Summits of the Americas
|Summits of the Americas|
The Summits of the Americas (SOA) is a series of international summit meetings bringing together the leaders of countries in North America, Central America, South America and the Caribbean; however, no representative from Cuba has participated. The meetings provide an opportunity for discussions about a variety of issues and topics.
The summits have been organized by a number of multilateral bodies led by the Organization of American States.
In the early 1990s, what were formerly ad hoc summits came to be institutionalized into a regular "Summit of the Americas" based on the principles of democracy and free trade.
Summits of the Americas
|1994 ||1st||December 9–11||United States||Miami||Bill Clinton|
|1998||2nd||April 18–19||Chile||Santiago||Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle|
|2001||3rd||April 20–22||Canada||Quebec City||Jean Chrétien|
|2005||4th||November 4–5||Argentina||Mar del Plata||Néstor Kirchner|
|2009||5th||April 17–19||Trinidad and Tobago||Port-of-Spain||Patrick Manning|
|2012||6th||April 14–15||Colombia||Cartagena||Juan Manuel Santos Calderón|
|2015||7th||April 10–11||Panama||Panama City||Juan Carlos Varela|
The summits that garnered most general public and media attention were the Quebec City and Mar del Plata events, both of which provoked very large anti-globalization and anti–Free Trade Area of the Americas protests and attendant police response.
Membership and adhesions
All 35 independent nations of the Americas are members of the OAS:
The following is a list non-members of the OAS as they are dependencies of other nations. They are grouped under the states that control them.
- Prieto, Alfredo. "Everybody But Cuba," Havana Times. April 15, 2009.
- Twaddle, Andrew C. (2002). Health Care Reform Around the World, p. 382.
- Florida International University, Summit of the Americas Center (SOAC): Summits list
- Summit Americas: I summit (1st)
- Summit Americas: II summit (2nd)
- Summit Americas: III summit (3rd)
- Summit Americas: IV summit (4th)
- Summit Americas: V summit (5th)
- Summit Americas: VI summit (6th)
- Summit Americas: VII summit (7th)
- Summit Americas: VIII summit (8th)
- Twaddle, Andrew C. (2002). Health Care Reform Around the World. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing. 10-ISBN 0-86569-288-2; 13-ISBN 978-0-86569-288-6; OCLC 48132063
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Summits of the Americas.|
- Summits of the Americas
- The Fifth Summit of The Americas
- Summits of the Americas Follow-up System (SISCA)
- Follow-up and Implementation of Summits
- Summits Virtual community (SVC)