Texas horned lizard
|Texas horned lizard|
Agama cornuta Harlan, 1825
The Texas horned lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum) is one of about 14 North American species of spikey-bodied reptiles called horned lizards. P. cornutum ranges from Colorado and Kansas to northern Mexico (in the Sonoran desert), and from southeastern Arizona to Texas. There are also isolated, introduced populations in the Carolinas, Georgia, and northern Florida. Texas horned lizards may be native to Louisiana and Arkansas.
The horned lizard is popularly called a "horned toad", "horny toad", or "horned frog", but it is neither a toad nor a frog. The popular names come from the lizard's rounded body and blunt snout, which give it a decidedly toad- or frog-like appearance. Phrynosoma literally means "toad-bodied," and cornutum means "horned". The lizard's horns are extensions of its cranium and contain true bone.
The Texas horned lizard is the largest-bodied and most widely distributed of the approximately 14 species of horned lizards in the western United States and Mexico. The length of an average Texas horned lizard is 69 mm (2.7 in) snout-vent length, however the upper boundary for males is 94 mm (3.7 in) and for females it is 114 mm (4.5 in).
Defensive behavior 
Although its coloration generally serves as camouflage against predation, when threatened by a predator, a horned lizard will puff up its body to cause its spiny scales to protrude, making it difficult to swallow. The Texas horned lizard, along with at least three other species of the genus Chromosomal, also has the ability to squirt an aimed stream of blood from the corners of the eyes and sometimes from its mouth for a distance of up to 5 ft (1.5 m). This not only confuses would-be predators, but also the blood is mixed with a chemical that is foul-tasting to canine predators such as wolves, coyotes, and domestic dogs.
Diet and decline 
About 70% of the Texas horned lizard's diet is made up of harvester ants, though they supplement these with termites, beetles, and grasshoppers. In recent years, the Texas horned lizard has declined by about 30% of its range, though there is some indication it may be making a comeback. The decline is usually blamed on overuse of pesticides and the spread of nonnative, but highly aggressive and fiercely territorial, red imported fire ants. Both eradicate harvester ant colonies, destroying the horned lizard's principal source of food. The Texas horned lizard is now a protected species, and it is illegal to take, possess, transport or sell them without a special permit.
In Native American religion and art 
In popular culture 
Current research 
Horned lizards are primarily studied by researchers at TCU and the nearby Fort Worth Zoo, with raw data and fieldwork done by state employees. Further research toward the preservation of horned lizards is funded by sale of horned lizard "Keep Texas Wild" license plates.
Despite its fierce appearance, Texas horny lizards are extremely docile creatures. Since they have very few natural predators, they are not at all aggressive, and will never bite. Captured horned lizards will lie completely limp in a human's hand or pocket, playing dead, so they made excellent pets before they were threatened. Today, it is illegal to disturb or keep a horned lizard without a state permit.
The Texas horned lizard is a sunbather, and requires bright sunlight to produce vitamin D. Deprived of sunlight, the animal will be unable to produce vitamin D and will suffer from vitamin deficiency. For this reason horned lizards are most often found along the side of roads or other open, rocky areas, where they can lounge and take in sunlight.
At night, the lizard buries itself in sand.
Otherwise, horned lizards are most often found near harvester ant hills. Although they prefer to move very little, horned lizards can move quite fast if they feel there is a predator in the area, and will dart into thick grass and foliage to escape. Horned lizards are also excellent diggers, and can quickly burrow underground to escape threats.
Genetic biodiversity 
Research aimed at preservation has revealed the Texas horned lizard is extremely genetically diverse, and isolated pockets of genetically distinct subspecies have been found throughout Texas. Though each of these subspecies is physically identical to all other subspecies, it is likely that they are specifically adapted for the region in which they are found. This makes it difficult to know how one subspecies would survive if it were reintroduced into a new area.
The most numerous and widespread subspecies of Texas horned lizard is found in the Panhandle region of Texas. Other distinct subspecies have been identified in East Texas, the Hill Country, and along the coastline. It is not known whether these subspecies can reproduce with one another over the long term, making preservation of all of the subspecies even more crucial to the animals' preservation. It is also unknown whether any of these subspecies will show a particular resistance to the pesticides and fire ants threatening them.
Life cycle 
Horned lizards lay eggs, and are born in much the same way as some sea turtles. When it is time for a female horned lizard to lay her eggs, she will dig a hole and deposit them underground. When the eggs hatch, the new horned lizards will emerge and dig themselves out.
Horned lizards also burrow under the ground during the winter months, when they hibernate.
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- "Texas Horned Lizard". Lizards of Georgia and South Carolina. University of Georgia. Retrieved 2009-06-27.
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- "Texas Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum)". Herps of Arkansas. Retrieved 2009-06-27.
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- Munger, James C. (1984). "Home ranges of horned lizards (Phrynosoma): circumscribed and exclusive?". Oecologia 62 (3): 351–360. doi:10.1007/BF00384267. JSTOR 4217328.
- "Texas State Symbols". Texas States Library and Archives Commission. Retrieved 2009-06-27.
- Gibson Roach, Joyce (March 2001). "Horned Frog defined". TCU Magazine (Texas Christian University).
- John F Breen, "Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians." T.F.H.