Somaliland Camel Corps
|Somaliland Camel Corps|
|Active||Ealry 20th century - disbanded in 1944 and succeeded by the Somaliland Scouts.|
Second Somaliland expedition
Third Somaliland expedition
Fifth Somaliland expedition
Italian conquest of British Somaliland
East African Campaign
|Hastings Ismay, 1st Baron Ismay
Eric Charles Twelves Wilson
Beginnings and the Dervish State
In 1888, after signing successive treaties with the then ruling Somali Sultans, the British established a protectorate in northern present-day Somalia referred to as British Somaliland. The British immediately recognized the affinity between the Somali people and their camel charges. The "Somaliland Camel Constabulary" was an early attempt to harness this natural affinity militarily.
On 9 August 1913, the "Somaliland Camel Constabulary" suffered a serious defeat at the Battle of Dul Madoba at the hands of the "Mad Mullah." Hassan roamed British Somaliland and had already evaded several attempts to capture him. At Dul Madoba, 57 members of the 110-man unit were killed or wounded. The dead included the British commander, Colonel Richard Corfield.
On 12 March 1914, the British set out to create what was to become the "Somaliland Camel Corps" the better to maintain order in the protectorate, much of which was coextensive with the Warsangali Sultanate's and Dervish State's respective domains. The corps served against the "Mad Mullah", but after a total of four major expeditions to capture him, Hassan remained on the loose. During the same period, the corps set an impressive standard by covering one hundred and fifty miles in seventy-two hours. The camel corps grew to include some 700 mounted riders.
In November 1919, the British launched the fifth and final expedition. In 1920, a combined land and air offensive — which included the Somaliland Camel Corps, the 12 aircraft of the Royal Air Force's Z Force, Somaliland Police, elements from the 2nd (Nyasaland) Battalion and 6th (British Somaliland) Battalion of the King's African Rifles (KAR), and an Indian battalion — defeated Hassan's Dervish army and occupied the capital.
During the period between World War I and World War II, the Somaliland Camel Corps was re-configured better to defend the protectorate in the event of a future war. In 1930, Colonel Arthur Reginald Chater of the Royal Marines was placed in command of a slightly smaller corps of five hundred troopers. Like many other colonial units the Somaliland Camel Corps had British officers. In the late 1930s, the corps was given 900 British pounds to build pillboxes and reserve water tanks. After the financial crisis of 1931, the Somaliland Camel Corps numbered 14 British officers, 400 Somali Askaris, and 150 African Reservists.
World War II
In September 1939, the Somaliland Camel Corps had a total strength of fourteen British officers, one British non-commissioned officer, and 554 non-European (mostly ethnic Somalis) other ranks. Initially, the corps was placed under the garrison commander of French Somaliland. The Somaliland Camel Corps' four companies were split among five different locations in the colony. Only "A" Company retained its camels, while the other companies had become infantry units.
Field Marshal Archibald Wavell, Commander-in-Chief of the Middle East Command, was appalled by the under-equipped force that was supposed to defend an entire colony. In 1940, as a result of his concern, the unit was partially mechanised and further defences were built. However, before the upgrades could be completed, the funds dried up.
At the beginning of the East African Campaign, the Somaliland Camel Corps, bolstered with a battalion of the Northern Rhodesian Regiment, only had a total of one thousand, four hundred and seventy-five men to defend British Somaliland. Reinforcements were eventually sent from Aden in a vain hope to stop the Italian invasion.
During the Italian invasion of British Somaliland, the Somaliland Camel Corps skirmished and screened the attacking force along the border before pulling back to more defensible positions. At Observation Hill, the corps made a formidable stand. One of its officers, Captain Eric Charles Twelves Wilson of the East Surreys, received a Victoria Cross (VC) for his use of a machine gun during the defence. Despite wounds, malaria, and having several guns destroyed from under him, he stayed at his post. Wilson was the only VC recipient during the Italian invasion of British Somaliland; only six other VCs were awarded for operations in East Africa. Wilson was later found alive in an Italian prisoner of war camp.
However, despite a spirited defence, the British were over-matched and withdrew from Berbera on 17 August 1940. With the final withdrawal, most of the troops of the Somaliland Camel Corps were disbanded.
On 16 March 1941, less than one year from the date of withdrawal, the British returned to the colony. Soon afterwards the Somaliland Camel Corps was re-founded. By 18 April, the unit was at about 80% of its former strength. The Camel Corps spent the following months rounding up stray Italians and policing against local bandits.
In 1942, the Somaliland Camel Corps became a mechanized regiment.
On 30 April 1944, six bombers of 621 Squadron, Royal Air Force, attacked and damaged the German submarine U-852, which was under the command of Lieutenant-Captain (Kapitänleutnant) Heinz-Wilhelm Eck. He and 52 members of the crew came ashore, where members of the corps captured them on 13 March and interned them.
For some time there were plans to send the corps to Burma. However, the British disbanded the Somaliland Camel Corps in 1944 after several mutinies had taken place. It was later succeeded by the Somaliland Scouts that same year.
In 1939, on the brink of war, the Somaliland Camel Corps was organized as follows:
- Headquarters and Headquarters Company, The Somaliland Camel Corps: Laferug
- 'A' (Camel) Company: Hargeisa
- 'B' (Nyasa Infantry) Company: Tug Argen
- 'C' Company: Burao
- 'D' Company: Tug Argen (less 2 Platoons at Sheekh)
The troopers of the Somaliland Camel Corps had a distinctive dress which was based on the standard British Army khaki drill, but included a knitted woollen pullover and drill patches on the shoulders. Shorts were worn with woollen socks on puttees and "chaplis", boots or bare feet. Equipment consisted of a leather ammunition bandolier and a leather waist belt. The officers wore pith helmets and khaki drill uniforms. Other ranks wore a "kullah" with "puggree" which ended in a long tail which hung down the back. A "chaplis" is typically a colourful sandal. A "kullah" is a type of cap. A "puggree" is typically a strip of cloth wound around the upper portion of a hat or helmet, particularly a pith helmet, and falling down behind to act as a shade for the back of the neck.
- Arthur Reginald Chater
- Hastings Ismay, 1st Baron Ismay
- Adrian Carton de Wiart
- Henry Anthony Camillo Howard
- Eric Charles Twelves Wilson
- Charles Doughty-Wylie
- Duncan Glasfurd
- David Smiley
- British Somaliland
- Somaliland Scouts
- Bikaner Camel Corps
- Sudan Defence Force
- King's African Rifles
- Camel cavalry
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Somaliland 25. At the University press. p. 383. LCCN 11027773. OL 6536395M.
- Wavell, p.2719
- Time Magazine, Little Dunkirk
- Mollo, p. 138
- Klemen, L (1999-2000). "The U-Boat War in the Indian Ocean". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941-1942.
- http://www.somalilandair.com/2009/06/the-1944-somaliland-camel-corps/[dead link]
- Mollo, p. 139
- Mollo, Andrew; McGregor, Malcolm; Turner, Pierre (1981). The armed forces of World War II : uniforms, insignia, and organization. New York: Crown Publishers. ISBN 0-517-54478-4.
- Wavell, Archibald, Operations in the Somaliland Protectorate, 1939-1940 (Appendix A - G. M. R. Reid and A.R. Godwin-Austen) published in The London Gazette: . 4 June 1946. Retrieved 2009-12-05.
- "Archibald Wavell's Despatch on Operations in the Somaliland Protectorate, 1939-1940 (Appendix A - G. M. R. Reid and A.R. Godwin-Austen).". Supplement to the London Gazette, Number 37594. June 4, 1946. Retrieved December 5, 2009.