The HWK 109-509 used a two-component hypergolic fuel/oxidizer combination, controlled by a dual-flow turbopump, to regulate the rate of combustion and thereby the amount of thrust. The turbopump was driven by steam produced by a Walter steam generator which decomposed T-Stoff in the presence of a solid catalyst. The engine worked on the principle of the "hot" Walter drive, which used C-Stoff in place of Z-Stoff, the latter tending to clog the jets in the combustion chamber, causing fluctuations in power and potentially explosions.
The fuel was known as C-Stoff, a mix of 30% hydrazine hydrate + 57% methanol + 13% water with a small amount of potassium-copper-cyanide. The oxidizer, known as T-Stoff, consisted of a hydrogen peroxide-based formulation, which reacted violently on contact with the C-Stoff fuel, as a hypergolic propellant combination. The violent combustion process resulted in the formation of water, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, and a huge amount of heat sending out a superheated stream of steam, nitrogen and air that was drawn in through the hole in the mantle of the engine, thus providing a forward thrust of approximately 17 kN (3,800 lbf).
The engine was an integral design with all components of the drive, with the exception of fuel tanks, locked in a frame.
A-0: Pre-production model, manufactured from May 1943. The thrust of this engine was regulated between 300 kp (2.9 kN) and 1500 kp (14.7 kN (3,300 lbf)).
A-1: The first series production engine was used in the Messerschmitt Me 163 B from August 1944. The thrust here was adjustable between 100 kp (1 kN) and 1600 kp (15.7 kN (3,500 lbf)).
A-2: Version for the Messerschmitt Me 163B-1a. Weighing only 100 kg (220 lb) complete, this engine consisted of two main assemblies, the roughly-cubical shape framed forward assembly comprising the turbine housing, the fuel pumps geared to the turbine shaft, the control box, a pressure-reducing valve and the electric starter motor, with the aft assembly made up of the combustion chamber, connected to the fore unit by a cylindrical "thrust-tube" containing pipes which carried fuel to the combustion chamber's individual injector jets. The thrust was adjustable between 200 kp (2 kN (450 lbf)) and a maximum of 1700 kp (16.7 kN (3,800 lbf)).
The HWK 109-509B dual-chamber version, on display at the NMUSAF
B-1: Increased performance version of the A-1. This engine had a second, "cruising" combustion chamber, nicknamed the Marschofen, just below the main combustion chamber, with an additional thrust of 300 kp (2.9 kN (650 lbf)). This auxiliary chamber proved necessary due to the actual T-Stoff oxidizer consumption of the main unit, at nearly 5 kg/s, exceeding estimates by 100%. Thrust from main chamber adjustable between 100 kp (1 kN (220 lbf)) and 2000 kp (19.6 kN (4,400 lbf)).
C-1: Dual-chamber motor like the B-series, based on the uprated version of the A-2. The main combustion chamber gave between 400 kp (3.9 kN (880 lbf)) and 2000 kp (19.6 kN (4,400 lbf)), the Marschofen auxiliary chamber 400 kp (3.9 kN (880 lbf)). To be used in the Me 263 (Ju 248).
D-1: Variant of the C-1 for use in the improved B-series airframes of the Bachem Ba 349Natter. Engine designed to be recovered by parachute, along with the entire rear section with empennage.
S-2 A completely revised lightened version for use as a permnanently-installed booster rocket on the Messerschmitt Me 262Heimatschützer IV home defence interceptor.
'HWK RII-211 - Company designation for prototype engines of the 109-509A-2 series