A subscription library (also membership library or independent library) is a library that is financed by private funds either from membership fees or endowments. Unlike a public library, access is often restricted to members, but access rights can also given to non-members, such as students.
In the United States the earliest subscription libraries date back to the 18th century, when societies or groups of individuals joined to purchase books for a commonly run library. The Library Company of Philadelphia was the first of these libraries, started in 1731 by Benjamin Franklin.
With the advent of free public libraries in the 19th century most subscription libraries were replaced or taken over.
Subscription libraries, also known as social libraries, share many common factors with circulating libraries, making it difficult to tell them apart from one another because the difference between them is often subjective. Occasionally subscription libraries call themselves 'circulating libraries', and vice versa.
"Many ordinary circulating libraries might call themselves 'subscription' libraries because they charged a subscription, while the earliest private subscription libraries, such as Leeds, Warrington, or Liverpool, describe themselves as 'circulating' libraries in their titles. Since many circulating libraries called themselves after the town where they were situated, it is often difficult to distinguish the type of a particular library, especially since many are only known to posterity from a surviving book label, with nothing but the name as identification".
During the 18th century, many small, private book clubs evolved into subscription libraries, charging high annual fees or requiring subscribing members to purchase shares in the libraries. The materials available to subscribers tended to focus on particular subject areas, such as biography, history, philosophy, theology, and travel, rather than works of fiction, particularly the novel. However, the increasing production and demand for fiction promoted by commercial markets led to the rise of circulating libraries, which met a need that subscription libraries did not fulfil. Circulating libraries also charged subscription fees to users and offered serious subject matter as well as the popular novels, thus the difficulty in clearly distinguishing circulating from subscription libraries.
Subscription libraries were democratic in nature; created by and for communities of local subscribers who aimed to establish permanent collections of books and reading materials, rather than selling their collections annually as the circulating libraries tended to do, in order to raise funds to support their other commercial interests. Subscription libraries initially relied only on the regular subscription fees collected from their subscribers to maintain the premises housing their collection, rather than keeping the collection at the home of one of the members. Even though the subscription libraries were often founded by reading societies, committees, elected by the subscribers, chose books for the collection that were general, rather than aimed at a particular religious, political or professional group. The books selected for the collection were chosen because they would be mutually beneficial to the shareholders. The committee also selected the librarians who would manage the circulation of materials. Those employed to maintain the library collection had little influence on the selection of materials for the collection, as the members who owned the library wanted to maintain their control over the selection process.
Proprietary libraries 
Subscription libraries are also referred to as 'proprietary' libraries due to the expectation that subscribers not only pay an annual fee, but they must also invest in shares in the subscription library. These shares may be transferred by sale, gift or bequest. Many could not afford to purchase shares to become a member of a subscription library, even though they may belong to reading clubs. The exclusive subscription libraries did not meet the needs of all the reading members in the communities, so circulating libraries became a popular alternative.
Learned societies 
In London, numerous scientific dabblers, amateurs, professionals and the resources to pursue these interests, were concentrated into this comparatively small geographic area in England. Monopolizing on this unique development, learned societies were born:
"These societies are voluntary associations of men and women who have come together because they are interested in the aims and objects which the societies serve and they feel that they can pursue those interests better as members of a society, rather than as individuals. The libraries therefore have been collected together for the purpose of serving the objects to which the various societies are dedicated and they do this, for the most part, by serving their members".
Using the guidelines provided by Kelly, learned society libraries are private libraries, but these are owned by larger groups and materials are often lent or borrowed by qualified individuals or institutions outside the society itself. Societies were concerned mainly with the sciences, physical and biological and often cooperated with other groups like the Royal Society. Exclusive subscription libraries, the oldest one in the world being the Chemical Society in London, was founded in 1841 for the general advancement of chemistry. The primary objective of the society was to guide and direct original research in chemistry and to disseminate that knowledge through debates, lectures and its own Journal.
Professional association 
Professional associations often maintain a quality library for use by its members. Some libraries also provide research facilities, and some send materials to members via email, fax or mail.
Commercial circulating libraries 
Commercial circulating libraries originally developed from the lending services of booksellers. William Bathoe claimed that his commercial venture was ‘the Original Circulating library’, opening doors at two locations in London 1737.
"Because circulating libraries usually developed from a specific shop or were founded from the outset at a particular commercial address, the association of place proved particularly important in the reception and reputation of such libraries".
However, in an edition of "Tom Tyler and his Wife" in 1661 the publisher and bookseller Francis Kirkman included a catalogue of 690 plays which he claimed to be ready to lend "upon reasonable considerations" from his premises in Westminster.
In Britain there were more than 200 commercial circulating libraries open in 1800, more than twice the number of subscription and private proprietary libraries that were operating at the same time. Many proprietors pandered to the most fashionable clientele, making much ado about the sort of shop they offered, the lush interiors, plenty of room and long hours of service.
Cuban independent library movement 
Current membership libraries 
United Kingdom 
- 1653: Chetham's Library
- 1680: Innerpeffray Library
- 1704: Thomas Plume's Library
- 1741: The Leadhills Miners' Library
- 1768: Leeds library
- 1788: Linen Hall Library
- 1793: The Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle upon Tyne
- 1793: Westerkirk Parish Library
- 1797: The Athenaeum (Liverpool)
- 1799: Tavistock Subscription Library
- 1800: Langholm Library
- 1806: Portico Library
- 1810: Plymouth Proprietary Library
- 1812: Plymouth Athenaeum Library
- 1813: Devon and Exeter Institution
- 1816: Nottingham Subscription Library
- 1818: Morrab Library
- 1824: Bath Royal Literary and Scientific Institution
- 1824: Ipswich Institute Reading Room and Library
- 1832: Bradford Mechanics' Institute Library
- 1832: Saffron Walden Town Library Society
- 1834: Guildford Institute of the University of Surrey
- 1839: Highgate Literary and Scientific Institution
- 1841: London Library
- 1854: Birmingham and Midland Institute
- 1889: Saint Deiniol's Residential Library
- 1894: Bishopsgate Institute
- 1912: Armitt Library
- 1928: Sybil Campbell Library
United States of America 
- 1731: Library Company of Philadelphia
- 1747: Redwood Library and Athenaeum
- 1748: Charleston Library Society
- 1753: Providence Athenaeum
- 1754: New York Society Library
- 1795: Lexington (Kentucky) Library Society
- 1807: Boston Athenaeum
- 1810: Salem Athenaeum
- 1814: Athenaeum of Philadelphia
- 1816: New Orleans Library Society
- 1817: Portsmouth Athenaeum
- 1820: General Society Library of New York City
- 1820: Maine Charitable Mechanic Association Library of Portland
- 1820: Mercantile Library of New York City
Milford Mystery Library (Milford, Ohio)
- 1826: The Institute Library (New Haven)
- 1835: Mercantile Library of Cincinnati
- 1846: St. Louis Mercantile Library Association
- 1855: San Francisco Mechanics' Institute
- 1890: Lanier Library Association (Lanier Library of North Carolina)
- 1899: Athenaeum Music & Arts Library of La Jolla
- 1999: John Trigg Ester Library
Republic of Ireland 
- 1922: Central Catholic Library
See also 
- Manley, K.A. "Booksellers, peruke-makers, and rabbit-merchants: the growth of circulating libraries in the eighteenth century." Libraries and the Book Trade: The formation of collections from the sixteenth to the twentieth century. Ed. Myers. New Castle, Delaware: Oak Knoll Press, 2000, p. 39.
- Eliot, Simon. "Circulating libraries in the Victorian age and after." The Cambridge History Of Libraries In Britain And Ireland. 3 vols. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006, p. 125-126.
- Forster, Geoffrey, and Alan Bell. "The subscription libraries and their members." The Cambridge History Of Libraries In Britain And Ireland. 3 vols. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006, p. 147-148.
- Vernon, K. D. C. "Learned Society Libraries." The Libraries of London; ed. Irwin. London: The Library Association, 1961, p. 242.
- Raven, James. "Libraries for sociability: the advance of subscription library." The Cambridge History Of Libraries In Britain And Ireland. 3 vols. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006, p. 251.
- "Independent library movement risks wrath of government in Cuba".