Summits of the Americas

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Summits of the Americas

The Summits of the Americas (SOA) is a series of international summit meetings bringing together the leaders of countries in North America, Central America, South America and the Caribbean; however, no representative from Cuba has participated.[1] The meetings provide an opportunity for discussions about a variety of issues and topics.

The summits have been organized by a number of multilateral bodies led by the Organization of American States.

In the early 1990s, what were formerly ad hoc summits came to be institutionalized into a regular "Summit of the Americas" based on the principles of democracy and free trade.[2]

Summits of the Americas[edit]

Year # Dates Country City Host leader
1994 [3] 1st December 9–11 United States United States[4] Miami Bill Clinton
1998 2nd April 18–19 Chile Chile[5] Santiago Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle
2001 3rd April 20–22 Canada Canada[6] Quebec City Jean Chrétien
2005 4th November 4–5 Argentina Argentina[7] Mar del Plata Néstor Kirchner
2009 5th April 17–19 Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago[8] Port-of-Spain Patrick Manning
2012 6th April 14–15 Colombia Colombia[9] Cartagena Juan Manuel Santos Calderón
2015 7th April 10–11 Panama Panama[10] Panama City Juan Carlos Varela
2018 8th TBD Suriname Suriname[11] TBD TBD

The summits that garnered most general public and media attention were the Quebec City and Mar del Plata events, both of which provoked very large anti-globalization and anti–Free Trade Area of the Americas protests and attendant police response.

Membership and adhesions[edit]

All 35 independent nations of the Americas are members of the OAS. Upon foundation on 5 May 1948, there were 21 members:

The later expansion of the OAS included Canada and the newly independent nations of the Caribbean. Members with later admission dates (sorted chronologically):

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Suspended between 1962–2009.[12] See Status of Cuba below.
  2. ^ Suspended between 2009-2011.[13] See Suspension of Honduras below.

Non-members[edit]

The following is a list non-members of the OAS as they are dependencies of other nations. They are grouped under the states that control them.

 Denmark


 France

 United Kingdom

 Netherlands


 United States



Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Prieto, Alfredo. "Everybody But Cuba," Havana Times. April 15, 2009.
  2. ^ Twaddle, Andrew C. (2002). Health Care Reform Around the World, p. 382.
  3. ^ Florida International University, Summit of the Americas Center (SOAC): Summits list
  4. ^ Summit Americas: I summit (1st)
  5. ^ Summit Americas: II summit (2nd)
  6. ^ Summit Americas: III summit (3rd)
  7. ^ Summit Americas: IV summit (4th)
  8. ^ Summit Americas: V summit (5th)
  9. ^ Summit Americas: VI summit (6th)
  10. ^ Summit Americas: VII summit (7th)
  11. ^ Summit Americas: VIII summit (8th)
  12. ^ "Member States". OAS. Retrieved 2012-11-01. 
  13. ^ "OAS readmits Honduras to its ranks". CNN. 2011-06-01. Retrieved 2012-11-01. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]