Treaty of Perth

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Treaty of Perth
Type Peace treaty
Signed 2 July 1266[1]
Location Perth, Scotland
Parties Kingdom of Norway
Kingdom of Scotland
Language Latin
Documents relevant to personal
and legislative unions of the
countries of the United Kingdom
Treaty of Windsor 1175
Treaty of York 1237
Treaty of Perth 1266
Treaty of Montgomery 1267
Treaty of Aberconwy 1277
Statute of Rhuddlan 1284
Treaty of Edinburgh–N'hampton 1328
Treaty of Berwick 1357
Poynings' Law 1495
Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542
Crown of Ireland Act 1542
Treaty of Edinburgh 1560
Union of the Crowns 1603
Union of England and Scotland Act 1603
Act of Settlement 1701
Act of Security 1704
Alien Act 1705
Treaty of Union 1706
Acts of Union 1707
Wales and Berwick Act 1746
Irish Constitution 1782
Acts of Union 1800
Government of Ireland Act 1920
Anglo-Irish Treaty 1921
Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927
N. Ireland (Temporary Provisions) Act 1972
Northern Ireland Assembly 1973
N. Ireland Constitution Act 1973
Northern Ireland Act 1998
Government of Wales Act 1998
Scotland Act 1998
Government of Wales Act 2006
Scotland Act 2012
Edinburgh Agreement 2012

The Treaty of Perth, signed 2 July 1266, ended military conflict between Magnus VI of Norway and Alexander III of Scotland over the sovereignty of the Hebrides and the Isle of Man.[2]

The Hebrides and the Isle of Man had become Norwegian territory during centuries when both Scotland and Norway were still forming themselves as coherent nation-states, and Norwegian control had been formalised in 1098, when Edgar of Scotland signed the islands over to Magnus III of Norway. In Norwegian terms, the islands were the Sudreys, meaning Southern Isles.

The Treaty was agreed three years after the Battle of Largs in 1263. Michael Lynch has compared the treaty's importance with that of the Treaty of York of 1237.[3] The Treaty of York defined a border between Scotland and England which is almost identical to the modern border.

Largs is often claimed as a great Scottish victory, but the Norwegian forces, led by King Håkon IV, were not fully committed to battle and the result was inconclusive. Håkon had planned to renew military action the following summer, but he died in Orkney during the winter. His successor, King Magnus VI, sued for peace and secured the Treaty of Perth.[citation needed]

In the treaty Norway recognised Scottish sovereignty over the disputed territories in return for a lump sum of 4,000 marks and an annuity of 100 marks. The annuity was paid during subsequent decades. Scotland also confirmed Norwegian sovereignty over Shetland and Orkney.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Treaty of Perth: a re-examination
  2. ^ "Agreement between Magnus IV and Alexander III, 1266". isleofman.com. 2009-09-23.  The text of the treaty.
  3. ^ Michael Lynch (1992). Scotland: A New History. Pimlico. p. 90. ISBN 0-7126-9893-0.