|This article relies on references to primary sources. (September 2013)|
Unigov is the name adopted by the city of Indianapolis to describe its consolidated city–county government. By an act of the Indiana state legislature, Indianapolis consolidated with the government of Marion County in 1970. Within Unigov are eleven "included towns", which maintain some of their own municipal services and identity within the consolidated government. Four other municipalities in Marion County are not part of the Indianapolis government ("excluded cities and towns"), but receive county-level services from Unigov and are represented by the Indianapolis City–County Council and mayor. The area of Marion County not within the included or excluded towns is known as the balance.
Indianapolis was intentionally surveyed and founded as the capital of the US state of Indiana. Given the state of urban planning in 1821, little thought was given to the growth of the city. Original planners were of the opinion that it would never grow beyond its original square mile (2.6 km²) layout (still known as "the Mile Square"). Contrary to their belief, Marion County soon was filled with small communities with connections to or with businesses that had formed to take advantage of Indianapolis's location midway between Chicago, Illinois, and both Cincinnati, Ohio, and Louisville, Kentucky. City growth happened in fits and starts, and it was possible in some areas to leave and re-enter Indianapolis while traveling in a straight line. The movement of affluent citizens to more fashionable suburbs, especially to the north of the city limits, accelerated into full white flight in the period after World War II. While this sprawl was generally within Marion County, it hastened the decay of the city itself.
Unigov was proposed in the late 1960s by then mayor (now former Senator) Richard Lugar to address these problems and a number of other related issues. In order to support Unigov, a compromise was arranged; the cities of Beech Grove, Lawrence, Southport, and Speedway each maintained limited autonomy, with their own police forces, school systems, and mayors (except Speedway); in addition, fire service and school districts were maintained at their pre-Unigov borders, and some towns otherwise incorporated into the city were permitted to maintain independent police forces. Nevertheless, the excluded cities are also part of Indianapolis-Marion County and are thus represented within Unigov's legislative body, known as the City-County Council. This is necessary because a number of services and governmental responsibilities are delegated by the state of Indiana to county-level government; these services and responsibilities include road maintenance, natural resource management, civil ordinances (zoning, flood development), etc. In addition to voting for the mayors and councils of their respective cities and towns, residents are also able to vote for the Mayor of Indianapolis, plus a City-County Council member, and the four at-large council members. This arrangement was passed because residents are obligated to pay many county-wide taxes and because the powers of the Mayor of Indianapolis extend to the entire county.
Several towns that existed outside the city limits were incorporated into Unigov, but elected to retain some measure of autonomy. Most of these towns hold elections for Town Council and Clerk-Treasurer. The town governments have taxing authority, and several continue to appoint their own police departments, maintain their own streets, and perform various other functions independently of the city of Indianapolis. However, they cannot pass any ordinance that conflicts with, or permits a lesser standard than, any City-County ordinance. The included towns are:
- Crows Nest
- Meridian Hills
- North Crows Nest
- Rocky Ripple
- Spring Hill
- Warren Park
- West Newton
- Williams Creek
Excluded cities and town
The cities of Beech Grove, Lawrence, and Southport, and the town of Speedway are known as "excluded cities," and retain government autonomy in most respects. They elect their own city officials and city councils. They also are represented on the City-County Council and vote for the Mayor of Indianapolis, since these countywide officials have taxing and other powers over the whole county.
Note that a portion of Cumberland is also in Marion County but is excluded from Unigov.
For many years, the incorporation of the city's suburbs was seen as working to the political benefit of the Republican Party, which held the mayor's office from the election of Richard Lugar in 1967 until the election of Democrat Bart Peterson in 1999. Democrats gained a one-seat majority on the City-County Council for the first time in citywide elections in 2003.
Facing a budget crisis, Peterson made a proposal to eliminate some remaining duplication, dubbed "Indianapolis Works!". He claimed it would eliminate remaining duplication, while opponents saw it as an effort to further consolidate the power of the Democratic Party in Marion County. The extension of city government was now seen as benefiting the Democrats, who had made many gains (as they did nationally) in the inner-ring suburbs, many more of which are included within the boundaries of the city than in many comparable metropolitan areas.
In December 2005, the City-County Council approved a merger of the Indianapolis Police Department and the Marion County Sheriff's Department, creating the Indianapolis Metropolitan Police Department, headed by the Marion County Sheriff.
In the 2007 municipal elections, the Republican party, led by Gregory A. Ballard, recaptured the Mayor's office and also won back a majority of the City-County Council. One of the planks of Ballard's campaign platform was that the police department needed to be under the responsibility of the Mayor, and not the Sheriff. In February, 2008, the new GOP-led council gave the authority over the county-wide Indianapolis Metropolitan Police Department to the Mayor, leaving Sheriff Frank J. Anderson with authority over the county jail, protection of City-County buildings and the traditional roles of tax collection and paper serving, but left him as the only Sheriff in Indiana without territory to protect.
Other city–county consolidations
Under the Unigov provision of Indiana Law, city-county consolidation is automatic when a city's population exceeds the threshold for qualification as a so-called First Class City. When the Unigov provision was enacted, the First Class City population threshold was 250,000; which Indianapolis easily met in 1970. The next most populous city was Fort Wayne with a population of 174,000; so Indianapolis was the only city affected by the legislation.
By 2006, Fort Wayne nearly met the threshold for designation as a First Class City as it annexed the populous portions of Aboite Township. However, a pre-emptive legislative change in 2004 raised the population requirements for a First Class City from 250,000 to 600,000, which ensured Indianapolis' status as the only First Class City in Indiana. As a result, any foreseeable city-county consolidation in Indiana will be voluntary rather than automatic.
- "City of Indianapolis and Marion County". Indygov.org. Retrieved 2013-09-07.
- "Indiana Code 36-3-1". In.gov. Retrieved 2013-09-07.
- "Indiana Code 36-3-2". In.gov. Retrieved 2013-09-07.
- "Indy Works 2006 annual report". Indygov.org. Retrieved 2013-09-07.
- "Indiana Code 36-3-1". State of Indiana. Retrieved 2007-03-31.
- "ACTS 2004: Second Regular Session of the 113th Indiana General Assembly". State of Indiana. Retrieved 2011-01-20. "SECTION 34. IC 36-4-1-1 IS AMENDED TO READ AS FOLLOWS [EFFECTIVE UPON PASSAGE]: Sec. 1. (a) Municipalities are classified according to their status and population as follows: STATUS AND POPULATION CLASS Cities of <strikeout>250,000</strikeout> <bold>600,000</bold> or more First class cities Cities of 35,000 to <strikeout>249,999</strikeout> <bold>599,999</bold> Second class cities Cities of less than 35,000 Third class cities"
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