Thoracic outlet syndrome

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Thoracic Outlet Syndrome (TOS)
Classification and external resources
Wikipedia medical illustration thoracic outlet syndrome brachial plexus anatomy with labels.jpg
The right brachial plexus, viewed from in front. In thoracic outlet syndrome there is compression of the brachial plexus or subclavian vessels in their passage from the cervical and upper thoracic area toward the axilla and proximal arm. The anterior supraclavicular neurosurgical procedure is used to treat certain refractory cases.
ICD-10 G54.0
ICD-9 353.0
DiseasesDB 13039
MedlinePlus 001434
eMedicine pmr/136
MeSH D013901

Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a syndrome involving compression at the superior thoracic outlet[1] resulting from excess pressure placed on a neurovascular bundle passing between the anterior scalene and middle scalene muscles.[2] It can affect one or more of the nerves that innervate the upper limb and/or blood vessels as they pass between the chest and upper extremity, specifically in the brachial plexus, the subclavian vein, and, rarely, the subclavian artery, which does not normally pass through the scalene hiatus.

TOS may result from a positional cause, for example, by abnormal compression from the clavicle (collarbone) and shoulder girdle on arm movement. There are also several static forms, caused by abnormalities, enlargement, or spasm of the various muscles surrounding the arteries, veins, and/or brachial plexus, a fixation of a first rib, or a cervical rib. A Pancoast tumor (a rare form of lung cancer in the apex of the lung) can lead to thoracic outlet syndrome in the progressive stages of the disease. The most common causes of thoracic outlet syndrome include physical trauma from a car accident, repetitive strain injury from a job such as frequent nonergonomic use of a keyboard, sports-related activities, and anatomical defects such as having an extra rib. In pregnancy, if a narrow superior thoracic outlet exists previously, the patient can have symptoms for the first time. Joints loosen during pregnancy, making it easier to develop bad posture.[3]

Common orthopaedic tests used are the Adson's test, the Costoclavicular Manoeuvre, and the "Hands-Up" test or "EAST" test. Careful examination and X-ray are required to differentially diagnose between the positional and static aetiologies, first rib fixations, scalene muscle spasm, and a cervical rib or fibrous band.

Signs and symptoms[edit]

TOS affects mainly the upper limbs, with signs and symptoms manifesting in the arms and hands. Pain is almost always present and can be sharp, burning, or aching. It can involve only part of the hand (as in the 4th and 5th finger only), all of the hand, or the inner aspect of the forearm and upper arm. Pain can also be in the side of the neck, the pectoral area below the clavicle, the armpit/axillary area, and the upper back (i.e., the trapezius and rhomboid area). Decoloration of the hands, one hand colder than the other hand, weakness of the hand and arm muscles, and tingling are commonly present.

TOS is often the underlying cause of refractory upper limb conditions like frozen shoulder and carpal tunnel syndrome that frequently defy standard treatment protocols.

TOS can be related to cerebrovascular arterial insufficiency when affecting the subclavian artery.[4] It also can affect the vertebral artery, in which case it could produce transient blindness,[5] and embolic cerebral infarction.[6]

A painful, swollen and blue arm, particularly when occurring after strenuous physical activity, could be the first sign of a subclavian vein compression related with an unknown TOS and complicated by thrombosis, the so-called Paget-Schroetter Syndrome or effort-induced thrombosis.

Causes[edit]

Painful TOS can be attributed to one or several etiological factors:[7]

Diagnosis[edit]

Adson's sign and the costoclavicular maneuver lack specificity and sensitivity and should comprise only a small part of the mandatory comprehensive history and physical examination undertaken with a patient suspected of having TOS. There is currently no single clinical sign that makes the diagnosis of TOS with any degree of certainty.

Additional maneuvers that may be abnormal in TOS include Wright's Test, which involves hyperabducting the arms over the head with some extension and evaluating for loss of radial pulses or signs of blanching of the skin in the hands. The "compression test" is also used, exerting pressure between the clavicle and medial humeral head causes radiation of pain and/or numbness into the affected arm.[8]

Doppler Arteriography, with probes at the fingertips and arms, tests the force and "smoothness" of the arterial flow through the radial arteries, with and without having the patient perform various arm maneuvers (which causes compression of the subclavian artery at the thoracic outlet). The movements can elicit symptoms of pain and numbness and produce graphs with diminished arterial blood flow to the fingertips, providing strong evidence of impingement of the subclavian artery at the thoracic outlet.[9] Doppler arteriography does not utilize probes at the fingertips and arms, and in this case is likely being confused with plethysmography, which is a different method that utilizes ultrasound without direct visualization of the affected vessels. It should also be noted that Doppler ultrasound (not really 'arteriography') would not be used at the radial artery in order to make the diagnosis of TOS. Finally, even if a Doppler study of the appropriate artery were to be positive, it would not diagnose neurogenic TOS, by far the most common subtype of TOS. There is plenty of evidence in the medical literature to show that arterial compression does not equate to brachial plexus compression, although they may occur together, in varying degrees. Additionally, arterial compression by itself does not make the diagnosis of arterial TOS (the rarest form of TOS). Lesser degrees of arterial compression have been shown in normal individuals in various arm positions and are thought to be of little significance without the other criteria for arterial TOS.

Classification[edit]

By structures affected and symptomatology[edit]

There are three main types of TOS, named according to the cause of the symptoms; however, these three classifications have been coming into disfavor because TOS can involve all three types of compression to various degrees. The compression can occur in three anatomical structures (arteries, veins and nerves), it can be isolated, or, more commonly, two or three of the structures are compressed to greater or lesser degrees. In addition, the compressive forces can be of different magnitude in each affected structure. Therefore, symptoms can be protean.[10] http://www.tos-syndrome.com/old1/newpage12.htm[11]

  • Neurogenic TOS includes disorders produced by compression of components of the brachial plexus nerves. The neurogenic form of TOS accounts for 95% of all cases of TOS.[12]
  • Arterial TOS is due to compression of the subclavian artery.[12]
  • Venous TOS is due to compression of the subclavian vein.[12]

By event[edit]

There are many causes of TOS. The most frequent cause is trauma, either sudden (as in a clavicle fracture caused by a car accident), or repetitive (as in a legal secretary who works with his/her hands, wrists, and arms at a fast paced desk station with non-ergonomic posture for many years). TOS is also found in certain occupations involving lots of lifting of the arms and repetitive use of the wrists and arms.

One cause of arterial compression is trauma, and a recent case involving fracture of the clavicle has been reported[13]

The two groups of people most likely to develop TOS are those suffering from neck injuries due to traffic accidents and those who use computers in non-ergonomic postures for extended periods of time.[citation needed] TOS is frequently a repetitive stress injury (RSI) caused by certain types of work environments. Other groups which may develop TOS are athletes who frequently raise their arms above the head (such as swimmers, volleyball players, dancers, shuttlecock players, baseball pitchers, and weightlifters), rock climbers, electricians who work long hours with their hands above their heads, and some musicians.

By structure causing constriction[edit]

It is also possible to classify TOS by the location of the obstruction:

Some people are born with an extra incomplete and very small rib above their first rib, which protrudes out into the superior thoracic outlet space. This rudimentary rib causes fibrous changes around the brachial plexus nerves, inducing compression and causing the symptoms and signs of TOS. This is called a "cervical rib" because of its attachment to C-7 (the 7th cervical vertebra), and its surgical removal is almost always recommended. The symptoms of TOS can first appear in the early teen years as a child is becoming more athletic.

Treatment[edit]

Most people respond to conservative measures such as medications, rest, chiropractic, occupational therapy, physical therapy, and massage, and stretching. Only a minority of patients with signs and symptoms of TOS ultimately proceed to surgery.[citation needed]

Physical measures[edit]

Stretching and physical therapy are common noninvasive approaches used in the treatment of TOS. The goal of stretching is to relieve compression in the thoracic cavity, reduce blood vessel and nerve impingement, and realign the bones, muscles, ligaments, and/or tendons that are causing the problem.

  • One commonly prescribed set of stretches includes moving the shoulders anteriorly (forward - called "hunching"), then back to a neutral position, then extending them posteriorly (backward, called "arching"), then back to neutral, followed by lifting the shoulders up as high as possible, and then back down to neutral, repeated in cycles as tolerated.
  • Another set of stretches involves tilting and extending the neck opposite to the side of the injury while keeping the injured arm down or wrapped around the back.
  • Physical therapy can include passive or active range of motion exercises, working up to weighted or restricted sets (as tolerated).
  • Physical therapy usually consists of mobilization of any or all of the articulations of the shoulder girdle, including the 1st rib, additional myofascial release (MFR) or Active Release Technique (ART) to the connected musculature, and use of passive or active range-of-motion exercises.
  • Nerve gliding can be performed by extending the injured arm with fingers directly outwards to the side and tilting the head to both sides. A gentle pulling feeling is generally felt throughout the injured side. Initially, only do this and repeat. Once this exercise has been mastered and no extreme pain is felt, begin stretching your fingers back. Repeat with different variations, tilting your hand up, backwards, or downwards.

TOS is rapidly aggravated by poor posture. Active breathing exercises and ergonomic desk setup and motion practices can help maintain active posture. Often the muscles in the back become weak due to prolonged (years of) "hunching" and other poor postures.

Ice can be used to decrease inflammation of sore or injured muscles. Heat can also aid in relieving sore muscles by improving blood circulation to them. While the whole arm generally feels painful in TOS, some relief can be seen when ice or heat is intermittently applied to the thoracic region (collar bone, armpit, or shoulder blades).

Medications[edit]

Cortisone injected into a joint or muscle can help lower inflammation and provide relief.[dubious ]

Botox injections bind nerve endings and prevents the release of neurotransmitters that activate muscles. A small amount of Botox injected into the tight or spastic muscles (usually one or all three scalenes) found in TOS sufferers often provides months of relief while the muscle is temporarily paralyzed. This noncosmetic treatment is not covered by most medical insurance plans and costs upwards of $400. The relief of symptoms from a Botox injection generally lasts 3–4 months, at which point the Botox toxin is degraded by the affected muscles. Serious side effects have been reported and are similarly long-lasting, so improved understanding of the mechanism this form of 'scalene block' is vital to determining its risk/benefit profile. Additionally, many patients in a study done at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore report no relief of symptoms from Botox or scalene injections, which may indicate that the pain does not stem from the scalene muscle and may not be TOS. Botox can be an effective treatment for neurogenic TOS.[14][medical citation needed]

Surgery[edit]

Surgical approaches have also been used successfully in TOS.[15] In cases where the first rib is compressing a vein, artery, or the nerve bundle, the first rib and scalene muscles and any compressive fibrous tissue can be removed. This procedure is called a First rib resection and scalenectomy and involves going through the underarm area or back of the neck area and removing the first rib, scalene muscles, and any compressive fibrous tissue to open the area to allow increased blood flow and/or reduce nerve compression. In some cases there may be a rudimentary rib or a cervical rib that can be causing the compression, which can be removed using the same technique.

Physical therapy is often used before and after the operation to decrease recovery time and improve outcomes. Potential complications include pneumothorax, infection, loss of sensation, motor problems, subclavian vessel damage, and, as in all surgeries, a very small risk of permanent serious injury or death.

Notable cases[edit]

Major League Baseball players such as St. Louis Cardinals starting pitchers Chris Carpenter[16] and Jaime Garcia,[17] Dodgers SP Josh Beckett, Shaun Marcum,[18] Rangers SP Matt Harrison,[19] and former Giants SP Noah Lowry[20] have recently been diagnosed with thoracic outlet syndrome.

Musician Isaac Hanson suffered a potentially life-threatening pulmonary embolism as a consequence of thoracic outlet syndrome.[21]

UFC fighter Matt Serra had a rib removed to alleviate TOS.[22]

Boston Bruins defenseman Adam McQuaid was diagnosed with TOS in September 2012 and as a result was nominated for the Bill Masterton Memorial Trophy.[23]

The Japanese band Maria disbanded in 2010 due to drummer Tattsu's TOS which made it impossible for her to continue playing.[24]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Thoracic outlet syndrome at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
  2. ^ Jay Allan Liveson (25 September 2000). Peripheral neurology: case studies. Oxford University Press US. pp. 255–. ISBN 978-0-19-513563-3. Retrieved 4 August 2010. 
  3. ^ Mayo Clinic staff (November 6, 2010). "Thoracic outlet syndrome". mayoclinic.com. Rochester, MN, USA: Mayo Clinic. Retrieved August 11, 2012. 
  4. ^ Thetter, O; Van Dongen, RJ; Barwegen, MG (1985). "The thoracic outlet compression syndrome and its vascular complications". Zentralblatt fur Chirurgie 110 (8): 449–56. PMID 4002908. 
  5. ^ Sell, James J.; Rael, Jesse R.; Orrison, William W. (1994). "Rotational vertebrobasilar insufficiency as a component of thoracic outlet syndrome resulting in transient blindness". Journal of Neurosurgery 81 (4): 617–9. doi:10.3171/jns.1994.81.4.0617. PMID 7931599. 
  6. ^ Nishibe, T; Kunihara, T; Kudo, FA; Adachi, A; Shiiya, N; Murashita, T; Matusi, Y; Yasuda, K (2000). "Arterial thoracic outlet syndrome with embolic cerebral infarction. Report of a case". Panminerva medica 42 (4): 295–7. PMID 11294095. 
  7. ^ a b c d Laulan J, Fouquet B, Rodaix C, Jauffret P, Roquelaure Y, Descatha A (September 2011). "Thoracic outlet syndrome: definition, aetiological factors, diagnosis, management and occupational impact". J Occup Rehabil 21 (3): 366–73. doi:10.1007/s10926-010-9278-9. PMC 3526474. PMID 21193950. 
  8. ^ [1][dead link]
  9. ^ Thoracic outlet syndrome Mount Sinai Hospital, New York
  10. ^ Ambrad-Chalela, Esteban; Thomas, George I.; Johansen, Kaj H. (2004). "Recurrent neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome". The American Journal of Surgery 187 (4): 505–10. doi:10.1016/j.amjsurg.2003.12.050. 
  11. ^ Selmonosky, M.D., Carlos. "TOS-Syndrome; Symptoms". Retrieved 2011-03-20. 
  12. ^ a b c Fugate, Mark W.; Rotellini-Coltvet, Lisa; Freischlag, Julie A. (2009). "Current management of thoracic outlet syndrome". Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine 11 (2): 176–83. doi:10.1007/s11936-009-0018-4. PMID 19289030. 
  13. ^ Burnand, K. M.; Lagocki, S.; Lahiri, R. P.; Tang, T. Y.; Patel, A. D.; Clarke, J. M. F. (2010). "Persistent subclavian artery stenosis following surgical repair of non-union of a fractured clavicle". Grand Rounds 10: 55–8. doi:10.1102/1470-5206.2010.0012. 
  14. ^ Christo, Paul J; Dana K Christo; Adam J Carinci; Julie A Freischlag (April 2010). "Single CT-Guided Chemodenervation of the Anterior Scalene Muscle with Botulinum Toxin for Neurogenic Thoracic Outlet Syndrome". Pain Medicine 11 (4): 504–511. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4637.2010.00814.x. 
  15. ^ Rochkind, S; Shemesh, M; Patish, H; Graif, M; Segev, Y; Salame, K; Shifrin, E; Alon, M (2007). "Thoracic outlet syndrome: a multidisciplinary problem with a perspective for microsurgical management without rib resection". Acta neurochirurgica. Supplement 100: 145–7. doi:10.1007/978-3-211-72958-8_31. PMID 17985565. 
  16. ^ Carpenter's throwing session canceled, MLB.com (July 2, 2012)
  17. ^ Garcia to have season-ending surgery for nerve issue, MLB.com (July 5, 2014)
  18. ^ Marcum needs thoracic outlet syndrome surgery, Rotoworld.com (July 9, 2013)
  19. ^ Fort Worth Star-Telegram (2013-09-07). "Foul Territory: Rangers' Matt Harrison facing surgery for thoracic outlet syndrome on right shoulder". Sportsblogs.star-telegram.com. Retrieved 2013-10-26. 
  20. ^ John Shea and Henry Schulman (2009-05-20). "San Francisco Chronicle: Lowry's agent lashes out". Sfgate.com. Retrieved 2013-10-26. 
  21. ^ "People Magazine". Archived from the original on October 18, 2007. Retrieved 2008-01-01. 
  22. ^ "Health scare leads to former UFC champion Matt Serra probably walking away from MMA". Bloody Elbow. Retrieved 2013-10-26. 
  23. ^ Marrapese-Burrell, Nancy. "McQuaid a Masterton Trophy Finalist". Boston Globe. Archived from the original on 8 June 2013. Retrieved 8 June 2013. 
  24. ^ "MARIA今後の活動に関するお知らせ" (in Japanese). MARIA6. Archived from the original on February 11, 2010. Retrieved February 16, 2010. 

External links[edit]