Thromde

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Emblem of Bhutan.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Bhutan

A thromde (Dzongkha: ཁྲོམ་སྡེ་; Wylie: khrom-sde) is a third-level administrative division in Bhutan. The legal administrative status of thromdes was most recently codified under the Local Government Act of 2009, and the role of thromdes in elections in Bhutan was defined in the Election Act of 2008.

Thromde administration[edit]

Thromde administration is a product of the Bhutanese program of decentralization and devolution of power and authority.[1]:Preamble Thromdes are administered independently by a Thromde Tshogde if sufficiently developed and populated (Class A Thromdes); or directly by Dzongkhag Administration or the Gewog Administration as decided by the Government (Class B Thromdes and Yenlag Thromdes). From time to time, Parliament decides the boundaries of Thromde in consultation with the National Land Commission Secretariat and local authorities.[1]:§§ 11–18, 85

Each Thromde Tshogde is composed of seven to ten elected members and headed by a Thrompon. Thromde Tshogdes are empowered to regulate advertising, enforce public health and safety rules, and to levy taxes on land, property, property transfer (sales tax) and, "betterment." The municipal governments are also authorized to levy special taxes on vacant and underdeveloped land to encourage development, and to raise and spend money in to promote local economic development.[1]:§§ 61–65

The administrations overseeing Class B Thromdes and Yenlag Thromdes are tasked with encouraging and overseeing their progressive development into Class A Thromdes – locally governed municipalities.[1]:§ 17

Although Class A and Class B Thromdes were established ahead of local elections in 2011, Yenlag Thromdes were to be declared only after the second parliamentary elections in 2013. This would be followed by another delimitation of the 16 Dzongkhag Thromdes (Class B) and a review of chiwog numbers and boundaries affected by the declaration of the Yenlag Thromdes.[2]

History[edit]

Under the Geog Yargay Tshochung of 2002, gewog administration included non-votingTshogpa, representatives of villages or village clusters.[3] Through the enactment of the Act of 2009, gewogs were divided administratively into representatives by chiwogs, or village groups.[4]

The Local Government Act of 2007 was the first piece of Bhutanese legislation to provide distinctions among thromdes, dividing them into two classes: Dzongkhag Thromdes, which lacked the developmental capacity to form administrations in their own right; and Gyelong Thromdes, which were independent, non-legislating municipalities administered by a Gyelyong Thromde Tshogdu (Gyelyong administration). Each Gyelong administration was headed by an Executive Secretary. The administrative role of Gyelong Thromde Tshogdus were largely analogous to later roles for more developed municipalities.[4][5][3]

The Constitution of 2008 confirmed the status of thromdes, providing for Thromde Tshogdes as the most basic level of some local government administration; for other thromdes, administration was provided directly through Dzongkhag Thromde representation by one elected member from Dzongkhag Thromdes, and a second from Dzongkhag Yenlag Thromdes. The Constitution provided the basic legal framework for thromde administrations in the terms that continue today.[6]

List of thromdes[edit]

The following is a list of thromdes by dzongkhag, gewog, and rank:

Dzongkhag Gewog Thromde[7] Rank[8][9]
Bumthang[10]
Bhutan-Bumthang.png
Chhoekhor
ཆོས་འཁོར་
Jakar Dzongkhag Thromde
Class B
Chhukha[11]
Bhutan-Chukha.png
Bjachho
བྱག་ཕྱོགས་
Chukha Colony Yenlag Thromde
Bongo
སྦོང་སྒོར་
Gedu Yenlag Thromde
Darla
དར་ལ་
Tala Yenlag Thromde
Phuentsholing
ཕུན་ཚོགས་གླིང་
Phuentsholing Dzongkhag Thromde
Class A
Sampheling
བསམ་འཕེལ་གླིང་
Dagana[12]
Bhutan-Dagana.png
Goshi
སྒོ་བཞི་
Daga Dzongkhag Thromde
Class B
Gasa[13]
Bhutan-Gasa.png
Khatoe
ཁ་སྟོད་
Gasa Dzongkhag Thromde
Class B
Haa[14]
Bhutan-Haa.png
Katsho
སྐར་ཚོགས་
Ha Dzongkhag Thromde
Class B
Uesu
དབུས་སུ་
Lhuentse[15]
Bhutan-Lhuntse.png
Gangzur
སྒང་ཟུར་
Lhuentse Dzongkhag Thromde
Class B
Mongar[16]
Bhutan-Mongar.png
Mongar
མོང་སྒར་
Mongar Dzongkhag Thromde
Class B
Gyalpozhing Yenlag Thromde
Paro[17]
Bhutan-Paro.png
Wangchang
ཝང་ལྕང་
Paro Dzongkhag Thromde
Class B
Pema Gatshel[18]
Bhutan-Pemagatshel.png
Shumar
ཤུ་མར་
Pemagatshel Dzongkhag Thromde
Class B
Punakha[19]
Bhutan-Punakha.png
Guma
གུ་མ་
Punakha Dzongkhag Thromde
Class B
Samdrup Jongkhar[20]
Bhutan-Samdrup Jongkhar.png
Dewathang
དབེ་བ་ཐང་
Samdrup Jongkhar Dzongkhag Thromde
Class A
Dewathang Yenlag Thromde
Samtse[21]
Bhutan-Samtse.png
Samtse
བསམ་རྩེ་
Samtse Dzongkhag Thromde
Class B
Phuentshogpelri
ཕུན་ཚོགས་དབལ་རི་
Gomtu Yenlag Thromde
Sarpang[22]
Bhutan-Sarpang.png
Gelephu
དགེ་ལེགས་ཕུ་
Gelephu Dzongkhag Thromde
Class A
Thimphu[23]
Bhutan-Thimphu.png
Chang
ལྕང་
Thimphu Dzongkhag Thromde
Class A
Kawang
ཀ་ཝང་
Trashigang[24]
Bhutan-Trashigang.png
Samkhar
བསམ་མཁར་
Trashigang Dzongkhag Thromde
Class B
Kanglung
བཀང་ལུང་
Kanglung Yenlag Thromde
Khaling
ཁ་གླིང་
Khaling Yenlag Thromde
Trashi Yangtse[25]
Bhutan-Trashiyangste.png
Bumdeling
བུམ་སྡེ་གླིང་
Trashiyangtse Dzongkhag Thromde
Class B
Trongsa[26]
Bhutan-Tongsa.png
Nubi
ནུ་སྦིས་
Trongsa Dzongkhag Thromde
Class B
Tsirang[27]
Bhutan-Tsirang.png
Kikhorthang
དཀྱིལ་འཁོར་ཐང་
Tsirang Dzongkhag Thromde
Class B
Wangdue Phodrang[28]
Bhutan-Wangdue Phodrang.png
Thedtsho
ཐེད་ཚོ་
Wangdue Phodrang Dzongkhag Thromde
Class B
Zhemgang[29]
Bhutan-Zhemgang.png
Trong
ཀྲོང་
Zhemgang Dzongkhag Thromde
Class B

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Local Government Act of Bhutan 2009" (PDF). Government of Bhutan. 2009-09-11. Retrieved 2011-01-20. 
  2. ^ Pem, Tandin (2011-04-08). "LG Election Period Begins". Bhutan Observer online. Retrieved 2011-07-31. 
  3. ^ a b "Geog Yargay Tshogchhung Chathrim 2002" (PDF). Government of Bhutan. 2002-06-13. Retrieved 2011-01-20. 
  4. ^ a b "Local Government Act of Bhutan 2007" (PDF). Government of Bhutan. 2007-07-31. Retrieved 2011-01-20. 
  5. ^ "Dzongkhag Yargay Tshogdu Chathrim 2002" (PDF). Government of Bhutan. 2007-06-14. Retrieved 2011-01-20. 
  6. ^ "Constitution of the Kingdom of Bhutan (English)" (PDF). Government of Bhutan. 2008-07-18. Retrieved 2010-11-13. 
  7. ^ "Thromde Election Results 2011". Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. Retrieved 2011-07-30. 
  8. ^ Pelden, Sonam (2010-05-07). "Cabinet Approves Thromdes". Bhutan Observer online. Retrieved 2011-07-30. 
  9. ^ Dorji, Kezang (2010-11-26). "LG Elections Finalized". Bhutan Observer online. Retrieved 2011-07-30. 
  10. ^ "Chiwogs in Bumthang" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-28. 
  11. ^ "Chiwogs in Chukha" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-28. 
  12. ^ "Chiwogs in Dagana" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-28. 
  13. ^ "Chiwogs in Gasa" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-28. 
  14. ^ "Chiwogs in Haa" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-28. 
  15. ^ "Chiwogs in Lhuentse" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-28. 
  16. ^ "Chiwogs in Monggar" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-28. 
  17. ^ "Chiwogs in Paro" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-28. 
  18. ^ "Chiwogs in Pema Gatshel" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-28. 
  19. ^ "Chiwogs in Punakha" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-28. 
  20. ^ "Chiwogs in Samdrup Jongkhar" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-28. 
  21. ^ "Chiwogs in Samtse" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-28. 
  22. ^ "Chiwogs in Sarpang" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-28. 
  23. ^ "Chiwogs in Thimphu" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-28. 
  24. ^ "Chiwogs in Trashigang" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-28. 
  25. ^ "Chiwogs in Trashiyangtse" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-28. 
  26. ^ "Chiwogs in Trongsa" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-28. 
  27. ^ "Chiwogs in Tsirang" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-28. 
  28. ^ "Chiwogs in Wangdue Phodrang" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-28. 
  29. ^ "Chiwogs in Zhemgang" (PDF). Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-28.