Transanal hemorrhoidal dearterialization
In 1995, Morinaga et al. developed a non-excisional surgical technique for the treatment of internal hemorrhoids. Dal Monte et al. further refined this technique, introducing transanal hemorrhoidal dearterialization (THD). THD belongs to the category of minimally invasive surgery, since the procedure does not comprise incisions or removal of the hemorrhoidal tissue.
Hemorrhoids are normal vascular cushions found in the anal canal. 15% of a human's continence mechanism is attributed to the hemorrhoidal plexus. When a person coughs, for instance, the hemorrhoids will engorge with blood and increase one's ability to hold gas and stool. They are termed internal and external based on their positioning to an embryological line termed the dentate line. Hemorrhoids above the dentate line are considered "internal" and those below it "external".
Hemorrhoids are fed by arteries and drained by veins. The arterial blood supply is based on the superior rectal (hemorrhoidal) artery. Just as veins in the leg weaken and become prominent, hemorrhoidal veins also may become varicose, resulting in internal hemorrhoids or “piles”. Internal hemorrhoids are divided into four grades. Grade I hemorrhoids are composed of prominent vessels, without protrusion. Grade II hemorrhoids demonstrate prolapse upon straining, with spontaneous reduction. Grade III hemorrhoids demonstrate prolapse upon straining and require manual reduction. Grade IV hemorrhoids prolapse and cannot be manually reduced.
Transanal hemorrhoidal dearterialization (THD) uses a specially developed anoscope combined with a Doppler transducer to identify the hemorrhoidal arteries (originating from the superior rectal artery) 2–3 cm above the dentate line. Once the superior rectal arteries are isolated with the doppler, a suture ligation is performed to effectively decrease the blood flow to the hemorrhoidal plexus. In case of redundant prolapse, the prolapsed mucosal membrane is lifted and sutured (with the last suture minimum 5 mm above the dentate line), repositioning hemorrhoidal cushions in situ. This is different from a traditional hemorrhoidectomy, which focused on excising the hemorrhoidal bundle. In this procedure there is no tissue that is excised. Because the suture line is above the dentate line, post-operative pain is minimized for patients. THD can be performed with conscious sedation, local or general anesthesia.
After the operation, a high-fiber diet with plenty of liquids (approx. two litres per day) is recommended. For most patients, the procedure is done on an outpatient basis and normal activities can be resumed on average two to three days post-operatively. The affected areas usually restore their normal anatomy after two to three months.
- Morinaga K, Hasuda K, Ikeda T (April 1995). "A novel therapy for internal hemorrhoids: ligation of the hemorrhoidal artery with a newly devised instrument (Moricorn) in conjunction with a Doppler flowmeter". Am. J. Gastroenterol. 90 (4): 610–3. PMID 7717320.
- "Transanal Hemorrhoidal Dearterialization (THD): Can ligate and lift replace cut and stitch? A new trick for an old problem". Los Angeles Colon and Rectal Surgical Associates. 2012.[unreliable source?]
- Dal Monte PP, Tagariello C, Sarago M, et al. (December 2007). "Transanal haemorrhoidal dearterialisation: nonexcisional surgery for the treatment of haemorrhoidal disease". Tech Coloproctol 11 (4): 333–8; discussion 338–9. doi:10.1007/s10151-007-0376-4. PMID 18060529.
- Infantino A, Bellomo R, Dal Monte PP, et al. (August 2010). "Transanal haemorrhoidal artery echodoppler ligation and anopexy (THD) is effective for II and III degree haemorrhoids: a prospective multicentric study". Colorectal Dis 12 (8): 804–9. doi:10.1111/j.1463-1318.2009.01915.x. PMID 19508513.
- Sohn N, Aronoff JS, Cohen FS, Weinstein MA (November 2001). "Transanal hemorrhoidal dearterialization is an alternative to operative hemorrhoidectomy". Am. J. Surg. 182 (5): 515–9. doi:10.1016/s0002-9610(01)00759-0. PMID 11754861.
- Ratto C, Donisi L, Parello A, Litta F, Doglietto GB (May 2010). "Evaluation of Transanal Hemorrhoidal Dearterialization as a Minimally Invasive Therapeutic Approach to Hemorrhoids". Dis. Colon Rectum 53 (5): 803–11. doi:10.1007/DCR.0b013e3181cdafa7. PMID 20389215.
- Giordano P, Overton J, Madeddu F, Zaman S, Gravante G (September 2009). "Transanal hemorrhoidal dearterialization: a systematic review". Dis. Colon Rectum 52 (9): 1665–71. doi:10.1007/DCR.0b013e3181af50f4. PMID 19690499.