Tivertsi

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European territory inahibted by East Slavic tribes in 8th and 9th century.

The Tivertsi, also Tyvertsi, Tiverians (Тиверці in Ukrainian, Тиверцы in Russian, Tiverți in Romanian), were a tribe of early East Slavs which lived in the lands near the Dniester, and probably the lower Danube, that is in modern-day western Ukraine and Moldova and possibly in eastern Romania and southern Odessa oblast of Ukraine. Tivertsi is one of major tribes that formed the Ukrainian ethnicity, namely the sub-ethnic and historic region of Podolia. Tivertsis' cultural inheritors, the Podolians are the distinct sub-group of Ukrainians.

Several settlements of Tivertsi are now archaeological sites in Ukraine and Moldova (Alcedar, Echimăuţi, Rudi and others).

Scholars agree that the name of the town of Tyvriv (on the right bank of Southern Buh river) in Ukraine´s Vinnytsia oblast stems from the tribe of Tivertsi, who lived in that very area. Likewise, the name of west Ukraine´s town of Kivertsi is also associated with this tribe. Its is also presumed that Kamyanets-Podilsky on the Dniester was the tribal center of Tyvertsi.

The original information about the tribe is scarce. Tivertsi and Ulichs are briefly mentioned in early Ruthenian manuscripts, 863 being the earliest reference, 944 being the latest. The Primary Chronicle from the Laurentian Codex (the oldest copy) mentions that they lived by Dniester and Danube down to the sea (evidently, the Black Sea). The Hypatian Codex (later re-copy) replaces Dniester with Dnieper. The Tver Chronicle mentions them in the year 883, mentioning their fight against Askold and Dir. A number of manuscripts mention in the year 885 that they fought with Oleg. They are mentioned as taking part in Oleg's expeditions in 907 and in Igor's expeditions in 944, the latter year being the last reference to Tivertsi in early East Slavic manuscripts. [1]

All other knowledge concerning them consists of the hypotheses of various historians.

George Vernadsky suggests that the name Tivertsi possibly originates from the fortress Turris of Justinian I, pointing out that the letter "u" was commonly rendered as "v" (or, rather, ypsilon), suggesting the common root "tvr" of Iranian origin.[2]

At the beginning of 10th century, the tribe became part of the Kievan Rus. Starting in the mid-10th century, the Tivertsi frequently carried on fights with the neighbouring Pechenegs and Cumans. In 12th and 13th centuries, some lands of Tivertsi were part of kingdom of Galicia and later the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. On the lands populated by Wallachians, from Transylvania, some Tivertsi were gradually assimilated by them. There also is a hypothesis that they are the ancestors of Moldavians.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ This article incorporates material from the public domain 1906 Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary. , article "Tivertsy"
  2. ^ Vernadsky, G. Ancient Rus, Chapter VIII