Tiger conservation

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The tiger is an iconic species, and tiger conservation is involved in attempts to prevent the animal from becoming extinct and preserving its natural habitat. This is one of the main objectives of international animal conservation charities. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) has played a crucial role in improving international efforts for tiger conservation.

The tiger whip is valued as in Chinese medicine, and demand has contributed to illegal hunting


CITES[edit]

CITES is an international governance network employing tools and measures which adapt and become more efficient with time.[1] One measure specifically aimed at protecting the tiger is visible in the network’s efforts to ban the trade of tigers or tiger derivatives.[1] CITES members have agreed to adhere to this international trade ban; once a member states ratifies and implements CITES it bans such trade within its national borders.[2]

The CITES Secretariat is administrated by the UNEP[3] which works closely with NGOs such as The Trade Records Analysis of Flora and Fauna in Commerce (TRAFFIC) to assist member states with the implementation of the convention. States are provided with training and information about requirements (when necessary), and their progress and compliance are monitored and evaluated.[3][4]

In order for CITES to work effectively it requires the involvement of institutions, NGOs, civil society and member states: especially Asian tiger range member countries. The Tiger Range Countries (TRC) – countries where tigers still roam free – are: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Russia, Thailand, Vietnam and North-Korea. Whilst there have been no recent tigers sightings in North-Korea,[5] it is the only country listed which has not ratified CITES.[6]

The 13 TRC who are CITES member states recently held a conference in Russia and jointly vowed to double the estimated number of tigers left in the wild (3200).[7][8] Poaching, however, remains a very significant problem in all 13 TRC, despite the implementation of CITES regulations within their borders.[7]

In the 15th CITES conference held in Doha, Qatar in March 2010 all party members agreed to stricter agreements between members states to protect the tiger.[8] However the United Nations warned that tigers are still at risk of becoming extinct as members states are currently failing to clamp down hard on the illegal trade of tigers and tiger derivatives within their borders.[9]

Although CITES has been successful in curbing this illegal trade, CITES as an international institution relies on member states to effectively implement conventions within their national borders. The quality of such implementation varies significantly within member states.[10][11] For example, Thailand implemented CITES policies to a very high standard but the illegal tiger trade is still rife within this country.[12] A governance structure such as CITES is powerless to control issues such as poaching unless it has the full cooperation of all actors, including the state.

Another reason why CITES seems to be failing could be ascribed to the lucrative nature of the tiger trade. The World Bank estimates that the illegal international trade of wildlife on the black market is worth an estimated $10bn per year.[9] By selling one tiger skeleton, a poacher could make an amount equal to what some labourer would earn in 10 years.[13]

India[edit]

Comparison in distribution historically and 2006

Project Tiger, started in 1972, is a major effort to conserve the tiger and its habitats in India.[14] At the turn of the 20th century, one estimate of the tiger population in India placed the figure at 40,000, yet an Indian tiger census conducted in 1972 revealed the existence of only 1827 tigers. Various pressures in the latter part of the 20th century led to the progressive decline of wilderness resulting in the disturbance of viable tiger habitats. At the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) General Assembly meeting in Delhi in 1969, serious concern was voiced about the threat to several species of wildlife, and the shrinkage of wilderness in India from poaching. In 1970, a national ban on tiger hunting was imposed, and in 1972 the Wildlife Protection Act came into force. The framework was then set to formulate a project for tiger conservation with an ecological approach.

Launched on 1 April 1973, Project Tiger has become one of the most successful conservation ventures in modern history. The project aims at tiger conservation in specially-constituted 'tiger reserves', which are representative of various bio-geographical regions falling within India. It strives to maintain viable tiger populations in their natural environment. Today, there are 27 Project Tiger wildlife reserves in India, covering an area of 37,761 km².

At the Kalachakra Tibetan Buddhist festival in India in January 2006, the Dalai Lama preached a ruling against using, selling, or buying wild animals, their products, or derivatives. When Tibetan pilgrims returned to Tibet afterwards, his words resulted in the widespread destruction by Tibetans of their wild animal skins, including tiger and leopard skins used as ornamental garments.[15][16]

China[edit]

During the early 1970s, such as in the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, China rejected the Western-led environmentalist movement as an impeachment on the full use of its own resources. However, this stance softened during the 1980s, as China emerged from diplomatic isolation and desired normal trade relations with Western countries. China became a party to the CITES treaty in 1981, bolstering efforts at tiger conservation by transnational groups like Project Tiger, which were supported by the United Nations Development Programme and the World Bank. In 1988, China passed the Law on the Protection of Wildlife, listing the tiger as a Category I protected species. In 1993, China banned the trade on tiger parts, which led to a drop in the number of tiger bones harvested for use in traditional Chinese medicine.[17]

However, as the tiger bone trade was undermined by effective Chinese legislation in the 1990s, the Tibetan people's trade in tiger pelts emerged as a relatively more important threat to tigers. As wealth in the Tibetan areas increased, singers and participants in annual Tibetan horse races began to wear chuba (coats made out of Tiger skins) with longer trims. Tiger pelt clothing became a standard of beauty, and even mandatory at weddings, with Tibetan families competing to buy larger and larger pelts to demonstrate their social status.[17] In 2003, Chinese customs officials in Tibet intercepted 31 tigers, 581 leopards, and 778 otters, which if sold in the Tibetan capital of Lhasa would have netted $10,000, $850, and $250 respectively. By 2004, international conservation organizations such as World Wide Fund for Nature, Fauna and Flora International, and Conservation International were targeting Tibetans in China in successful environmental propaganda campaigns against the tiger skin trade. In the summer of 2005, the Environmental Investigation Agency sent undercover teams to Litang and Nagchu in order to film documentation of Tibetan violations of Chinese environmental law for submission to the Chinese CITES office. In April 2005, Care for the Wild International and Wildlife Trust of India confronted the 14th Dalai Lama about the Tibetan trade, and his response was recorded as "awkward" and "ambushed", with suspicion against the NGOs for trying to "dramatize" the situation as "mak[ing] it seem as if Tibetans were the culprit".[17]

Although popular accounts since the 1980s have portrayed the Tibetans as "having always lived in harmony with the earth", according to the Professor of Geography Emily Yeh, "None of the 14th Dalai Lama's seven books published before 1985, nor interviews that he gave from his arrival in India in 1959 through the mid-1980s, make reference to environmental issues or the relationship between Tibetan Buddhism and ecology". However, the NGO campaign in India threatened the goodwill of the Indian government towards the Dalai Lama's Central Tibetan Administration; the Indian environmentalist Maneka Gandhi even proposed on television to "throw all Tibetans out of India [as] each one of them is a poacher".[17] In May, the Dalai Lama was confronted in the United States by activists from the National Geographic Society with evidence that Tibetans were the primary cause of the illegal tiger trade in China; he reacted as describing himself as "embarrassed". At the 2006 Kalachakra festival in India, he gave a speech to an audience of 10,000, including 8000 Tibetans from China, in which he condemned "following the bad example of the ostentatious garments made of tiger and leopard pelts worn by some protector deities such as Dgra lha" as "shameful". The speech made no reference to ethical or religious issues about killing animals, but instead focused on the reputation of Tibetan exiles and their threatened status as citizens of India.[17] The Dalai Lama later took credit in a press release for incidents of Tibetans burning their chubas, while decrying the arrest of those who complied with environmental regulations as a political statement in support of him.[18]

Conservation organisations[edit]

One of the biggest threats to tiger populations is habitat fragmentation. A program called the Terai-Arc Landscape (TAL) has been working directly with improving tiger habitats, specifically fragmented habitats in Nepal and northern India.[19] Their main strategy is to link up the subpopulations of tigers that have been separated by setting up special tiger corridors that connect the fragmented habitats.[20] The corridors are built to promote migration and/or dispersion of certain tiger populations giving them the ability to unite with other tigers.[21] Giving tigers the ability to mate with a larger selection of individuals will increase the gene pool for the tigers, which will lead to more diversity, higher birth rates, and higher cub survival.

Panthera is a conservation organization that’s main goal is to preserve wild cats focusing on tigers, lions, snow leopards, and jaguars.[22] In July of 2006, Panthera collaborated with the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) to form Tigers Forever, one of their main tiger projects.[23] Tigers Forever plans to increase the number of tigers in key areas by 50% over ten years.[24] Key Areas include: India, Myanmar, Thailand, Lao PDR, Malaysia and Indonesia.[25] This project is experimental and hopes to increase the number of tigers by eliminating human threats and monitoring tiger and prey populations.[26] To accomplish these goals they are increasing the amount and quality of law enforcement in these areas and working with informants to catch poachers.[27] Another project spearheaded by Panthera is the Tiger Corridor Initiative (TCI).[28] Human development in the Tiger Range Countries (TRC) has left many tiger habitats fragmented. Habitat fragmentation leads to a division of tiger populations, which reduces the gene pool and makes it difficult for tigers to reproduce. The TCI is a new project, very similar to the Terai-Arc Landscape (TAL) project that plans to link protected core populations of tigers with one another using corridors that will provide safe passage for tigers.[29] This will give the separated tiger populations access to each other, which in theory should increase the number of tigers as well as genetic diversity.[30]

Another organization involved with the conservation of tigers is the Save the Tiger Fund (STF). The STF was founded in 1995 by the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (NFWF) and focuses on preserving wild tigers.[31] The STF has contributed over $10.6 million and participated in a total of 196 conservation efforts that provide a number of services to help to mitigate the human-tiger conflict, protect tiger habitats, research tiger ecology, monitor tiger populations, and educate locals on the importance of saving the tiger.[32][33] The STF also participates in a grant program and has given a total of $17.3 million in the form of 336 grants to the tiger range countries (TRC) to help protect the existing populations.[34] ExxonMobil is the number one contributor to the STF donating nearly $12 million between 1995 and 2004.[35] Currently the STF has teamed up with Panthera to form the STF-Panthera Partnership.[36] They plan to combine their expertise in tiger conservation to help save the wild tiger.[37]

The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) also contributes to tiger conservation. They have set an ambitious goal called Tx2 to double the wild tiger population by 2022, the next Chinese Year of the Tiger.[38] To reach this goal, their primary efforts lie in protecting landscapes where they feel tigers have the highest chance of surviving and increasing, preventing poaching, and working to decrease demand for tiger parts.[39] Much of the funding for this project comes from a partnership between the WWF and Leonardo DiCaprio called Save Tigers Now.[40] Save Tigers Now focuses on fundraising to help the WWF meet their Tx2 goal.[41] During the last Year of the Tiger, 2010, a summit called the International Tiger Conservation Forum was held in Russia to discuss efforts to save the tiger.[42] This meeting led to contributions totaling $127 million from the governments involved to support tiger conservation and an agreement to participate in the Global Tiger Recovery Program developed by the Global Tiger Initiative over the next five years from all 13 of the Tiger Range Countries.[43]

The Global Tiger Initiative (GTI) is an alliance between governments created to save wild tigers from going extinct founded in June of 2008.[44] Among other successful conservation programs the GTI developed The Global Tiger Recovery Program (GRTP) to assist in reaching the goal of doubling the number of wild tigers through effective management and restoration of tiger habitats; the elimination of poaching, smuggling, and illegal trade of tigers, and their parts; collaboration to manage borders and in stopping illegal trade; working with indigenous and local communities; and returning tigers to their former range.[45]

WildTeam [1] uses a social marketing approach to create innovative, community-based conservation solutions to help save tigers in the Sundarbans of Bangladesh. WildTeam has developed a system of volunteer village teams that save tigers that stray into villages and reduce human-tiger conflict.

Considering the recent increase in global conservation efforts, there is hope for the tiger. Currently scientists all over the world are working round the clock to find new and innovative ways to save wild tigers from extinction. All of the Tiger Range Countries have agreed to participate in programs to dramatically increase their numbers. These efforts should lead to the removal of many of the subspecies of Panthera tigris from the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Data Collection Techniques[edit]

Data collection is required to know where conservation efforts and resources need to be applied. To collect such data, techniques such as radio collars and capture-recapture population estimation models have been used to collect population numbers.[46] To specify, “tiger searching” is a basic method that involves either riding elephants or driving off-road vehicles into tiger territory and identifying individuals as well as their locations.[46] The pugmark census technique is also used during these travels. This involves observing paw prints in the ground and taking measurements of width, length and indentation to determine the individual that was in the location.[46] Dogs are also used to assist tracking the tiger by smell. Once the tigers are found, photographs, drawings and notes regarding sex, location, and other details of the individual are taken and sent back to the study camp.[46] There are also multiple reserves that allow professional guided tourists to explore via elephant mahout, where sightings are recorded if tigers are seen along the trails.[46]

Another method, referred to as “camera traps” involves setting up surveying cameras that activate when there is movement detected and will spontaneously take multiple photographs of the area.[46] Camera traps are not often used by reserve management due to their expense and the need for trained personal to operate the equipment, but are becoming more common in tiger research due to their accuracy.[46]

Capture-recapture models are now commonly used in conjunction with tiger tracking.[46] They not only measure population numbers, but also measure demographic parameters[46] This combination technique consists of camera traps and basic tiger search to collect sufficient data.[46] Once researchers and conservation biologists are able to gain knowledge of the population and its numbers, conservation efforts are put to work. Selection of initial focus areas are determined by level of potential success once efforts are put into place. Factors determining success generally include size of protected area, biodiversity in the environment, number of tigers in the area, connectivity of the area to buffer zones, funding, and public and local community support. These factors are just a few of the aspects of conservation that are weighed, but public and community support has proven to be one of the major factors that can determine the success or failure of a conservation project.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Dickson, B. (2002). International conservation treaties, poverty and development: The case of CITES. ODI Natural Resource Perspectives, 74(January), 4.
  2. ^ CITES. (2011). http://www.cites.org/eng/disc/parties/index.shtml
  3. ^ a b CITES. (2011). http://www.cites.org/eng/disc/sec/index.shtml
  4. ^ Gemmill, B. and Bamidele-Izu, A. (2010). The Role of NGOs and Civil Society in Global Environmental Governance http://environment.research.yale.edu/documents/downloads/a-g/gemmill.pdf (Accessed 20 March 2011).
  5. ^ IUCN Redlist (2011). http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/15955/0
  6. ^ CITES (2011). http://www.cites.org/eng/disc/parties/alphabet.shtml
  7. ^ a b WWF. (2010). http://wwf.panda.org/?199237/Year-of-the-Tiger-ends-with-roadmap-to-save-species (Accessed 23 March 2011).
  8. ^ a b WWF. (2010). http://www.worldwildlife.org/species/finder/tigers/index.html (Accessed 20 March 2011).
  9. ^ a b Black, R. (2010). Tiger decline is 'sign of world's failure'. BBC http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/8568035.stm
  10. ^ TRAFFIC. (1997). Tiger Progress? The Response to CITES Resolution Conf. 9.13. Traffic International, Cambridge.
  11. ^ TRAFFIC. (1997). Rhinoceros Horn and Tiger Bone in China: An Investigation of Trade Since the 1993 Ban. Traffic International, Cambridge.
  12. ^ WWF. (2010). http://wwf.panda.org/who_we_are/wwf_offices/laos/?197018/The-Big-Cat-Trade-in-Myanmar-and-Thailand (Accessed 23 March 2011).
  13. ^ Seaworld.org http://www.seaworld.org/animal-info/info-books/tiger/longevity.htm (Accessed 28 March 2011)
  14. ^ Project Tiger Accessed Feb, 2007
  15. ^ Denyer, Simon (6 March 2006). "Dalai Lama offers Indian tigers a lifeline". IOL SciTech. Retrieved 23 September 2011. 
  16. ^ "Dalai Lama campaigns for wildlife". BBC. 2005-04-06. Retrieved 2011-09-23. 
  17. ^ a b c d e Yeh, Emily T. (2012). "Transnational Environmentalism and Entanglements of Sovereignty: The Tiger Campaign Across the Himalayas". Political Geography 31: 408–418. 
  18. ^ "Animal Skin Clothes Burned In Tibet After Dalai Lamas Call". The Office of His Holiness the Dalai Lama. 2006-02-17. Retrieved 2010-12-04. 
  19. ^ Dinerstein, E. et al. (2010) The Evolution of Landscape-Scale Conservation in Developing Nations: The Terai-Arc Landscape. Case Study for Principles of Conservation Biology, 4th Edition, Groom, M.J., Vynne, C., Meffe, G.K., and R.C. Carroll. Sinauer Associates, Forthcoming in 2013.
  20. ^ Dinerstein, E. et al. (2010) The Evolution of Landscape-Scale Conservation in Developing Nations: The Terai-Arc Landscape. Case Study for Principles of Conservation Biology, 4th Edition, Groom, M.J., Vynne, C., Meffe, G.K., and R.C. Carroll. Sinauer Associates, Forthcoming in 2013.
  21. ^ Dinerstein, E. et al. (2010) The Evolution of Landscape-Scale Conservation in Developing Nations: The Terai Arc Landscape. Case Study for Principles of Conservation Biology, 4th Edition, Groom, M.J., Vynne, C., Meffe, G.K., and R.C. Carroll. Sinauer Associates, Forthcoming in 2013.
  22. ^ Panthera. (2012). http://www.panthera.org/ (Accessed on 5 March 2012).
  23. ^ Panthera. (2012). http://www.panthera.org/programs/tiger/tigers-forever (Accessed 5 March 2012).
  24. ^ Panthera. (2012). http://www.panthera.org/programs/tiger/tigers-forever (Accessed 5 March 2012).
  25. ^ Panthera. (2012). http://www.panthera.org/programs/tiger/tigers-forever (Accessed 5 March 2012).
  26. ^ Panthera. (2012). http://www.panthera.org/programs/tiger/tigers-forever (Accessed 5 March 2012).
  27. ^ Panthera. (2012). http://www.panthera.org/programs/tiger/tigers-forever (Accessed 5 March 2012).
  28. ^ Panthera. (2012). http://www.panthera.org/programs/tiger/tiger-corridor-initiative (Accessed 5 March 2012).
  29. ^ Panthera. (2012). http://www.panthera.org/programs/tiger/tiger-corridor-initiative (Accessed 5 March 2012).
  30. ^ Panthera. (2012). http://www.panthera.org/programs/tiger/tiger-corridor-initiative (Accessed 5 March 2012).
  31. ^ Panthera. (2012). http://www.panthera.org/programs/tiger/save-tiger-fund (Accessed 5 March 2012).
  32. ^ Panthera. (2012). http://www.panthera.org/programs/tiger/save-tiger-fund (Accessed 5 March 2012).
  33. ^ WiserEarth. (2011). http://www.wiserearth.org/organization/view/ace06daa52c3ee0bac508c371b762f40 (Accessed 5 March 2012).
  34. ^ Panthera. (2012). http://www.panthera.org/programs/tiger/save-tiger-fund (Accessed 5 March 2012).
  35. ^ Gratwicke, B, Seidensticker, J., Shrestha, M. Vermilye, K and Birnbaum, M. (2006). Staving off extinction: a decade of investments to save the world’s last wild tigers (1995-2004). Save The Tiger Fund, Washington DC.
  36. ^ Panthera. (2012). http://www.panthera.org/programs/tiger/save-tiger-fund (Accessed 5 March 2012).
  37. ^ Panthera. (2012). http://www.panthera.org/programs/tiger/save-tiger-fund (Accessed 5 March 2012).
  38. ^ WWF. (2012). http://www.worldwildlife.org/species/finder/tigers/index.html (Accessed 5 March 2012).
  39. ^ WWF. (2012). http://www.worldwildlife.org/species/finder/tigers/index.html (Accessed 5 March 2012).
  40. ^ Save Tigers Now. (2011). http://www.savetigersnow.org/ (Accessed 5 March 2012).
  41. ^ Save Tigers Now. (2011). http://www.savetigersnow.org/ (Accessed 5 March 2012).
  42. ^ WWF. (2012). http://www.worldwildlife.org/species/finder/tigers/index.html (Accessed 5 March 2012).
  43. ^ WWF. (2012). http://www.worldwildlife.org/species/finder/tigers/index.html (Accessed 5 March 2012).
  44. ^ GTI. (2009). http://www.globaltigerinitiative.org/ (Accessed 5 March 2012).
  45. ^ GTI. (2009). http://www.globaltigerinitiative.org/html/themes-tigers.php (Accessed 5 March 2012).
  46. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Sharma, Rishi Kumar, and Yadvendradev Jhala. (2011). “Monitoring Tiger Populations Using Intensive Search in a Capture–Recapture Framework.” Population Ecology. 53:373-381. doi: 10.1007/s10144-010-0230-9