|- City -
City of oblast significance
The Volga in Tver
Location of Tver Oblast in Russia
|Administrative status (as of December 2012)|
|Federal subject||Tver Oblast|
|Administratively subordinated to||Tver Okrug|
|Administrative center of||Tver Oblast, Kalininsky District, Tver Okrug|
|Municipal status (as of September 2006)|
|Urban okrug||Tver Urban Okrug|
|Administrative center of||Tver Urban Okrug, Kalininsky Municipal District|
|Mayor||Alexander Korzin|
|Representative body||City Duma|
|Population (2010 Census)||403,606 inhabitants|
|- Rank in 2010||46th|
|Population (2013 est.)||408,852 inhabitants|
|Time zone||MSK (UTC+04:00)|
|First mentioned||1135|
|Previous names||Tver (until 1931),
Kalinin (until 1991)
|Postal code(s)||170000-170043|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 4822|
Tver (Russian: Тверь; IPA: [tvʲerʲ]) is a city and the administrative center of Tver Oblast, Russia. Population: 408,852 (2013 est.); 403,606 (2010 Census); 408,903 (2002 Census); 450,941 (1989 Census).
Located north of Moscow, Tver was formerly the capital of a powerful medieval state and a model provincial town in the Russian Empire, with a population of 60,000 on January 14, 1913. It is situated at the confluence of the Volga and Tvertsa Rivers. The city was known as Kalinin (Кали́нин) from 1931 to 1990.
Medieval origins 
The first written record of Tver is dated 1135. Originally a minor settlement of Novgorodian traders, it passed to the Grand Prince of Vladimir in 1209. In 1246, Alexander Nevsky granted it to his younger brother Yaroslav Yaroslavich (d. 1271), from whom a dynasty of local princes descended. Four of them were killed by the Golden Horde and were proclaimed saints by the Russian Orthodox church.
Formerly a land of woods and bogs, the Principality of Tver was quickly transformed into one of the richest and most populous Russian states. As the area was hardly accessible for Tatar raids, there was a great influx of population from the recently devastated south. By the end of the century, it was ready to vie with Moscow for supremacy in Russia. Both Tver and Moscow were young cities, so the outcome of their rivalry was far from being certain.
Grand princedom 
Mikhail, the Grand Prince of Tver, who ascended the throne of Vladimir in 1305, was one of the most beloved of medieval Russian rulers. His policy of open conflict with the Golden Horde led to his assassination there in 1318. His son Dmitry "the Terrible Eyes" succeeded him, and, concluding an alliance with the mighty Grand Duchy of Lithuania, managed to raise Tver's prestige even higher.
Exasperated by Dmitry's influence, Prince Ivan Kalita of the Grand Duchy of Moscow engineered his murder by the Mongols in 1326. On hearing the news of this crime, the city revolted against the Horde. The Horde joined its forces with Muscovites and brutally repressed the rebellion. Many citizens were killed, enslaved or deported. This was the fatal blow to Tver's aspirations for supremacy in Russia.
In the second half of the 14th century, Tver was further weakened by dynastic struggles between its princes. Two senior branches of the ruling house, those of Kashin and Kholmsky, asserted their claims to the grand ducal throne. The claimers were backed up by Moscow and eventually settled at the Moscow Kremlin court.
During the Great Feudal War in the Grand Duchy of Moscow, Tver once again rose to prominence and concluded defensive alliances with Lithuania, Novgorod, Byzantium, and the Golden Horde. Grand Prince Boris of Tver sent one of his men, Afanasy Nikitin, to search for gold and diamonds as far as India. Nikitin's travelogue, describing his journey from 1466 to 1472, is probably the first ever firsthand account of India by a European. A monument to Nikitin was opened on the Volga embankment in 1955.
Later history 
At last, on September 12, 1485, the forces of Ivan the Great seized the city. The principality was given as an appanage to Ivan's grandson, only to be abolished several decades later. Last scions of the ruling dynasty were executed by Ivan the Terrible during the Oprichnina. At that turbulent time, Tver was ruled by Simeon Bekbulatovich, a former khan of Kasimov. The only remnant of his ephemeral reign is a graceful tent-like church in the village of Kushalino, 28 kilometers (17 mi) northeast of Tver.
The city's decline was not irrevocable, however. With the foundation of St. Petersburg, Tver gained importance as a principal station on the highway (and later railway) en route from Moscow. It was much visited by Russian royalty and nobility traveling from the old capital to the new one and back.
Following a devastating fire of 1763, the city was rebuilt in a Neoclassical style. Under Catherine the Great, the central part was thoroughly reconstructed. Crumbling medieval buildings were razed and replaced with imposing Neoclassical structures. The most important of these are the Travel Palace of the Empress (designed by the celebrated Matvei Kazakov), and the Ascension church (designed by Prince Lvov and consecrated in 1813).
In 1931, the city was renamed Kalinin, after a notable Soviet leader Mikhail Kalinin who had been born nearby. The last vestige of the pre-Petrine epoch, the Savior Cathedral, was blown up in 1936. In 1940, the NKVD executed more than 6,200 Polish policemen and prisoners of war from Ostashkov camp.
The Wehrmacht occupied Kalinin for two months in 1941, leaving the city in ashes. A large-scale resistance movement in the city and the oblast resulted in over 30,000 German soldiers and officers being killed during the occupation of Tver. Kalinin was the first major city in Europe to be liberated from the Wehrmacht.
Apart from the suburban White Trinity Church (1564), there are no ancient monuments left in Tver. The central part is graced with Catharinian and Soviet edifices, bridges, and embankments. Tver's most notable industries are a railroad car plant, opened in 1898, an excavator factory, and a glass factory. Tver is home to Migalovo, which is one of Russia's biggest military airlift facilities.
Administrative and municipal status 
Tver is the administrative center of the oblast and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Kalininsky District, even though it is not a part of it. As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as Tver Okrug—an administrative unit with a status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, Tver Okrug is incorporated as Tver Urban Okrug.
Tver has a humid continental climate, which is typical for Central Russia. Winters are long, snowy and cold, but extremely severe frosts (below −35 °C (−31 °F)) are rare. Summer is warm and humid, temperature is often higher than +30 °C (86 °F).
|Climate data for Tver|
|Record high °C (°F)||9.0
|Average high °C (°F)||−4.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−7.4
|Average low °C (°F)||−10.3
|Record low °C (°F)||−38.9
|Precipitation mm (inches)||41
Tver is home to Tver State University, the most highly rated university of the region. It is also home to the Tver State technical university, medical, and agricultural academies and more than twenty colleges and lyceums, branch campuses of some Moscow higher educational institutions and more than fifty high schools.
The Tver State Medical Academy is a medical school located in Tver, one of the largest and most reputable in Russia.
The Tver Branch of MESI. Moscow State University of Economics, Statistics, and Informatics (MESI) - a university with more than 75 years of history. MESI is a leader in ratings among the economic institutions of Moscow and Russia.
Tver also houses the Zhukov Air and Space Defense Academy.
Tver also has around 50 secondary schools, a private school (lycee), and the Suvorov military school.
The Oktyabrskaya Railway linking Moscow and St. Petersburg crosses the city. Since 1850, there is an railway connection between Tver and Moscow. The primary Tver' Railway Station has a locomotive and car shed, allowing it to service both passenger and cargo trains. In addition to the Tver' Central Station, there are three minor stations within the city perimeter: Lazurnaya, Proletarskaya and Doroshikha. The suburban railway service links Tver to Moscow, Bologoe, Torzhok and Vasilevsky Mokh (via separate line). Most trains passing from Moscow to the north-west regions make a short stop in Tver'.
The newly designed high-speed railway line between Moscow and St Peterburg is expected to have "New Tver'" station several kilometers southward of the city border.
The narrow gauge railway of KSM-2 factory, Tver plant of building materials №2.
The major M10 motorway linking Moscow and St. Petersburg also crosses the city. This motorway is a part of the Pan-European corridors system. The roads to Rzhev (A112), Vesyegonsk (P84) and Volokolamsk (P90), along with many smaller regional roads, originate in the city. The new highway between Moscow and St. Petersburg, that is designed at the present time, will pass closely to the northern border of Tver. Tver is notable by a pretty high number of private cars: there are 288 cars per thousand residents, which is well above average among the other regions of Russia.
There is also a local bus station that interconnects Tver' with minor towns of Tver Oblast, neighboring oblasts, and Moscow.
There are two airfields within the city: Migalovo military air base and Zmeyevo airport.
The riverside station is located on the left bank of the Volga River, closely upstream the outfall of Tvertsa. There is also a small cargo port in the lower part of the Volga. During the summertime, the cruisers are acting up and down the Volga, making their base in the City Park.
Tver is home to:
- Tver Oblast Academic Drama Theater
- Tver State Youth Theater
- Tver State Puppet Theater
- Tver State philharmonic orchestra
- Tver State Circus
- The Tver Oblast Art Gallery
- The Tver state Art architecture and Literature Museum
Tver has four functioning Russian Orthodox cathedrals, fifteen Orthodox churches, a Catholic church, a mosque, and a synagogue.
Notable people 
- Darya Klishina, athlete
- Igor Aksyonov, association football player
- Anastasia Dobromyslova, professional darts player
- Vladimir Gardin, actor and film director
- Ilya Kovalchuk, NHL player
- Konstantin Krasavin, Hero of the Great Patriotic War
- Mikhail Krug, singer
- Miron Akimovich Ljubovsky, surgeon
- Afanasy Nikitin, merchant and explorer
- Boris Pugo, politician
- Nadia Russo, pioneering aviatrix
- Alexander Smirnov, ice skater
- Andrei Tupolev, aircraft designer
- Yuri Zhdanov, chemistry professor and husband of Svetlana Aliluyeva
- Leo Frankowski, science fiction writer, who has settled in Tver, building a modern castle for his family
- Oleg Losev, scientist and inventor
Twin towns and sister cities 
Tver is twinned with:
- Surat, India
- Bergamo, Italy
- Kaposvár, Hungary
- Osnabrück, Germany
- Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria
- Besançon, France
- Lublin, Poland
- Hämeenlinna, Finland
- Buffalo, New York, United States
- Yingkou, China
- Law #34-ZO
- Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 28 220», в ред. изменения №193/2012 от 1 января 2013 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 28 220, as amended by the Amendment #193/2012 of January 1, 2013. ).
- Law #4-ZO
- New mayor of Tver is United Russia member
- "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- "Предварительная оценка численности населения на 1 января 2013 года по муниципальным образованиям" (in Russian). Тверьстат. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
- "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- "Climate data for Tver". Retrieved 2011-01-12.
- Train Station in Tver (Russian)
- Trillion for Sapsan
- Самые автомобилизированные города России
- Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №34-ЗО от 17 апреля 2006 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тверской области», в ред. Закона №111-ЗО от 7 декабря 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Тверской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тверской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №17 (специальный выпуск), 19 апреля 2006 г. (Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Law #34-ZO of April 17, 2006 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Tver Oblast, as amended by the Law #111-ZO of December 7, 2012 On Amending the Law of Tver Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Tver Oblast". Effective as of the official publication date.).
- Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №4-ЗО от 18 января 2005 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований Тверской области и наделении их статусом городских округов, муниципальных районов», в ред. Закона №65-ЗО от 24 июля 2012 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 2 Закона Тверской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований Тверской области и наделении их статусом городских округов, муниципальных районов"». Вступил в силу через десять дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №3, 21–27 января 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Law #4-ZO of January 18, 2005 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Tver Oblast and on Granting Them the Status of Urban Okrugs, Municipal Districts, as amended by the Law #65-ZO of July 24, 2012 On Amending Article&nbp;2 of the Law of Tver Oblast "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Tver Oblast and on Granting Them the Status of Urban Okrugs, Municipal Districts". Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication.).
- This article incorporates material translated from the Russian Wikipedia
Further reading 
- Annette M. B. Meakin (1906). "Tver". Russia, Travels and Studies. London: Hurst and Blackett. OCLC 3664651.