Tax shield

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A tax shield is the reduction in income taxes that results from taking an allowable deduction from taxable income.[1] For example, because interest on debt is a tax-deductible expense, taking on debt creates a tax shield.[1] Since a tax shield is a way to save cash flows, it increases the value of the business, and it is an important aspect of business valuation.

Example[edit]

Case A[edit]

Consider one unit of investment that costs $1,000 and returns $1,100 at the end of year 1, i.e. a 10% return on investment before taxes. Now assume tax rate of 20%. If an investor pays $1,000 of capital, at the end of the year, he will have ($1,000 return of capital, $100 income and –$20 tax) $1,080. He earned net income of $80, or 8% return on capital. The concept was originally added to the methodology proposed by Merton Miller for the calculation of the weighted average cost of capital of a corporation.

Case B[edit]

Consider the investor has an option to borrow $4,000 at 8% interest rate (same rate of return on capital as in Case A). By borrowing $4,000 in addition to the $1,000 of his initial equity capital, the investor can purchase 5 units of investment. At the end of the year, he will have: ($5,000 return of capital, –$4,000 repayment of debt, $500 revenue, –$320 interest payment, and $(500-320)*20%= $36 tax). Therefore, he is left with $1,144. He earned net income $144, or 14.4%.

The reason that he was able to earn additional income is because the cost of debt (i.e. 8%) is less than the return earned on the investment (i.e. 10%). The 2% difference makes income of $80 and another $100 is made by the return on equity capital. Total income becomes $180 which becomes taxable at 20%.

Value of the Tax Shield[edit]

In most business valuation scenarios, it is assumed that the business will continue forever. Under this assumption, the value of the tax shield is: (interest bearing debt) x (tax rate).

Using the above examples:

  • Assume Case A brings $80 after-tax income per year, forever.
  • Assume Case B brings $144 after-tax income per year, forever.
  • Value of firm = after-tax income / (return of capital), therefore
  • Value of firm in Case A: $80/0.08 = $1,000
  • Value of firm in Case B: $144/0.08 = $1,800
  • Increase in firm value due to borrowing: $1,800 – $1,000 = $800
  • Alternatively, debt x tax rate: $4,000 x 20% = $800;

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Kemsley, Deen; Nissim, Doron (October 2002). "Valuation of the Debt Tax Shield". The Journal of Finance 57 (5): 2045–2073. doi:10.1111/0022-1082.00488. Retrieved 25 March 2013. 

External links[edit]