"The Lottery" is a short story by Shirley Jackson, first published in the June 26, 1948 issue of The New Yorker. Written the same month it was published, it is ranked today as "one of the most famous short stories in the history of American literature". It has been described as "a chilling tale of conformity gone mad."
Response to the story was negative, surprising Jackson and The New Yorker. Readers canceled subscriptions and sent hate mail throughout the summer. The story was banned in the Union of South Africa. Since then, it has been accepted as a classic American short story, subject to critical interpretations and media adaptations, and it has been taught in middle schools and high schools for decades since its publication.
Characters and story
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Details of contemporary small town American life are contrasted with an annual ritual known as "the lottery." In a small village of about 300 residents, the locals are in an excited yet nervous mood on June 27. Children gather stones as the adult townsfolk assemble for their annual event, that in the local tradition is practiced to ensure a good harvest (one character quotes an old proverb: "Lottery in June, corn be heavy soon"), though there are some rumors that nearby communities are talking of "giving up the lottery."
In the first round of the lottery, the head of each family draws a small slip of paper from a black box; Bill Hutchinson gets the one slip with a black spot, meaning that his family has been chosen. In the next round, each Hutchinson family member draws a slip, and Bill's wife Tessie gets the marked slip. In keeping with tradition, each villager obtains a stone and begins to surround Tessie. The story ends as Tessie is stoned to death while she bemoans the unfairness of the situation.
The lottery preparations start the night before with Mr. Summers and Mr. Graves making the paper slips and the list of all the families. Once the slips are finished, they are put into a black box, which is stored overnight in a safe at the coal company. The next morning the townspeople start close to 10 a.m. in order to have everything done in time for lunch. First, the heads of the households draw slips until every head of household has a slip. The second round is for the family members to draw. For the first round, the men have to be over sixteen years of age, however in the second round everyone is eligible, no matter their age. After the drawing is over and the person is picked, the slips are allowed to fly off into the wind, after the Hutchinson's family draws the tickets.
Many readers demanded an explanation of the situation in the story, and a month after the initial publication, Shirley Jackson responded in the San Francisco Chronicle (July 22, 1948):
Explaining just what I had hoped the story to say is very difficult. I suppose, I hoped, by setting a particularly brutal ancient rite in the present and in my own village to shock the story's readers with a graphic dramatization of the pointless violence and general inhumanity in their own lives.
Jackson lived in North Bennington, Vermont, and her comment reveals that she had Bennington in mind when she wrote "The Lottery." In a 1960 lecture (printed in her 1968 collection, Come Along with Me), Jackson recalled the hate mail she received in 1948:
One of the most terrifying aspects of publishing stories and books is the realization that they are going to be read, and read by strangers. I had never fully realized this before, although I had of course in my imagination dwelt lovingly upon the thought of the millions and millions of people who were going to be uplifted and enriched and delighted by the stories I wrote. It had simply never occurred to me that these millions and millions of people might be so far from being uplifted that they would sit down and write me letters I was downright scared to open; of the three-hundred-odd letters that I received that summer I can count only thirteen that spoke kindly to me, and they were mostly from friends. Even my mother scolded me: "Dad and I did not care at all for your story in The New Yorker," she wrote sternly; "it does seem, dear, that this gloomy kind of story is what all you young people think about these days. Why don't you write something to cheer people up?"
The New Yorker kept no records of the phone calls, but letters addressed to Jackson were forwarded to her. That summer she regularly took home 10 to 12 forwarded letters each day. She also received weekly packages from The New Yorker containing letters and questions addressed to the magazine or editor Harold Ross, plus carbon copies of the magazine's responses mailed to letter writers.
Curiously, there are three main themes which dominate the letters of that first summer—three themes which might be identified as bewilderment, speculation and plain old-fashioned abuse. In the years since then, during which the story has been anthologized, dramatized, televised, and even—in one completely mystifying transformation—made into a ballet, the tenor of letters I receive has changed. I am addressed more politely, as a rule, and the letters largely confine themselves to questions like what does this story mean? The general tone of the early letters, however, was a kind of wide-eyed, shocked innocence. People at first were not so much concerned with what the story meant; what they wanted to know was where these lotteries were held, and whether they could go there and watch.
Helen E. Nebeker's essay, "'The Lottery': Symbolic Tour de Force," in American Literature (March, 1974), claims that every major name in the story has a special significance.
By the end of the first two paragraphs, Jackson has carefully indicated the season, time of ancient excess and sacrifice, and the stones, most ancient of sacrificial weapons. She has also hinted at larger meanings through name symbolism. "Martin", Bobby’s surname, derives from a Middle English word signifying ape or monkey. This, juxtaposed with "Harry Jones" (in all its commonness) and "Dickie Delacroix" (of-the-Cross) urges us to an awareness of the Hairy Ape within us all, veneered by a Christianity as perverted as "Delacroix," vulgarized to "Dellacroy" by the villagers. Horribly, at the end of the story, it will be Mrs. Delacroix, warm and friendly in her natural state, who will select a stone "so large she had to pick it up with both hands" and will encourage her friends to follow suit ... "Mr. Adams," at once progenitor and martyr in the Judeo-Christian myth of man, stands with "Mrs. Graves"—the ultimate refuge or escape of all mankind—in the forefront of the crowd.
Fritz Oehlshlaeger, in "The Stoning of Mistress Hutchinson Meaning of Context in 'The Lottery'" (Essays in Literature, 1988), wrote:
The name of Jackson's victim links her to Anne Hutchinson, whose Antinomian beliefs, found to be heretical by the Puritan hierarchy, resulted in her banishment from Massachusetts in 1638. While Tessie Hutchinson is no spiritual rebel, to be sure, Jackson's allusion to Anne Hutchinson reinforces her suggestions of a rebellion lurking within the women of her imaginary village. Since Tessie Hutchinson is the protagonist of "The Lottery," there is every indication that her name is indeed an allusion to Anne Hutchinson, the American religious dissenter. She was excommunicated despite an unfair trial, while Tessie questions the tradition and correctness of the lottery as well as her humble status as a wife. It might as well be this insubordination that leads to her selection by the lottery and stoning by the angry mob of villagers.
The 1992 episode of The Simpsons, "Dog of Death", features a scene referencing "The Lottery". During the peak of the lottery fever in Springfield, news anchor Kent Brockman announces on television that people hoping to get tips on how to win the jackpot have borrowed every available copy of Shirley Jackson's book The Lottery at the local library. One of them is Homer, who throws the book into the fireplace after Brockman reveals that, "Of course, the book does not contain any hints on how to win the lottery. It is, rather, a chilling tale of conformity gone mad." In her book Shirley Jackson: Essays on the Literary Legacy, Bernice Murphy comments that this scene displays some of the most contradictory things about Jackson: "It says a lot about the visibility of Jackson's most notorious tale that more than 50 years after its initial creation it is still famous enough to warrant a mention in the world's most famous sitcom. The fact that Springfield's citizenry also miss the point of Jackson's story completely [...] can perhaps be seen as an indication of a more general misrepresentation of Jackson and her work."
In addition to numerous reprints in magazines, anthologies and textbooks, "The Lottery" has been adapted for radio, live television, a 1953 ballet, films in 1969 and 1997, a TV movie, an opera, and a one-act play by Thomas Martin.
1951 radio version
NBC's radio adaptation was broadcast March 14, 1951, as an episode of the anthology series NBC Presents: Short Story. Writer Ernest Kinoy expanded the plot to include scenes at various characters' homes before the lottery and a conversation between Bill and Tessie Hutchinson (Bill suggests leaving town before the lottery happens, but Tessie refuses because she wants to go shopping at Floyd Summers's store after the lottery is over). Kinoy also deleted characters, including two of the Hutchinsons' three children, and added at least one character, John Gunderson, a schoolteacher who publicly objects to the lottery being held, and at first refuses to draw. Finally, Kinoy included an ending scene describing the townspeople's post-lottery activities, and an afterword in which the narrator suggested, "Next year, maybe there won't be a Lottery. It's up to all of us. Chances are, there will be, though." The production was directed by Andrew C. Love. Cast members included Charles Seel, Gail Bonney, Irene Tedrow, Jack Nessler, James Nusser, Jeff Corey, Jeffrey Silver, John McGovern, Louise Lorimer, Steven Chase, and Margaret Brayton. Music was by Morris King. Don Stanley was the announcer.
Larry Yust's short film, The Lottery (1969), produced as part of Encyclopædia Britannica's 'Short Story Showcase' series, was ranked by the Academic Film Archive "as one of the two bestselling educational films ever." It has an accompanying ten-minute commentary film, Discussion of "The Lottery" by University of Southern California English professor Dr. James Durbin. Featuring the film debut of Ed Begley, Jr., Yust's adaptation has an atmosphere of naturalism and small town authenticity with its shots of pick-up trucks and townspeople in Fellows, California.
1996 TV film
Anthony Spinner's feature-length TV film, The Lottery, which premiered September 29, 1996, on NBC, is a sequel loosely based on the original Shirley Jackson story. In Spinner's account, the annual lottery is held for religious reasons. Davey Hutchinson, now known as Jason Smith, has moved to Boston, but keeps having flashbacks to and nightmares about the death of his mother. His father (Bill Hutchinson, known as Albert Smith here) is now dying in a mental hospital, and asks his son to pour his ashes on his mother's grave in the town. Davey/Jason goes to the town, but is lied to by the townspeople and told that neither he nor his mother are from the town. He eventually learns that he is not only from the town, but participated in the stoning death of his mother when he was six years old. Smith challenges the town by fleeing and then returning with investigators. However, because the town has "plants" in the outside world, he is unable to expose their traditions. He winds up in a mental hospital being watched over by the same doctor his father had.
Director Daniel Sackheim filmed in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, with a cast that included Keri Russell, Dan Cortese, Veronica Cartwright, Sean Murray, Jeff Corey, Salome Jens, and M. Emmet Walsh. It was nominated for a 1997 Saturn Award for Best Single Genre Television Presentation.
References in other works
In the June 24, 2007 (S01E04) TV episode of Army Wives, Denise makes a reference to the author and story when explaining to Claudia how she feels while they wait to hear if Denise's husband is dead or alive after a Black Hawk helicopter crash in Iraq.
The video game in the Fallout series, Fallout: New Vegas has a large reference on the story, with a town holding a lottery under the control of Caesar's army. Unlike in the story, everybody who does not 'win' the lottery is killed, with the winner being allowed to go free. The character Boxcars is given second place in the lottery and has his legs broken as a consolation prize.
The point and click graphic adventure game I Have No Mouth, and I Must Scream also leans heavily on the story for one of the five psychodrama (Pillar of Hate) levels, in which the deformed and stunted Benny finds himself in a strange stone-age village setting, where the villagers hold a lottery to choose sacrifices to AM, the demented and sadistic supercomputer which has taken over the world and underworld alike. Through conversation we learn that "one is sacrificed so AM does not hurt all".
The 2010 Squidbillies episode "Double Truckin' on the Tricky Two", villain Dan Halen threatens the main character and his family with a reference to the story, and is then genuinely baffled when he finds that none of them have ever heard of it. He then sits them down and reads the entirety of the story out loud.
Marilyn Manson's music video for song Man That You Fear is loosely based on the story. Manson portrays a man who is condemned to die. He is "chosen" by a blindfolded child who spins around pointing her finger. When she stops spinning, she removed the blindfold and sees the trailer home that she is pointing to — the home of the condemned. The video features all events of his last day on earth, leading up to his death by stoning in an isolated location of the desert.
From Autumn to Ashes's music video for the song "Pioneers" is also loosely based on the story of The Lottery. In the video, it takes place in a factory which holds a ritual similar to that of the ritual in the The Lottery, the workers must take numbers from a black box, but instead of a black stain it is the number 19. The main character of the video receives the number 19, is ultimately sacrificed in the end of the video.
The South Park episode "Britney's New Look" (season 12, episode 2; episode 169 overall) portrays the town as ensuring its food supply (and, allegorically, American popular culture as obtaining sustenance) by sacrificing young celebrities through a cycle of attention and exploitation that eventually lead them into self-destruction. Specific references to the original work include the use of "Lottery in June, corn be heavy soon" as a phrasal and syntactic template for "Sacrifice in March, corn have plenty starch."
- Shirley Jackson (26 June 1948). "Fiction: "The Cheating game" (abstract of story)". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2008-05-22.
- Harris, Laurie Lantzen (1999). ''Biography Today'' Volume three. Salem Omnigraphics. ISBN 9780780804029. Retrieved 2012-06-26.
- M. Murphy, Bernice (2005). "Introduction: "Do You Know Who I Am?" Reconsidering Shirley Jackson". Shirley Jackson: Essays on the Literary Legacy. McFarland & Company. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-7864-2312-5. Retrieved 2009-09-20.
- Jackson, Shirley. Come Along with Me, 1968.
- Hyman, Stanley Edgar. "Introduction", Just an Ordinary Day. Bantam, 1995.
- Goldin, J. David. "Radio Goldindex". NBC Short Story. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- "NBC Short Story". The Lottery. The Generic Radio Workshop Vintage Radio Script Library. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- "NBC Short Story" (audio). "The Lottery". Matinee Classics. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) entry, as accessed May 9, 2010.
- Oppenheimer, Judy (1988), Private Demons: The Life of Shirley Jackson, New York: Putnam, ISBN 0-399-13356-9.
- Detailed plot summary of "The Lottery"
- Salon: Jonathan Lethem: "Monstrous Acts and Little Murders"
- The Lottery study guide and teaching guide – analysis, themes, quotes, multimedia for students and teachers
- The New Yorker podcast: A. M. Homes discusses and reads "The Lottery"
- NBC Short Story: "The Lottery" (March 14, 1951)
- "The Lottery" read by Maureen Stapleton
- 1988 interview with Judy Oppenheimer