Trigonelline

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Trigonelline
Trigonelline.png
Identifiers
CAS number 535-83-1 N
PubChem 5570
ChemSpider 5369 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:18123 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL350675 YesY, CHEMBL489961
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula C7H7NO2
Molar mass 137.14 g mol−1
Melting point 230–233 °C (monohydrate)[contradictory]
258–259 °C (hydrochloride)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 N (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references

Trigonelline is an alkaloid with chemical formula C7H7NO2. It is a zwitterion formed by the methylation of the nitrogen atom of niacin (vitamin B3). Trigonelline is a product of niacin metabolism that is excreted in urine.[1]

Trigonelline occurs in many plants. It has been isolated from fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum, hence the name),[2] garden peas, hemp seed, oats,[3] potatoes, Stachys species, dahlia,[4] Strophanthus species[5] and Dichapetalum cymosum.[6] Holtz, Kutscher and Theilmann have recorded its presence in a number of animals.[7]

Trigonelline is also found in coffee.[8] Higher levels of trigonelline is found in arabica coffee.

Trigonelline crystallizes as a monohydrate from alcohol in hygroscopic prisms (m.p. 130 °C or 218 °C [dry, dec.]). It is readily soluble in water or warm alcohol, less so in cold alcohol, and slightly so in chloroform or ether. The salts crystallize well, the monohydrochloride, in leaflets, sparingly soluble in dry alcohol. The picrate forms shining prisms (m.p. 198−200 °C) soluble in water but sparingly soluble in dry alcohol or ether. The alkaloid forms several aurichlorides: the normal salt, B•HCl•AuCl3, is precipitated when excess of gold chloride is added to the hydrochloride, and after crystallization from dilute hydrochloric acid containing some gold chloride, has m.p. 198 °C. Crystallized from water or very dilute hydrochloric acid, slender needles of B4•3 HAuCl4 (m.p. 186 °C) are obtained.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Merck Index, 11th Edition, 9606.
  2. ^ Jahns, Ber., 1885, 18, 2518.
  3. ^ Schulze and Frankfurt, Ber., 1894, 27, 709.
  4. ^ Schulze and Trier, Zeit. physiol. Chem., 1912, 76, 258.
  5. ^ Thoms, Ber., 1891, 31, 271, 404.
  6. ^ Rimington, Onderstepoort J., 1935, 5, 81.
  7. ^ Zeit. Biol., 1924, 81, 57.
  8. ^ Gorter, Annalen, 1910, 372, 237; cf. Polstorff, Chem. Soc. Abstr., 1910, ii, 234; Palladino, ibid, 1894, ii, 214; 1895, i, 629; Graf, ibid, 1904, i, 915; Nottbohm and Mayer, Zeit. Unters. Lebensmitt., 1931, 61, 429.