The X-Files (season 8)
|The X-Files (season 8)|
Region 1 DVD cover
|Country of origin||United States|
|No. of episodes||21|
|Original run||November 5, 2000– May 20, 2001|
|Home video release|
|Region 1||November 4, 2003|
|Region 2||March 14, 2004|
|Region 4||April 14, 2004|
The eighth season of the American science fiction television series The X-Files commenced airing in the United States on November 5, 2000, concluded on May 20, 2001, and consisted of twenty-one episodes. Season eight takes place after Fox Mulder's alien abduction in the seventh season. The story arc for the search of Mulder continues until the second half of the season, when a new arc about Dana Scully's pregnancy is formed. This arc would continue, and end, with the next season. The season explores various themes such as life, death, and belief.
Season eight was received well by critics but got more mixed reviews by fans and viewers, since David Duchovny elected to return only as an intermittent main character, meaning that he appeared in only half of the episodes. Duchovny was initially replaced by Robert Patrick who played new central character John Doggett. Duchovny appeared for only twelve episodes in season eight, and reduced his time on The X-Files dramatically in season 9. "This Is Not Happening" marked the first appearance of Annabeth Gish as Monica Reyes, who would become a main character in season 9 as Doggett's new partner in the X-Files office.
Series creator Chris Carter believed that the series could continue for another ten years with new leads, and the opening credits were accordingly redesigned in both seasons eight and nine. During the airing of season eight, Carter and The X-Files production team created and aired a spinoff titled The Lone Gunmen.
Dana Scully meets Special Agent John Doggett, the leader of an FBI taskforce organized to conduct a search for Fox Mulder. Although the search ultimately proves unsuccessful, Doggett is assigned to the X-Files and works with Scully to look for explanations to several cases. When Scully learns that several women have reportedly been abducted and impregnated with alien babies, she begins to question her own pregnancy and fears for her unborn child.
Doggett introduces Scully to Special Agent Monica Reyes, an FBI specialist in ritualistic crime, shortly before Mulder's deceased body suddenly appears in a forest at night. Following Mulder's funeral, Assistant Director Walter Skinner is threatened by Alex Krycek that he must kill Scully's baby before it is born. Billy Miles, a multiple abductee who disappeared on the same night as Mulder, is returned deceased but his dead body is resurrected and restored to full health. Mulder also returns from death, with Scully supervising his recovery. Fully rejuvenated, Mulder investigates several X-Files, against orders to do so, but soon gets fired, leaving Doggett in charge of the cases. Mulder continues to provide input in an unofficial capacity. With Scully on maternity leave, Doggett is assigned a new partner, an inexperienced agent who is obsessed with the X-Files, but the relationship is only temporary.
Reluctantly accepting Krycek's assistance, Mulder, Doggett and Skinner learn that an alien virus recently created in secret by members of the United States government have replaced several humans, including Miles and several high-ranking FBI personnel, with so-called alien "Super Soldiers". Krycek claims that the soldiers are virtually unstoppable aliens who want to make sure that humans will not survive the colonisation of Earth. They have learned that Scully's baby is a miraculously special child and are afraid that it may be greater than them. They have only recently learned of the baby's importance, which is why Krycek told Skinner to kill the unborn child earlier. When Miles arrives at the FBI Headquarters, Mulder, Doggett, Skinner and Krycek help Scully to escape along with Reyes who drives her to a remote farm. Shortly after Skinner kills Krycek, Scully delivers an apparently normal baby while the alien supersoldiers surround her. Without explanation, the aliens leave the area as Mulder arrives. While Doggett and Reyes report to the FBI Headquarters, Mulder takes Scully and their newborn son, William, back to her apartment.
The X-Files season 8 takes place in a science fiction environment and employs the common science fiction concepts of strongly differentiated characters fighting an unequivocally evil enemy, in this case, the alien Colonists. The first episode of the season, "Within" explored "loss", "loneliness" and "pain" after the disappearance of Mulder. "Per Manum" included basic themes common in the series, such as "dark, foreboding terror", the" overriding sense of paranoia", and "the fear of the unknown", among others. Later on, death and resurrection emerged as a major sub-theme during the season, starting with "The Gift", wherein John Doggett is killed and resurrected, and later in "Deadalive" when Mulder is brought back to life after apparently being dead for three months. This sub-theme would continue well into the ninth season.
The main story arc of the season dealt with the idea that, at times, humanity is a greater danger to itself. This theme also explores the notion of human resurrection and salvation from ourself, symbolized by the Syndicate and the human conspiracy, and from the threat outside, represented by the aliens. Some other themes explored in the season include rebirth, life, and belief, as illustrated in the episode "This Is Not Happening" and "Deadalive".
The original opening sequence was made in 1993 for the first season and remained unchanged throughout the series, until David Duchovny partially left the show after season seven. The premiere episode of season eight, "Within", marked the first major change to the opening credits. The opening sequence now included new images, updated FBI badge photos for David Duchovny and Gillian Anderson and the addition of Robert Patrick to the main cast. Duchovny features in the opening credits only when he appears in an episode. The opening contains images of Scully's pregnancy and, according to Frank Spotnitz, showed an "abstract" explanation of Fox Mulder's absence in this season, with him falling into an eye.
"Patience" was the first episode of the series without Duchovny. "Salvage" contains a reference to actor Patrick's (Doggett) perhaps most well-known role prior to The X-Files, that of the liquid-metal T-1000 android in Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991) – Doggett: "What’re you saying? Ray Pearce has become some kind of metal man? ‘Cause that only happens in the movies, Agent Scully." The title of the episode "This Is Not Happening" is said four times in the episode, three times at the start of the episode, and the fourth time by Scully.
After the partial departure of Duchovny, Carter decided to focus almost solely on the character of Doggett during the first half of the season. This led to some unhappiness from the cast and critics, most notably Duchovny and Gillian Anderson. According to Tom Kessenich in his book Examinations, Anderson reportedly "wasn't thrilled" with the lack of attention her character was getting; instead, the writers were crafting episodes solely for Doggett because he was the show's new "voice". Duchovny, on the other hand, was unhappy because Mulder's abduction was never properly examined. Reportedly, Duchovny offered to write and direct an episode based around the conceit of Mulder being trapped in the alien spaceship, as seen in the season opener "Within" and "Without". Carter, however, nixed the idea because "it was not about Doggett."
The seventh season was a time of closure for The X-Files. Characters within the show were written out, including The Smoking Man and Mulder's mother, and several plot threads were resolved, including the fate of Fox Mulder's sister Samantha. After settling his contract dispute, Duchovny quit full-time participation in the show after the seventh season. This contributed to uncertainties over the likelihood of an eighth season. Carter and most fans felt the show was at its natural endpoint with Duchovny's departure, but it was decided Mulder would be abducted at the end of the seventh season, leaving it open for the actor's return in 12 episodes the following year. "Requiem", the season finale, was written by Carter as a possible series finale. The producers found it difficult to write Duchovny's character out of the script, and explain Mulder's absence in the episodes of the upcoming season.
Hoping to continue the series, Carter introduced a new central character to replace Mulder: John Doggett. More than 100 actors auditioned for the role, with only about ten considered by the producers. Lou Diamond Phillips and Hart Bochner were among the auditionees, and Phillips, Bochner and Bruce Campbell (who played Wayne Weinsider in a previous episode of The X-Files) were considered for the role, but the producers eventually choose Robert Patrick. The season also introduced Monica Reyes (portrayed by Annabeth Gish), who would become a main character in the following, and ultimately final, season.
Series creator Chris Carter who also served as executive producer and showrunner, along with executive producer Frank Spotnitz wrote the bulk of the episodes for the season, with 13 of the 21 episodes. Carter wrote five episodes solo, Spotnitz wrote four episodes solo, and they co-wrote four episodes together, including important mytharc episodes. The rest of the writing staff contributed one or two episodes. Vince Gilligan was promoted to executive producer and wrote one episode. John Shiban was promoted to co-executive producer and wrote one episode. David Amann was promoted to producer and wrote one episode. Jeffrey Bell was promoted to executive story editor and wrote one episode. Greg Walker was promoted to executive story editor and wrote two episodes. Steven Maeda was promoted to story editor and wrote two episodes. Daniel Arkin, who wrote a freelance episode for the series previously, returned to contribute to the story for one episode.
Kim Manners was promoted to co-executive producer and directed the most of episodes of the season with seven. Directors who directed multiple episodes for the season included Tony Wharmby who directed four, Rod Hardy directed three, and Richard Compton directed two. Peter Markle, Terrence O'Hara, and Barry K. Thomas each directed one episode. Series creator Chris Carter directed a single episode, while writer Frank Spotnitz made his directorial debut.
"Within," the season's first episode, earned a Nielsen household rating of 9.5, meaning that it was seen by 9.5% of the nation's estimated households. The episode was viewed by 9.58 million households[nb 1] and 15.87 million viewers. The episode marked an 11% decrease from the seventh season opener, "The Sixth Extinction." The highest-rated episode of the season was "This is Not Happening", which was viewed by 16.9 million viewers, making it the highest-rated episode of the series since "The Sixth Extinction". The season finale, "Existence," earned a Nielsen household rating of 8.4, meaning that it was seen by 8.4% of the nation's estimated households. The episode was watched by 8.58 million households[nb 2] and by 14 million viewers, overall. The nine episodes of the season that did not feature Mulder averaged only 13 million viewers, whereas the twelve episodes that did feature Mulder averaged 13.93 million viewers, almost a difference of one million. The season averaged a total of 13.53 million viewers, down from season seven's 14.2 million.
During 2000, companies were paying Fox $225,000 for every 30-second spot that would air between acts of The X-Files. Many Information technology (IT) companies were buying commercials during the show, largely due to the fact that "many ['coders IT geeks'] get their weekly fix of science fiction from this prime-time show."
The show's eighth season received mixed to positive reviews from critics. The A.V. Club noted that the first eight seasons of The X-Files were "good-to-great", and that the eighth season of the show was "revitalized by the new 'search for Mulder' story-arc." John C. Snider of SciFiDimensions gave the season a favorable review, calling it "great" and describing its episodes as "pretty strong". Collin Polonowonski of DVD Times said that the season included "more hits than misses overall" but was throughout negative about the mythology episodes claiming them to be the "weakest" episodes in the season. Many critics eventually accepted Doggett's character. Anita Gates of The New York Times said that most fans had "accepted" the introduction of the character and further stated that he actually looked "Like a Secret Service Agent." Executive producer Carter commented on the character, saying "Everybody likes Robert Patrick and the character," but further stating that the fans "miss" Duchovny's character, Mulder. Dave Golder of SFX called Patrick "superb" and noted that his entrance in the series "inject[ed] a sense of pragmatism and good old-fashioned plain-speaking in to the show which we didn’t realise was missing until we got it." Entertainment Weekly reviewer Ken Tucker said that Patrick's portrayal of Doggett was "hardboiled alertness," giving mostly positive reviews about his inclusion. Cynthia Littleton of The Hollywood Reporter described the season as the show's "swan song".
Not all reviews were positive. Jesse Hassenger from PopMatters gave a negative review to the season, claiming that Patrick was mis-cast and calling David Duchovny's appearances as Fox Mulder shallow. Golder criticized the season for "recycling plots with gusto" and for featuring Mulder falling into Scully's eye in the opening credits, noting that it "gives Duchovny too much of a lingering presence on the show, reinforcing prejudices against Patrick as some kind of 'imposter'."
"This Is Not Happening" was nominated for an American Society of Cinematographers award for cinematography. Robert Patrick won a Saturn Award in the category "Best Television Actor" in 2001 for his role as John Doggett, that year Gillian Anderson was nominated in the category "Best Actress on Television" and the series itself was nominated in the category "Best Network Television Series" in the Saturn Awards, but failed to win. Anderson was nominated for a Screen Actors Guild award the very same year in the category "Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Drama Series". The X-Files won an Emmy Award in the category of "Outstanding Makeup for a Series" for "Deadalive", and Bill Roe received a nomination for "Outstanding Cinematography for a Single-Camera Series".
The following actors and actresses appear in the season:[nb 3]
- David Duchovny as Special Agent Fox Mulder (12 episodes)*
- Gillian Anderson as Special Agent Dana Scully (20 episodes) (Does not appear in "The Gift")
- Robert Patrick as Special Agent John Doggett (21 episodes)
* ^ Although appearing in only 12 episodes, Duchovny is listed credited as "starring" in the opening credits for the episodes in which he appeared.
- Mitch Pileggi as Walter Skinner (12 episodes)
- Annabeth Gish as Monica Reyes (4 episodes)
- Nicholas Lea as Alex Krycek (3 episodes)
- James Pickens, Jr. as Alvin Kersh (7 episodes)
- Tom Braidwood as Melvin Frohike (6 episodes)
- Bruce Harwood as John Fitzgerald Byers (6 episodes)
- Dean Haglund as Richard Langly (6 episodes)
- Kirk B. R. Woller as Agent Gene Crane (5 episodes)
- Zachary Ansley as Billy Miles (3 episodes)
- Adam Baldwin as Knowle Rohrer (3 episodes)
- Jeff Gulka as Gibson Praise (2 episodes)
- Sheila Larken as Margaret Scully (2 episodes)
- Brian Thompson as Alien Bounty Hunter (1 episode)
Episodes marked with a double dagger () are episodes in the series' Alien Mythology arc.[nb 4]
|Title||Directed by||Written by||Original air date||Production
|162||1||"Within"||Kim Manners||Chris Carter||November 5, 2000||8ABX01||15.87|
|An FBI taskforce is organized to hunt for Fox Mulder (David Duchovny) but Dana Scully (Gillian Anderson) suspects the taskforce leader, Special Agent John Doggett (Robert Patrick), and instead chooses to search for her lost partner with Walter Skinner (Mitch Pileggi).|
|163||2||"Without"||Kim Manners||Chris Carter||November 12, 2000||8ABX02||15.1|
|At a remote school in the Arizona desert, Doggett, Scully, Gibson and Skinner – as well as a host of students and agents – do not know who to trust as the bounty hunter works among them; and – in a spaceship close by – Mulder is experimented on.|
|164||3||"Patience"||Chris Carter||Chris Carter||November 19, 2000||8ABX04||13.3|
|Having been assigned to the X-Files, John Doggett joins Scully to investigate a series of gruesome murders that appear to be the work of a bat-like creature. This being their first case together, Scully and Doggett find that their investigative techniques are less than similar.|
|165||4||"Roadrunners"||Rod Hardy||Vince Gilligan||November 26, 2000||8ABX05||13.6|
|Working alone, Scully pursues a cult that worship a slug-like organism; but in her efforts to save an injured stranger, she discovers she’s in over her head.|
|166||5||"Invocation"||Richard Compton||David Amann||December 3, 2000||8ABX06||13.9|
|Having been kidnapped for ten years, a little boy mysteriously reappears but has not aged one bit. While the case stirs up painful memories for Doggett, suspicion stirs that the boy is not all he seems.|
|167||6||"Redrum"||Peter Markle||Story by: Steven Maeda & Daniel Arkin
Teleplay by: Steven Maeda
|December 10, 2000||8ABX03||13.2|
|After his wife is murdered, a lawyer friend of Doggett's tries to clear his name of the crime but the days regress backwards.|
|168||7||"Via Negativa"||Tony Wharmby||Frank Spotnitz||December 17, 2000||8ABX07||12.37|
|Doggett and Skinner work to avert the murderous spree of a religious cult leader, while Scully takes time off to deal with the early stages of her pregnancy.|
|169||8||"Surekill"||Terrence O'Hara||Greg Walker||January 7, 2001||8ABX09||13.3|
|The fatal shooting of a realtor while alone in a cinderblock jail cell has Doggett hoping motive will yield more than method, but they soon learn that there is more to this case than meets the eye.|
|170||9||"Salvage"||Rod Hardy||Jeffrey Bell||January 14, 2001||8ABX10||11.7|
|Doggett and Scully encounter a dead man who is still living – only somewhat changed. What they discover is a man made of metal, enacting vengeance on those he believes created him.|
|171||10||"Badlaa"||Tony Wharmby||John Shiban||January 21, 2001||8ABX12||11.8|
|When a mystic smuggles himself out of India, Scully and Doggett give chase as his murderous spree starts terrorising two families in suburban Washington, D.C. But Scully soon comes upon a crisis of faith when she realises how dissimilar her techniques are from Mulder, even as she tries to be the believer.|
|172||11||"The Gift"||Kim Manners||Frank Spotnitz||February 4, 2001||8ABX11||14.6|
|Doggett comes upon an old case about a professed ‘soul-eater’ that Mulder kept secret from Scully, which he hopes will ultimately prove the truth behind Mulder’s abduction.|
|173||12||"Medusa"||Richard Compton||Frank Spotnitz||February 11, 2001||8ABX13||13.8|
|A string of bizarre deaths in the tunnels of the Boston subway system sees Doggett join a team of professionals underground to investigate. Meanwhile, Scully has to defy the train authorities above land, who are determined to get the trains up and running within hours.|
|174||13||"Per Manum"||Kim Manners||Chris Carter & Frank Spotnitz||February 18, 2001||8ABX08||16.0|
|Scully becomes personally involved when she encounters several women who had no way of naturally conceiving but who claim to have been abducted and impregnated with alien babies.|
|175||14||"This Is Not Happening"||Kim Manners||Chris Carter & Frank Spotnitz||February 25, 2001||8ABX14||16.9|
|Doggett calls on another agent, Monica Reyes (Annabeth Gish), to assist in the Mulder case, but Scully’s fears about finding him come to a head with the sudden recovery of abductees seized at the same time.|
|176||15||"Deadalive"||Tony Wharmby||Chris Carter & Frank Spotnitz||April 1, 2001||8ABX15||12.4|
|Three months after Mulder's funeral, a former abductee awakens from the dead and Scully pins her hopes on resurrecting her partner. Meanwhile, Alex Krycek (Nicholas Lea) offers Skinner a loathsome deal which he claims can save Mulder's life.|
|177||16||"Three Words"||Tony Wharmby||Chris Carter & Frank Spotnitz||April 8, 2001||8ABX18||
|Mulder secretly conducts his own investigation after a man is gunned down on the White House lawn attempting to inform the President of a planned alien invasion. However, he is soon in over his head as he tries to expose further evidence of colonization.|
|178||17||"Empedocles"||Barry K. Thomas||Greg Walker||April 22, 2001||8ABX17||12.46|
|Reyes enlists Mulder’s help investigating a killer's connection to the unsolved murder of Doggett’s son but Mulder soon finds himself clashing with Doggett.|
|179||18||"Vienen"||Rod Hardy||Steven Maeda||April 29, 2001||8ABX16||11.8|
|Mulder and Doggett are asked to investigate several deaths aboard an oil rig, but Mulder is convinced the rig is carrying an alien black oil; meanwhile a heavily pregnant Scully attempts to protect Mulder in absentia.|
|180||19||"Alone"||Frank Spotnitz||Frank Spotnitz||May 6, 2001||8ABX19||12.7|
|With Scully on maternity leave, Doggett is paired with an enthusiastic young agent named Layla Harrison who knows everything about the X-Files, and her apotheosis of Mulder and Scully leads to him learning a thing or two. But when Harrison and Doggett disappear, Mulder defies orders in an attempt to find them.|
|181||20||"Essence"||Kim Manners||Chris Carter||May 13, 2001||8ABX20||12.8|
|Mulder, Skinner and Doggett come up against the horrible consequences of the Syndicate’s pact with the aliens, as a hybrid attempts to erase all evidence of the tests – including Scully’s soon-to-be-born baby. The men call on Reyes, and – reluctantly – Alex Krycek to help them.|
|182||21||"Existence"||Kim Manners||Chris Carter||May 20, 2001||8ABX21||14.00|
|Mulder, Doggett and Skinner face off with the alien replicants as they desperately try to expose the conspiracy within the FBI. Meanwhile Scully goes into labour in a remote location, but Reyes soon learns they may be no safer there.|
|The X-Files – The Complete Eighth Season|
|Set details||Special features|
|Region 1||Region 2||Region 4|
|November 4, 2003||March 14, 2004||April 14, 2004|
- At the time of airing, the estimated number of households was 100.8 million. Thus, 9.5 percent of 100.8 million is 9.58 million households.
- At the time of airing, the estimated number of households was 102.2 million. Thus, 8.4 percent of 102.2 million is 8.58 million households.
- Based on the season's official website as well as the credits for each episode.
- The episodes were included in the DVD collections The X-Files Mythology, Volume 3 – Colonization and The X-Files Mythology, Volume 4 – Super Soldiers, released by Fox.
- Kim Manners (director). "Within". The X-Files. Season 8. Episode 1. Fox. Unknown parameter
- Kim Manners (director). "Without". The X-Files. Season 8. Episode 2. Fox. Unknown parameter
- Kim Manners (director). "Per Manum". The X-Files. Season 8. Episode 13. Fox. Unknown parameter
- Kim Manners (director). "This Is Not Happening". The X-Files. Season 8. Episode 14. Fox. Unknown parameter
- Tony Wharmby (director). "Deadalive". The X-Files. Season 8. Episode 15. Fox. Unknown parameter
- Rod Hardy (director). "Vienen". The X-Files. Season 8. Episode 17. Fox. Unknown parameter
- Frank Sponitz (director). "Alone". The X-Files. Season 8. Episode 18. Fox. Unknown parameter
- Kim Manners (director). "Essence". The X-Files. Season 8. Episode 20. Fox. Unknown parameter
- Kim Manners (director). "Existence". The X-Files. Season 8. Episode 21. Fox. Unknown parameter
- Kessenich (2002), pp. 149.
- Kessenich (2002), pp. 156.
- Kellner (2003), p. 155.
- Carter, Chris, Patrick, Robert, Spotnitz, Frank and Gish, Annabeth (2002). The Truth Behind Season 8 (DVD). Fox Home Entertainment.
- Rod Hardy. "Salvage". The X-Files. Season 8. Episode 9. Fox. Unknown parameter
- Kessenich (2002), p. 145
- Kessenich (2002), p. 144
- "Duchovny quits X-Files". BBC News. May 18, 2001. Retrieved July 5, 2009.
- Spencer, Russ (April 28, 2000). "A close encounter with Chris Carter". Salon. Retrieved July 5, 2009.
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- Shapiro (2000), p. 281
- "TV Ratings". St. Petersburg Times: 7D. April 2001.
- Associated Press (May 2001). "Season finales lift NBC to No. 1". The Cincinnati Post (E. W. Scripps Company): p. 3C.
- Kessenich (2002), p. 146
- "The List". BtoB Magazine (Crain Communications). April 30, 2001. Retrieved November 26, 2012. (subscription required)
- Adams, Sam; Dyess-Nugent, Phil; Handlen, Zack; Harris, Will; Heller, Jason; Hyden, Steven; Keller, Joel; McGee, Ryan; Modell, Josh; Phipps, Keith; Rabin, Nathan; Semley, John; Teti, John; VanDerWerff, Todd; Zulkey, Claire (May 7, 2012). "One bad apple...we can live with that: 31 rotten parts of otherwise fantastic wholes". The A.V. Club. Retrieved May 19, 2012.
- Snider, John C. (December 2003). "DVD Review: The X-Files Season 8". SciFiDimensions. Archived from the original on December 6, 2003.
- Polonowonski, Collin (March 25, 2004). "The X Files: Season 8". DVD Times. Retrieved July 5, 2009.
- Gates, Anita (February 18, 2001). "Television/Radio; Without Mulder (Most of the Time), 'The X-Files' Thrives". The New York Times. Retrieved July 5, 2009.
- King, Susan (November 26, 2000). "Cover Story; After Mulder". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 5, 2009.
- Golder, Dave (March 2001). "The X-Files, Season Eight". SFX (75) (Future Publishing). Retrieved July 27, 2012.
- Tucker, Ken (November 3, 2000). "The X-Files (2009 - 2009)". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved July 5, 2009.
- Littleton, Cynthia (December 17, 2002). "Fox 'Idol'-izes Its New Year: Overhauls Sked After Weak Fall Launch". The Hollywood Reporter.
- Hassenger, Jesse (November 4, 2003). "The X-Files: The Complete Eight Season". PopMatters. Retrieved July 5, 2009.
- "Saturn Awards". Airlock Aplha. June 30, 2001. Retrieved July 5, 2009.
- "SG-1 snubbed at 2001 Saturn Awards". GateWorld. June 14, 2001. Retrieved August 31, 2009.
- "The 7th Annual Screen Actors Guild Awards". Screen Actors Guild. June 30, 2001. Retrieved February 19, 2012.
- "Advanced Primetime Awards Search". Academy of Television Arts & Science. Retrieved July 10, 2009.
- The X-Files: The Complete Eighth Season (booklet). Kim Manners, et al. Fox.
- Canton, Maj. "The X-Files – Series – Episode List – Season 8". TV Tango. Retrieved February 24, 2013.
- Kissell, Rick (December 20, 2000). "'Sound' is music to NBC's ears". Variety (Penske Business Media). Retrieved November 29, 2012. (subscription required)
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- "TV Ratings Report". The Dallas Morning News (A. H. Belo Corporation). April 26, 2001. p. 8C.
- Kellner, Douglas (2003). Media Spectacle. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-26828-1.
- Kessenich, Tom (2002). Examination: An Unauthorized Look at Seasons 6–9 of the X-Files. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 1553698126.
- Shapiro, Marc (2000). All Things: The Official Guide to the X-Files Volume 6. Harper Prism. ISBN 0-06-107611-2.
- Season 8 on TheXFiles.com
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