Whippomorpha

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Whippomorpha
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Suborder: Cetruminantia
Infraorder: Whippomorpha
Families

 †Anthracotheriidae
 Hippopotamidae
 †Dichobunidae
 †Helohyidae
 †Cebochoeridae
 †Raoellidae
 †Pakicetidae
 †Ambulocetidae
 †Remingtonocetidae
 †Protocetidae
 †Basilosauridae
 †Llanocetidae
 †Mammalodontidae
 †Kekenodontidae
 †Aetiocetidae
 †Cetotheriidae
 Balaenidae
 Balaenopteridae
 Eschrichtiidae
 Neobalaenidae
 †Simocetidae
 †Agorophiidae
 Physeteridae
 Kogiidae
 †Eurhinodelphinidae
 †Eoplatanistidae
 †Dalpiazinidae
 †Waipatiidae
 †Squalodelphinidae
 Platanistidae
 Ziphiidae
 Lipotidae
 Pontoporiidae
 Iniidae
 †Squalodontidae
 †Kentriodontidae
 Delphinidae
 †Odobenocetopsidae
 Monodontidae
 Phocoenidae

Cladogram showing Whippomorpha within Artiodactylamorpha. Whippomorpha consists of the clades labeled Hippo and Cetaceamorpha.

Whippomorpha is a clade containing the Cetacea (whales, dolphins, etc.) and their closest living relatives, the hippopotamuses, named by Waddell et al. (1999).[1] It is defined as a crown group, including all species that are descendants of the most recent common ancestor of Hippopotamus amphibius and Tursiops truncatus.[1] This would be a sub-grouping of the Cetartiodactyla (which also includes pigs and ruminants). It is not clear how recently whales and hippos share a common ancestor, though the genetic evidence is strong that the cetaceans arose from within the Artiodactyla, thus making the even-toed ungulate grouping a paraphyletic one.[2]

Whippomorpha is a mixture of English (wh[ale] + hippo[potamus]) and Greek (morphe = form). Attempts have been made to rename the clade Cetancodonta[3] but Whippomorpha maintains precedent.[4]


   Cetartiodactyla   

 Tylopoda


   Artiofabula   

 Suina    


   Cetruminantia   

 Ruminantia


   Whippomorpha   

 Hippopotamidae



 Cetacea






References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Waddell, P. J.; Okada, N.; Hasegawa, M. (1999). "Towards Resolving the Interordinal Relationships of Placental Mammals". Systematic Biology 48 (1): 1–5. doi:10.1093/sysbio/48.1.1. JSTOR 2585262. PMID 12078634. 
  2. ^ Beck, Robin MD; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf RP; Cardillo, Marcel; Liu, Fu-Guo; Purvis, Andy (2006). "A higher-level MRP supertree of placental mammals". BMC Evolutionary Biology 6: 93. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-6-93. PMC 1654192. PMID 17101039. 
  3. ^ Spaulding, Michelle; O'Leary, Maureen A.; Gatesy, John (2009). "Relationships of Cetacea (Artiodactyla) Among Mammals: Increased Taxon Sampling Alters Interpretations of Key Fossils and Character Evolution". In Farke, Andrew Allen. PLoS ONE 4 (9): e7062. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007062. PMC 2740860. PMID 19774069. 
  4. ^ Asher, Robert J.; Helgen, Kristofer M. (2010). "Nomenclature and placental mammal phylogeny". BMC Evolutionary Biology 10: 102. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-102. PMC 2865478. PMID 20406454.