isernia for 36 km (45 minutes) on state SS85. At Isernia, following signs to Vasto, and proceeding 35 km (45 minutes) on state road SS650, to the Schiavi di Abruzzo exit. SS650 is along the Trigno river and is generally at sea level. So from the exit, the road proceeds up the mountain side 13 km (20 minutes) with a 3,800-foot (1,200 m) elevation change. To see road map, click here.[25]

Events[edit]

Patron Saint festival: 22 September: San Maurizio (Saint Maurice).

In September 2008, The relics of St. Maurice were transferred to a new reliquary and rededicated.[26] To see pictures, click here.[27]

Municipal Administration[edit]

Mayor: Piero Paolo Sciarra, Elected 30 June 2004 City Hall Phone Number: 0873 970121

Surrounding Towns[edit]

Agnone (IS), Belmonte del Sannio (IS), Castelguidone, Castiglione Messer Marino, Poggio Sannita (IS), Salcito (CB), Trivento (CB)

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ancient photograph contributed by L. Ninni" Schiavi di Abruzzo page, www.abruzzo2000.com.
  2. ^ A variation of Abruzzese Orientale Adriatico (see Map of Southern Italian Dialects), which is a form of the Neapolitan language group, and a variation of Southern Italian.
  3. ^ There are some towns in the region that have a Croatian influence in the dialect, a South Slavic language. Though this influence does not exist in Schiavi, it reinforces the historical origins of some of the people groups. The Slavic dialects have been preserved since a group of Christian Croats emigrated from Dalmatia, in Croatia, abreast of advancing Ottoman Turks in the period 1453–1566. See Molise Croatian dialect, second paragraph, and Expansion and apogee of the Ottoman Empire
  4. ^ List of Bishops Diocese of Trivento.
  5. ^ Archeoclub d'Italia is an association that promotes cultural and environmental preservation. The association operates through 250 local branches spread throughout the country. www.archeoclubitalia.org
  6. ^ Archaeology of Ancient Samnium, Davide Monaco
  7. ^ History section, Schiavi di Abruzzo page. www.abruzzo2000.com.
  8. ^ Genealogy of the Caracciolo di Santo Buono. Within this link, use ctrl-F to find instances of the word "Schiavi". Control began with (C20) Don Alfonso Caracciolo (1603-1660), the third Prince of Santo Buono and Count of Schiavi, in 1626. Though feudalism was abolished in 1806, the last known pretender of the fief was (L4) Don Marino Caracciolo (1910-1971), 15th Prince of Santo Buono and Count of Capracotta and Schiavi.
  9. ^ Schiavi di Abruzzo, Documenti e Storia, edited by L. Porfilio and P. Falasca, Marino Saolfanelli Publishers, 1994, ISBN 88-7497-621-6. Page 194 describes the abolishment feudalism.
  10. ^ The Continuity of Feudal Power: The Caracciolo Di Brienza in Spanish Naples, Tommaso Astarita, Cambridge University Press (CUP), 1991. This book centers around a different branch of the Caracciolo family involving a set of three small towns similar to Schiavi, located in the Basilicata region, southeast of Naples. Following is a description by the publisher, CUP : The Continuity of Feudal Power is an analytic study of a family of the Neapolitan aristocracy during the early modern period, with particular focus on the time of Spanish rule (1503–1707). The Caracciolo marquis of Brienza were a branch of one of the oldest and most powerful clans in the kingdom of Naples, and they numbered among the hundred wealthiest feudal families throughout the early modern period. Professor Astarita reconstructs the family's patrimony, administration and revenues, the family's relationship with the rural communities over which it had jurisdiction, its marriage and alliance policies, and the relations between the aristocracy and the monarchical government. His emphasis is on the continuing importance of feudal traditions, institutions and values both in the definition of the aristocracy's status and in its success in ensuring the persistence of its wealth and power within the kingdom. The first social history of Naples under Spanish rule • Uses a detailed study of the Caracciolo Marquis of Brienza to examine the lives of the aristocracy and their maintenance of power for three centuries. Contents: 1. The Caracciolo di Brienza; 2. Structure and evolution of an aristocratic patrimony; 3. The management of an aristocratic landed patrimony; 4. The feudal lord and his vassals: between traditional paternalism and change; 5. Aristocratic strategies for the preservation of family wealth; 6. Offices, courts and taxes, the aristocracy and the Spanish rule. Read the "first pages" provided by Amazon by putting cursor over book cover here.
  11. ^ Laws of the State of New York, Volume 2, By New York (State), 1909, Google Books
  12. ^ Radio: Cause, Jul. 10, 1939, www.time.com
  13. ^ Assuming that 300,000 lira in 1918 was equivalent to $47,600, based on a 6.3 lira per dollar exchange rate as reported by The Crisis of Liberal Italy By Douglas J. Forsyth, page 205, at a time when the average family annual income was $1,518 as reported by Economic and demographic indicators, United States, 1918–19, so the sum was 41 times average family annual income, and given that 2006 median family income was $48,800.
  14. ^ Ibid, 5.2 times average family annual income.
  15. ^ Id. Schiavi di Abruzzo, Documenti e Storia, Page 232.
  16. ^ New York Delegation to the 1940 Republican National Convention, www.politicalgraveyard.com
  17. ^ ITALIAN-AMERICANS ORGANIZE TO DEMAND ALLIED STATUS FOR ITALY, CIA Document, www.faqs.org, 4/6/1945
  18. ^ Almerindo Portfolio, 88, Dead; City Treasurer for La Guardia; Immigrant Built Fortune, Then Gave Business to Workers Headed Bank, www.nytimes.com, January 25, 1966
  19. ^ Schiavi di Abruzzo.net retrieved 4-1-09
  20. ^ Beni Archeologici dell'Abruzzo
  21. ^ Project Presentation www.grottadilourdes.com
  22. ^ Surnames in Schiavi di Abruzzo www.surnamesinitaly.com
  23. ^ Street view of Piazza dell'Indipendenza Google Maps.
  24. ^ Route from Termini railway station to Piazza dell'Indipendenza Google Maps.
  25. ^ Route from Rome to Schiavi di Abruzzo Google Maps.
  26. ^ News Story, La cerimonia della Deposizione delle Reliquie di San Maurizio Martire Diocese of Trivento.
  27. ^ Photo Gallery, La cerimonia della Deposizione delle Reliquie di San Maurizio Martire Diocese of Trivento.