Tiger reserves of India

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There are 48[1] tiger reserves in India[2] which are governed by Project Tiger which is administered by the National Tiger Conservation Authority. India is home to 70 percent of tigers in the world. In 2006, there were 1,411 tigers which increased to 1,706 in 2011 and 2,226 in 2014.[3]

Three-year-old male in Ranthambore tiger reserve, Rajasthan
Tigress with her two cubs in Kanha tiger reserve, Madhya Pradesh
A tiger in Bandhavgarh tiger reserve, Madhya Pradesh
Tiger at Ranthambore tiger reserve, Rajasthan
Tiger T-17 at Ranthambore tiger reserve, Rajasthan
Tiger at Ranthambore tiger reserve
Tiger pug marks at Sunderbans tiger reserve, West Bengal
Spotted deer tiger prey at Corbett tiger reserve, Uttarakhand

Goals[edit]

The goal 53,547.5 km2 (20,674.8 sq mi) of declared reserves are operated by state forestry departments "to ensure maintenance of viable populations of the conservation dependent Bengal tigers in India. The tigers are maintained for their scientific, economic, aesthetic, cultural and ecological values and to preserve for all time areas of biological importance as a national heritage for the benefit, education and enjoyment of the people."[4]

Population assessment[edit]

The landmark 2008 report, Status of the Tigers, Co-predators, and Prey in India, published by the National Tiger Conservation Authority, estimated only 1,411 adult tigers in existence in India.[5] The 2010 National Tiger Assessment estimated the total population of tigers in India as 1,706. As per Ministry of Environment and Forests, the tiger population in India stood at 2,226 in 2014,[6] with an increase of 30.5% since the 2010 estimate. This exhaustive study indicated that better protected tiger source sites, especially tiger reserves, have maintained viable populations. However, the area occupied by tigers outside protected areas has decreased considerably. This demonstrates the need for corridors for tigers to move between source sites. The existing tiger reserves represent around one-third of India's high density forest area.[7]

In 2010-11, National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) in partnership with the Wildlife Institute of India (WII) undertook an independent management effectiveness evaluation (MEE) of the 44 tiger reserves in the country. The reserves were categorized into four major categories. Karnataka has the highest number of tigers in the age group of 1.5 years with more 408 big cats. Uttarakhand has 340, Madhya Pradesh 308, Tamil Nadu 229, Maharashtra 190, Assam 167, Kerala 136 and Uttar Pradesh 117.

List of Tiger reserves in India[edit]

S.No. Tiger Reserve State CoreArea(km2) BufferArea(km2) Total Area (km2)
1[2] Bandipur Karnataka 872.24 584.06 1456.3
2 Corbett Uttarakhand 821.99 466.32 1288.31
Amangarh (buffer of Corbett) Uttar Pradesh - 80.6 80.6
3 Kanha Madhya Pradesh 917.43 1134.361 2051.791
4 Manas Assam 840.04 2310.88 3150.92
5 Melghat Maharashtra 1500.49 1268.03 2768.52
6 Palamau Jharkhand 414.08 715.85 1129.93
7 Ranthambore Rajasthan 1113.364 297.9265 1411.291
8 Similipal Odisha 1194.75 1555.25 2750
9 Sunderbans West Bengal 1699.62 885.27 2584.89
10 Periyar Kerala 881 44 925
11 Sariska Rajasthan 881.1124 332.23 1213.342
12 Buxa West Bengal 390.5813 367.3225 757.9038
13 Indravati (Indravati National Park) Chhattisgarh 1258.37 1540.7 2799.07
14 Namdapha Arunachal Pradesh 1807.82 245 2052.82
15 Dudhwa Uttar Pradesh 1093.79 1107.9848 2201.7748
16 Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tamil Nadu 895 706.542 1601.542
17 Valmiki Bihar 598.45 300.93 899.38
18 Pench Madhya Pradesh 411.33 768.30225 1179.63225
19 Tadoba-Andhari Maharashtra 625.82 1101.7711 1727.5911
20 Bandhavgarh Madhya Pradesh 716.903 820.03509 1598.1
21 Panna Madhya Pradesh 576.13 1021.97 1578.55
22 Dampa Mizoram 500 488 988
23 Bhadra Karnataka 492.46 571.83 1064.29
24 Pench Maharashtra 257.26 483.96 741.22
25 Pakke Arunachal Pradesh 683.45 515 1198.45
26 Nameri Assam 200 144 344
27 Satpura Madhya Pradesh 1339.264 794.04397 2133.30797
28 Anamalai Tamil Nadu 958.59 521.28 1479.87
29 Udanti-Sitanadi Chattisgarh 851.09 991.45 1842.54
30 Satkosia Odisha 523.61 440.26 963.87
31 Kaziranga Assam 625.58 548 1173.58
32 Achanakmar Chattisgarh 626.195 287.822 914.017
33 Dandeli-Anshi Karnataka 814.884 282.63 1097.514
34 Sanjay-Dubri Madhya Pradesh 812.571 861.931 1674.502
35 Mudumalai Tamil Nadu 321 367.59 688.59
36 Nagarahole Karnataka 643.35 562.41 1205.76
37 Parambikulam Kerala 390.89 252.772 643.662
38 Sahyadri Maharashtra 600.12 565.45 1165.57
39 BR Temple Karnataka 359.1 215.72 574.82
40 Kawal Telangana 893.23 1125.89 2019.12
41 Sathyamangalam Tamil Nadu 793.49 614.91 1408.4
42 Mukandra Hills Rajasthan 417.17 342.82 759.99
43 Nawegaon-Nagzira Maharashtra 653.674 - 653.674
44 Nagarjunsagar Srisailam Andhra Pradesh 2595.72* 700.59* 3296.31*
45 Nagarjunsagar Srisailam Telangana 2166.37* 445.02* 2611.39*
46 Pilibhit Uttar Pradesh 602.798 127.4518 730.2498
47 Bor Maharashtra 138.12 - 138.12
48 Rajaji Uttarakhand 820 330 1150 [8]
TOTAL 39620.3 30206.17 69826.47

Future[edit]

In addition to existing reserves, The in-principle approval has been accorded by the National Tiger Conservation Authority for creation of three new tiger reserves, and the sites are: Ratapani (Madhya Pradesh), Sunabeda (Odisha) and Guru Ghasidas (Chhattisgarh). Final approval has been accorded to Kudremukh (Karnataka) and Rajaji National park in Uttarakhand for declaring as tiger reserves by States. The State Governments have been advised to send proposals for declaring the following areas as tiger reserves: (i) Suhelwa (Uttar Pradesh), (ii) Mhadei Sanctuary (Goa), (iii) Srivilliputhur Grizzled Giant Squirrel / Megamalai Wildlife Sanctuaries / Varushanadu Valley (Tamil Nadu), (iv) Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary (Arunachal Pradesh) and (v) Cauveri-MM Hills (Karnataka).[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/rajaji-park-notified-as-tiger-reserve/article7120327.ece
  2. ^ a b http://projecttiger.nic.in/content/109_1_ListofTigerReservesCoreBufferAreas.aspx
  3. ^ "India's tiger population sees 30% increase". January 20, 2015. 
  4. ^ "CENTRALLY SPONSORED SCHEME, PROJECT TIGER, XTH FIVE YEAR PLAN, GUIDELINES" (PDF). COMPENDIUM OF GUIDELINES & CIRCULARS ISSUED BY DIRECTOR (PROJECT TIGER). Delhi: PROJECT TIGER DIVISION MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT & FRORESTS GOVERNMENT OF INDIA. pp. A. PROJECT TIGER 1.1 Description of the Scheme and its objectives. Retrieved 2009-10-31. 
  5. ^ Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun (2008). Y.V. Jhala, R. Gopal, Q. Qureshi (eds.), ed. Status of the Tigers, Co-predators, and Prey in India (PDF). TR 08/001. New Delhi: National Tiger Conservation Authority, Govt. of India. pp. –151. 
  6. ^ Tour My India: Population Of Big Cats
  7. ^ "INDIA TIGER ESTIMATE 2010" (PDF), Public Information Brochure (New Delhi: Ministry of Environment and Forests, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA), 2011-03-28: 9, retrieved 2011-06-21 
  8. ^ http://www.wii.gov.in/nwdc_tigerreserves
  9. ^ http://rajeev.in/pages/..%5CNews%5CQuestions_Parliament%5CSteps_Taken_Preservation_Tigers_Karnataka_Mar192015.html