The Shemhamphorasch is a corruption of the Hebrew term Shem HaMephorash (שם המפורש) ("the explicit Name [of God]", that is, the full and proper name, and not a filler term or cipher, which are used in conversation and prayer), which was used in tannaitic times to refer to the Tetragrammaton. In early Kabbalah, the term was used to designate sometimes a 72-letter name for God, and sometimes a 42-letter name. Rashi said Shem ha-Mephorash was used for a 42-letter name, but Maimonides thought Shem ha-Mephorash was used only for the four letter Tetragrammaton.
A 216-letter name for God is found in Jewish Kabbalistic sources (mentioned by Tosafot as well as by the Kabbalists) as well as in Christian Kabbalah and in Hermetic Qabalah, derived from the 72 groups of three letters, each of these triplets being the name of an angel or intelligence. Spelling variants include Shemhamforash, Shemhamphorae, Shemhamphorash, Shemahamphorasch, Shemhamphoresh, Shem ha-Mephoresh, Shem ha-Mephorash, Shemhamphoresch, shem hamitfaresh.
History and derivation
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Shemhamphorasch is a corruption of Shem ha-Mephorash (Hebrew: "the explicit name", can also be translated as "interpreted name"). In Jewish texts, however, its primary use is in reference to the Tetragrammaton, the 4-letter name of God which should not be pronounced, or said "explicitly". The name itself is derived from Exodus 14:19-21, three verses each composed of 72 letters; by writing these out in boustrophedon form so that the second line is reversed, and grouping the letters in columns of threes (see table below), the names of 72 angels or intelligences or 72 Names of God are formed. These 72 names are sometimes divided into four groups of eighteen, each group relating to one of the letters of the Tetragrammaton. They may also be combined to form the 216-letter name of God.
- וַיִּסַּע מַלְאַךְ הָאֱלֹהִים הַהֹלֵךְ לִפְנֵי מַחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֵּלֶךְ מֵאַחֲרֵיהֶם וַיִּסַּע עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן מִפְּנֵיהֶם וַיַּעֲמֹד מֵאַחֲרֵיהֶם׃
- And the angel of God, which went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the pillar of the cloud went from before their face, and stood behind them:
- וַיָּבֹא בֵּין ׀ מַחֲנֵה מִצְרַיִם וּבֵין מַחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיְהִי הֶעָנָן וְהַחֹשֶׁךְ וַיָּאֶר אֶת־הַלָּיְלָה וְלֹא־קָרַב זֶה אֶל־זֶה כָּל־הַלָּיְלָה׃
- And it came between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of Israel; and it was a cloud and darkness [to them], but it gave light by night [to these]: so that the one came not near the other all the night.
- וַיֵּט מֹשֶׁה אֶת־יָדֹו עַל־הַיָּם וַיֹּולֶךְ יְהוָה ׀ אֶת־הַיָּם בְּרוּחַ קָדִים עַזָּה כָּל־הַלַּיְלָה וַיָּשֶׂם אֶת־הַיָּם לֶחָרָבָה וַיִּבָּקְעוּ הַמָּיִם׃
- And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the LORD caused the sea to go [back] by a strong east wind all that night, and made the sea dry [land], and the waters were divided.
The arrangement of Hebrew letters (with Roman alphabet transliterations) is as follows:
|Shemhamphorasch: The Divided Name|
|י||ך K||ל L||ה H||ה H||ם M||י I||ה H||ל L||א A||ה H||ך K||א A||ל L||מ M||ע O||ס S||י I||ו V|
|ל L||א A||ק Q||ר R||ב B||ז Z||ה H||א A||ל L||ז Z||ה H||כ K||ל L||ה H||ל L||י I||ל L||ה H|
|י I||ו V||ם M||י I||ה H||ל L||ע O||ו V||ד D||י I||ת Th||א A||ה H||ש Sh||מ M||ט T||י I||ו V|
|ה||מ M||ך K||ל L||י I||ו V||ל L||א A||ר R||ש Sh||י I||ה H||נ N||ח Ch||מ M||י I||נ N||פ P||ל L|
|ן N||ו V||ה H||ח Ch||ש Sh||ך K||ו V||י I||א A||ר R||א A||ת Th||ה H||ל L||י I||ל L||ה H||ו V|
|ד D||ק Q||ח Ch||ו V||ר R||ב B||ם M||י I||ה H||ת Th||א A||ה H||ו V||ה H||י I||ך K||ל L||ו V|
|ו||ן N||נ N||ע O||ה H||ד D||ו V||מ M||ע O||ע O||ס S||י I||ו V||ם M||ה H||י I||ר R||ח Ch||א A|
|י I||נ N||מ M||ח Ch||נ N||ה H||י I||ש Sh||ר R||א A||ל L||ו V||י I||ה H||י I||ה H||ע O||נ N|
|ת Th||א A||ם M||ש Sh||י I||ו V||ה H||ל L||י I||ל L||ה H||ל L||כ K||ה H||ז Z||ע O||ם M||י I|
|ה||ם M||ה H||י I||ר R||ח Ch||א A||מ M||ד D||מ M||ע O||י I||ו V||ם M||ה H||י I||נ N||פ P||מ M|
|ו V||י I||ב B||א A||ב B||י I||ן N||מ M||ח Ch||נ N||ה H||מ M||צ Tz||ר R||י I||ם M||ו V||ב B|
|ם M||י I||מ M||ה H||ו V||ע O||ק Q||ב B||י I||ו V||ה H||ב B||ר R||ח Ch||ל L||ם M||י I||ה H|
- See the Angels and Demons sub-section for the list of names thus derived
According to European magical tradition, King Solomon is said to have evoked seventy-two demons, confined them in a bronze vessel sealed by magic symbols, and obliged them to work for him (this belief is also derived from the Apocryphal work, "The Testament of Solomon", in which demons were brought to Solomon and he forced them to build Solomon's Temple through the use of magic rings). These demons are catalogued in various magical grimoires, most notably in the Lemegeton, which gives descriptions of their powers, appearance and manner, as well as instructions for controlling them.
Based on the opinions of some who seek to find consistency of this association with the Shemhamphorasch, these demons may be sigils based on the reversing of the three lettered names of the angels. Using the reverse names and sigils, one would be able to call on the various demons for various favors which may result in destructive events. It is from this that it is believed Anton LaVey, founder of the Church of Satan, obtained the word mentioned in the section on Satanism below.
The earliest known connection between the Shemhamphorasch and the Tarot was made by Eliphas Levi in his Clefs Majeurs et Clavicules de Salomon, published 20 years after his death in 1875, in which he divides the 72 names into pairs, and attributes each pair to one of the four court cards or ten numbers, or one of the 22 major arcana cards, making a total of 36 pairs.
This was further fleshed out in the Golden Dawn's Book T, which was renamed Liber 78 by Aleister Crowley when he published it in his occult periodical The Equinox. In the system promulgated by the Golden Dawn and Crowley, 36 pairs of angels (or "deacons") are each given rulership of a 10-degree segment of the Zodiac, and to these are mapped the number cards (excluding aces) from the four suits:
|2 Wands||0°–10° ♈||Vaho'el
|5 Wands||0°–10° ♌||Vehuiah
|8 Wands||0°–10° ♐||Nethahiah
|3 Wands||10°–20° ♈||Hachashiah
|6 Wands||10°–20° ♌||Sita'el
|9 Wands||10°–20° ♐||Yeletha'el
|4 Wands||20°–30° ♈||Nen'a'el
|7 Wands||20°–30° ♌||Mahashiah
|10 Wands||20°–30° ♐||Riyiel
|5 Pentacles||0°–10° ♉||Mabehiah
|8 Pentacles||0°–10° ♍||'Aka'iah
|2 Pentacles||0°–10° ♑||Lekaba'el
|6 Pentacles||10°–20° ♉||Nememiah
|9 Pentacles||10°–20° ♍||Hezi'el
|3 Pentacles||10°–20° ♑||Yechoiah
|7 Pentacles||20°–30° ♉||Haracha'el
|10 Pentacles||20°–30° ♍||L'aviah
|4 Pentacles||20°–30° ♑||Kaveqiah
|8 Swords||0°–10° ♊||Vameka'el
|2 Swords||0°–10° ♎||Yezela'el
|5 Swords||0°–10° ♒||'Ani'el
|9 Swords||10°–20° ♊||Aunu'el
|3 Swords||10°–20° ♎||Heri'el
|6 Swords||10°–20° ♒||Reha"u'el
|10 Swords||20°–30° ♊||Damebiah
|4 Swords||20°–30° ♎||La'uiah
|7 Swords||20°–30° ♒||Hahah'el
|2 Cups||0°–10° ♋||'Aia"u'el
|5 Cups||0°–10° ♏||Levoiah
|8 Cups||0°–10° ♓||Vevaliah
|3 Cups||10°–20° ♋||Ra'ah'el
|6 Cups||10°–20° ♏||Nelaka'el
|9 Cups||10°–20° ♓||Sa'eliah
|4 Cups||20°–30° ♋||Haiai'el
|7 Cups||20°–30° ♏||Melah'el
|10 Cups||20°–30° ♓||"Aushaliah
According to William J Meegan, the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel is laid out according to the Shemhamphorasch. Michelangelo's fresco has an architectural design of 24 columns, with two mirrored cherubs on each column, totalling 48 cherub figures. On the 12 triangular spandrels flanking the ceiling borders are an additional 24 nude figures (two mirrored bronze nude figures per triangular spandrel). Together, these may be seen as the 72 angels of God or names of God. Beneath this cycle of angels are 7 prophets and 5 Sibylline oracles, which are patterned after the Zodiac/Calendar year. Beneath that are the 33 ancestors of Christ plus 3 additional symbols denoting the 36 decans of the Zodiac. The Zodiac/Calendar year and the 36 decans coupled with the numerical sequence in the Empyream (nine central panels) on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel denote the spread of the 56 Minor Arcana Tarot Cards.
Members who belong to the Church of Satan sign letters and emails and conduct rituals with the word 'Shemhamforash', although their version of it is different and contains 72 names of demons, not names of angels or God.
The word "Shemhamforash" is spoken during rituals of the Church of Satan as outlined in Anton Szandor LaVey's Satanic Bible. Specifically it is spoken at the end of the invocation for each type of Satanic ritual (Lust, Compassion, and Destruction) as well as after specific requests are read or spoken by the priest of the ceremony.
Angels and demons
Kabbalists and hermeticists have proposed correspondences between the 72 names of the Shemhamphorasch and a wide variety of other things, such as the Psalms, tarot cards, and so on. It is because of the flexibility (and numerical factorability) of the Shemhamphorasch that many ceremonial magicians consider it to be the key of creation of all things and all arts. The names have long been associated with 72 angels, as well as 72 demons (found in the Lemegeton or Lesser Key of Solomon), who according to the lore and legend of grimoires can create or destroy the organization or disorganization of the elements into the creation of material reality.
In the classic Czech movie Císařův pekař a pekařův císař (The Emperor and the Golem), "Shemhamphorash" was mentioned as a Hebrew occult word used to wake the Golem of Rabbi Loew. The word itself was inscribed on a metal ball that was to be inserted in the Golem's forehead in order to gain control over the Golem.
In the movie Pi, mathematical calculations done by the main character result in a 216 digit number that appears to be the Shemhamphorasch, attracting the attention of both a shadowy Wall Street firm who believes it could be used to predetermine stock prices, and a group of Hassidic Jews who believe the number can be used to bring about the Messianic Age.
- "Jewish Encyclopedia, Shem Ha-Meforash". Jewishencyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2013-07-22.
- Cornwell, Jim A. (1995). "The Names of God, from The Alpha and the Omega - Introduction". Mazzaroth.com.
- Mathers, S.L. MacGregor, Crowley, Aleister (Editors - 1904). "The Lesser Key of Solomon". Sacred-texts.com. p. 45-50.
- Levi, Eliphas (1895), Clefs Majeurs et Clavicules de Salomon, Paris: Chacornac Frères, retrieved 19 October 2006.
- Crowley, Aleister, Liber 78: A description of the cards of the Tarot, Retrieved 27 October 2006
- Meegan, William J. (2006). THE SISTINE CHAPEL: A Study in Celestial Cartography (PDF) 3. THE ROSE CROIX JOURNAL.
- LaVey, Anton (1969). The Satanic Bible. New York: Avon Books. pp. 134, 147–152.
- As identified in The Lesser Key of Solomon, "CLASSIFIED LIST OF THE 72 CHIEF SPIRITS OF THE GOETIA, ACCORDING TO RESPECTIVE RANK.". The Lesser Key of Solomon. Retrieved 23 January 2010.