Wiglaf

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For the 9th century Mercian ruler, see Wiglaf of Mercia.

Wiglaf (Old English pronunciation: [ˈwiɣlɑf]) is a character in the Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf. He is the son of Weohstan, a Swede of the Wægmunding clan who had entered the service of Beowulf, king of the Geats. Wiglaf is called Scylfing as a metonym for Swede, as the Scylfings were the ruling Swedish clan. While in the service of the Scylfing Onela, king of the Swedes, Weohstan killed the rebel prince Eanmund and took his sword as a trophy;[1] Wiglaf later inherited it.[2] Weohstan belonged to the clan of the Wægmundings, the same clan as Beowulf's father Ecgþeow belonged to; so Wiglaf is Beowulf's distant cousin, and at the time of Beowulf's death he was Beowulf's only living relative.

Beowulf[edit]

1908 depiction of Wiglaf speaking to Beowulf after his battle with the dragon. Beowulf is mortally wounded.

Wiglaf first appears in Beowulf at line 2602, as a member of the band of thanes who go with Beowulf to seek out the dragon that has attacked Geat-Land. This is the first time Wiglaf has gone to war at Beowulf's side.[3] He is called a "praise-worthy shield-warrior", a "prince of the Scylfings", and mæg ælfheres, "kinsman of Ælfhere."[4]

When Beowulf damages his sword wounding the dragon and is burned by the dragon's fire,[5] Wiglaf is the only man of Beowulf's band to overcome his fear of the dragon.[6] He rebukes the other thanes[7] and goes to Beowulf's aid[8] crying words of encouragement.[9]

Wiglaf does not retreat, though his shield is consumed by fire.[10] When Beowulf wounds the dragon a second time, striking so hard his sword shatters,[11] Wiglaf strikes at the open wound with his own sword, tearing at the dragon's throat so it can no longer breathe fire.[12] His hand is badly burned,[13] but his attack allows Beowulf to close and kill the dragon. The poet says of Wiglaf, "So should a man be, a thane at need!"[14]

At Beowulf's command, Wiglaf gathers treasure from the dragon's lair and piles it where Beowulf can see it.[15] The dying Beowulf tells Wiglaf to "watch his people's needs"[16] (by which he means that Wiglaf is to become the next king.) He tells Wiglaf to build him a funeral mound[17] and gives Wiglaf his rings, helm, and mail-shirt.[18] He says that Wiglaf is now "the last of the Wægmundings."[19]

The other eleven men that came with Beowulf[20] gather around the body, and Wiglaf condemns them for their failure of duty and declares that he will order them exiled.[21] He sends a messenger to tell the other Geats what has happened.[22] When the Geats have gathered, Wiglaf addresses them, mourning Beowulf's death and expressing dismay at the bleak future of the Geats without Beowulf to guard them.[23]

Wiglaf's last appearance is at line 3120, where he chooses seven thanes to help him push the dragon's corpse over the cliff into the sea, loot the lair, and lay the treasure on Beowulf's funeral pyre.[24]

Cultural references[edit]

In the 1981 animated film Grendel Grendel Grendel, Wiglaf (voiced by Ernie Bourne) is portrayed as one of Hrothgars thanes rather than an ally of Beowulf, and is killed by Grendel.

In the 2007 film Beowulf directed by Robert Zemeckis, Wiglaf's role (played by Brendan Gleeson) is larger; he is present in the movie from the first introduction of Beowulf and the Geats to the end when Beowulf vanquishes the dragon and dies. The movie makes Wiglaf into a sidekick, the second-in-command and the best friend of the epic hero.

Preceded by:
Beowulf
King of the Geats Succeeded by:
unknown

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lines 2612-5.
  2. ^ Lines 2620-4.
  3. ^ Lines 2625b-2627.
  4. ^ Lines 2603-4.
  5. ^ Lines 2585-95.
  6. ^ Lines 2599-2600.
  7. ^ Lines 2631-60.
  8. ^ Line 2661.
  9. ^ Lines 2663-8.
  10. ^ Lines 2675-7.
  11. ^ Lines 2677-82.
  12. ^ Lines 2699-2702.
  13. ^ Lines 2697-8.
  14. ^ Lines 2708-9.
  15. ^ Lines 2752-82.
  16. ^ Lines 2799-2800.
  17. ^ Lines 2802-8.
  18. ^ Lines 2809-12.
  19. ^ Lines 2813-4.
  20. ^ He took eleven thanes (line 2401) plus the man who knew where the dragon's lair was (line 2406) for a total of thirteen men, counting Beowulf.
  21. ^ Lines 2864-91.
  22. ^ Line 2892.
  23. ^ Lines 3077-3109.
  24. ^ Lines 3120-36.