|This is the talk page for discussing improvements to the Questions page.|
|the Wikipedia Help Project|
- 1 Adolf Hamann
- 2 City image
- 3 Asteroid Juno and the March 11 Tsunami
- 4 L I C Policy
- 5 L I C Policy
- 6 Zipper repairs
- 7 Story Points
- 8 Creation of wikipedia page for Zamilindustrial company
- 9 3 phase generator
- 10 using replace statemnet in abap i wat to solve the problem below
- 11 psoriasis
- 12 How acceprt reffered article
- 13 help
- 14 Add new language for wikipedia
- 15 rdt
- 16 Playa del Rey historical omission
- 17 How I semi-protect the page
- 18 Floods of Ohio
- 19 SATYA AKKALA(ACTOR)
- 20 Early Life
- 21 JW Gold Label vs gold label reserve
- 22 taylor
- 23 Joining
- 24 Where is the article "QuickBooks Hosting"
- 25 ss fort charnisay liberty ship
- 26 Information on a association: With my words or paraphrase
- 27 Taurus .38 cal. brazil no model #
- 28 Risk Management In Pharma
- 29 MD DRUGS
- 30 About the system ssl
- 31 Mark Wright (footballer born 1963)
- 32 essar by product list..
What role did Hamann play in Nowy Sacz Poland in the desecration of the cemetery and the murder of thousands of Jews and Poles? — Preceding unsigned comment added by Humbleharvey (talk • contribs) 18:00, 17 August 2012 (UTC)
I notice the City of Antioch image is not updated with the boundary change. Can I get an idea of when this will be updated? Annette — Preceding unsigned comment added by 220.127.116.11 (talk) 22:12, 20 August 2012 (UTC)
Asteroid Juno and the March 11 Tsunami
I wonder how many people know that on March 11 2011, the asteroid Juno (one of three asteroids on the asteroid belt) was in direct opposition with our sun. In times of the Nile, people used to foresee that these asteroids used to cause the Nile delta to flood. Juno is a stoney asteroid that carries with it a certain magnetism thanks to Jupiter. It makes its voyage to earth roughly every 4.25 years, I call this the fleet year. As it is magnetic, and our sun is magnetic, the opposition to our sun whilst we are in the middle would cause a rip T-junction effect, aka T-sun-amiddle.. One thing that has me a bit stunned is the words my own son had told me about the senator "juno" from his beloved "Star Wars" cartoon. He told me that Juno's mother controls asteroids to hit bases.. Which kind of bases I wonder? Nuclear? Military? Hmm I have so many questions, especially for George Lucas, the show's writer... Thank you.. Concerned in a Corner... — Preceding unsigned comment added by Astrobaby (talk • contribs) 02:26, 12 September 2012 (UTC)
L I C Policy
Dear Sir I was holding a policy no 0674663289 is too old Now I would like to revive or refund the amount in the account.i have deposited amount RS 9954 on 31.3.92 vide your receipt no 91646 through branch unit no 311.Kindly inform the status and either revive ,refund the balance amt to me at your earliest.inform to me at below mentioned mail. Thanks & Regards A.K. chaturvedi 64/93 dampier nagar Mathura-u.p.281001 e mail:- email@example.com — Preceding unsigned comment added by Anoop4vedi (talk • contribs) 07:14, 13 September 2012 (UTC)
L I C Policy
Dear Sir I was holding a policy no 0674663289 is too old Now I would like to revive or refund the amount in the account.i have deposited amount RS 9954 on 31.3.92 vide your receipt no 91646 through branch unit no 311.Kindly inform the status and either revive ,refund the balance amt to me at your earliest.inform to me at below mentioned mail. Thanks & Regards A.K. chaturvedi 64/93 dampier nagar Mathura-u.p.281001 e mail:- firstname.lastname@example.org Anoop4vedi (talk) 07:22, 13 September 2012 (UTC)
PL,Sir tell me the main points white writing a story. As i am doing video editor some time i petch miss shot.And a strenth of story become poor result.While writing story what are the main points which i have to remmeber. — Preceding unsigned comment added by 18.104.22.168 (talk) 14:43, 18 September 2012 (UTC)
Creation of wikipedia page for Zamilindustrial company
I am new to wikipedia and I am looking for an approved editor to write for Zamilindustrial company. Please advise and guide in creating a wikipage with what is required. (22.214.171.124 (talk) 05:53, 29 September 2012 (UTC))
3 phase generator
using replace statemnet in abap i wat to solve the problem below
using replace in abap '& is used to develop all the modules in & by &' replace first & with abap, secound & with sap, third & with german. — Preceding unsigned comment added by 126.96.36.199 (talk) 04:20, 17 October 2012 (UTC)
how soution annaling is carried out for super austentic stainless steel (254 SMO)? and does it improve its mechanical properties and eliminate sigma phase? — Preceding unsigned comment added by 188.8.131.52 (talk) 04:40, 23 October 2012 (UTC)
How acceprt reffered article
--lev (talk) 10:01, 23 November 2012 (UTC) Please take my excuses for my broaken english. I shoud like to read the text of an article by cleaking the hiperlink, for exsample Behind the Mirror: A Search for a Natural History of Human Knowledge (1973) but the abstract only was presented Soncerelly, --lev (talk) 10:01, 23 November 2012 (UTC)
Add new language for wikipedia
hello! i requested for new language (http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Requests_for_new_languages/Wikipedia_Laki). when i can start to broadcast Laki language for Wikiepdia? Themilad (talk) 11:59, 21 January 2013 (UTC)
Playa del Rey historical omission
In 1911, a business establishment burnt to the ground in Playa del Rey. Part of the business was a Master Music Studio specializing in the violin. The business also catered to intimate dinners with entertainment for couples &/or groups. The place was exclusive! The proprietor was Leon de Celis of Los Angeles. I do have a hand written bill for payment. The proprietor died in the fire, patrons survived unscathed. (I can look up family records for details. What I am citing to you, includes a story from my father and an obituary notice saved by the deceased Mother.)Marlene mcgrath7 (talk) 20:37, 13 February 2013 (UTC)
How I semi-protect the page
I want to know how i semi-protect the page.
Floods of Ohio
There were four major rivers that flooded during this time period; the Great Miami River, the Olentangy River, the Ohio and Erie Canal, and the Scioto River. The damage was widespread as 42% of Dayton was underwater for three days. About 125 people died in Dayton and almost 65,000 people were left homeless. In some parts of Columbus, the standing water levels were at almost 17 feet deep and nearly 500 bridges were washed away. When the Olentangy River flooded, a levee broke in Delaware, Ohio causing about 50 to lose their life. The Scioto river also flooded in downtown Columbus cause about 90 lives to be lost. The Scioto river also flooded in Chillicothe which killed 18. The Ohio River also reached a level of about 69 feet. In four days, about 10 inches of rain fell across Ohio. The $100,000,000 of damage and 428 people who died caused Ohio to pass the Vonderheide Act which formed the Miami Conservancy District. What this did was build levees and straightened the river channel throughout the Miami Valley. They also built 5 dry dams to collect excess rain water to control flooding. The Muskingum River in Zanesville reached about 27 feet and the Maumee River reached about 10 feet. This is the single greatest natural disaster to ever hit Ohio, and it probably will be the worst for a long time to come, but many people have forgotten about it.
I am trying to get some feedback on this report. I have a project due in my online history class and any comments or suggestions anyone has, please let me know. It would be greatly appreciated. Thank you for your time and have a nice day. — Preceding unsigned comment added by HistoryOhioResearch (talk • contribs) 01:29, 21 March 2013 (UTC)
Satya is a Telugu comedy Actor,who acted in so many movies including Dhrona,Kodipunju,Pilla Jamindhar,e.t.c .He recently played as one of the main lead in a movie called Swami rara.
JW Gold Label vs gold label reserve
which is better and why?
i think u could have been a awesome teacher, why do you do porn, yu are so much better than that. just think of how many husbands leave their wives cuz they are not as pretty as u. it is hurting america. u r pretty, do some modeling or acting. my daughter is georgeous, and gonna make a good honest living, no porn , or sad jobs. u can do the same taylor.
i am praying for you sister, God bless u
I want to join here, but there is already a User named Pokebub, but when I searched him it said he is not a member/user here. 184.108.40.206 (talk) —Preceding undated comment added 22:21, 15 May 2013 (UTC)
Where is the article "QuickBooks Hosting"
I had setup an article on QuickBooks Hosting. But,i could not find it on Wikipedia. Also,it is getting redirected to QuickBooks. What has happened to it?? I am not well aware about the terms and conditions of Wikipedia article writing. Please help! Also,tell me what should i take into consideration while writing. — Preceding unsigned comment added by 220.127.116.11 (talk) 05:43, 22 June 2013 (UTC)
ss fort charnisay liberty ship
the above ship served during ww2 but is not on your list.My late father in law served on it from September 1944 until april 1945.This is not a query just an update for your records.thank you — Preceding unsigned comment added by 18.104.22.168 (talk) 07:57, 29 June 2013 (UTC)
Information on a association: With my words or paraphrase
My question is: When I enter in a wikipedia article, information about an association, should I paraphrase the information displayed on the page of the association or, on the contrary, I can explain this information with my words? I've had arguments with a user on this subject: He thinks we paraphrase, while I prefer to explain with my words. So, he removed my information, to paraphrase. Ie, he writes exactly the same as in the source, but in quotes, while I explain it in other words. Between quotes would better than how I write, if the information is the of an association?--Isinbill (talk) 10:13, 4 July 2013 (UTC)
Taurus .38 cal. brazil no model #
Given a Tauras .38, made in Brazil. Asked to tear down and cleaqn. Before me someone went into guts and have created a night mare. Have 2 parts not fitting exactly and have no info. or nomenclature for weapon. No model # present. Just .38 cal. made in Brazil. 6 shot .38 cal. someone out there can help???????????Please & Thanks in advance. SJE01 — Preceding unsigned comment added by 22.214.171.124 (talk) 22:53, 26 July 2013 (UTC)
Risk Management In Pharma
|someone else who hasn't read what it says at the top of the page|
RISK MANAGEMENT The word Risk has been used since 1621 as risqué and later it has been spelled as Risk since 1655. What is risk? Risk as various definitions, as per The ISO 31000 (2009) /ISO Guide 73:2002 definition of risk is the 'effect of uncertainty on objectives'. Effect - an effect can change or alter the result, goal, objective we need or expected. It might be positive or negative. Objective – an objective is varied or differed. It can be financially, health, environment, production, process, organization, profits and sales objectives etc. Uncertainty – uncertainty is the state at which there is a partial or complete absence of information related to knowledge or understanding an event, its consequence, or likelihood. That means we do not have clue about an event (a particular happening, occasion, occurrence) and what will be the outcome of that, a positive or negative result. Risk is always associated with things that are uncertain. There can be lot of examples to understand uncertainty, a sudden fire broke out from an industry, or loss of valuable resources in an accident, a natural calamities. All these are uncertain things where we got no idea when it happens.
But most common definition of the word "risk" is possibility of loss or injury.
Risks can be positive too, positive risks are risks that result in good things happening; sometimes called opportunities. An organization can be of any type large, small, medium, profit and non–profit organizations they all have certain objectives and goals. We can say no organization is devoid of goal. While every organization when striving to reach their goals there are lots of factors that cause the deviation, or delay in reaching the desired goals. All activities in an organization are involved in some risk and the organizations try to avoid or at least manage it so that its impact on reaching specific objectives will be smooth and uninterrupted. This managing of the risk is called as risk management. Risk management is defined as coordinated activities to direct and control an organization with regard to risk. Managing risk is a planned process from identifying, assessing, and prioritizing risks and to monitor then control the uncertain events, to minimize potential negative risks while maximizing potential positive risks. Risk management is at the core of any organizations strategic management, managing risk programs is led by senior management. They should make effective policies followed as a culture by every member in the organization.
When this managing risk is implemented with effective policies and followed strictly the achievements can be fruitful. They can be: • Make use of resources more efficiently and effectively • Proactive approach than just working after things happen (reactive) • Competitive advantage • Cost effectiveness • Reduced loss and increased profits • Stronger and flexible business • Increase market share • Achieving objectives and goals as planned • Gain the trust of stakeholders • To depth identification of opportunity and threat • More control over the organization teams and process
The element of risk is most common in any business, industry and every action we make, but we can eradicate the risk by effective risk management. Risk might be potential future problem or an opportunity. Risk can arise from internal or from external factors. Risks are many and can harm to any extent like halt an hour’s work to complete unrecoverable loss to an organization.
They can be:
• Raw materials supply failure; • Flood; • Fire; • An earthquake; • Theft; • Absence of resources; • Error by humans; • Loss of power; • Loss of core competency; • Inflation (cost increase); • Malfunction of the machines; • Accidents at work place; • Accidents or spoilage of resources during transportation; • Fraud or cheating; • Security breach (loss of data or documents); • Disputes (personal or legal); • No capital or cash to run the business; and • Litigation.
There is more number of risks as we know the probability of happening uncertain things are in higher percentage in any event. Risk management is not just associated to certain teams or an up to level in an organization it is integral part of an organization and applied to entire organization’s projects and activities at any time. Managing risk can be done only by practice and experience; it comes over time but not in a fortnight. A proper qualitative as well as quantitative analysis is required with comprehensive framework so that risk is managed effectively and efficiently. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) identifies the following principles of risk management:
1) Risk management always creates and protects values of an organization. 2) It is an integral part of any organization (core strategy). 3) It is proactive (part of decision making). 4) Risk management gives the information and ideas to deal during the uncertainties time. 5) Risk management should be planned, structured, systematic and timely. 6) Risk management is based on the most available information. 7) Risk management is productive and dynamic. 8) It is always transparent. 9) Risk management takes considerations of all human and cultural factors. 10) Risk management helps in growth of an organization. 11) Risk management is designed to cope with internal and external uncertainties.
Risk management process:
1) Risk identification 2) Quantify risks 3) Identify measures 4) Implement measure 5) Monitor and review
Risk identification: Risks are many but efforts are needed to find out the potential risks that when occurred cause a serious problem and huge loss. We need to focus on the risks which are important to our business or organization. An organization works always towards the goal or the organization will be having specific objectives anything that deviates or makes hard to reach that objective or goal can be considered as the risk. And finding the source and working on it reduces the impact of it. For example when we know there is short of raw material to the order we got, to produce more goods. We will plan to get or purchase more raw materials. When we know a new project is being accepted and work has to be started from next week but we got insufficient employees so what we do to skip it is hire more employees depending on the need. So identifying a risk helps to minimize the uncertainty of its effect. There are many departments in an industry for example look out a pharmaceutical industry there are production, marketing, inventory, logistics, research, quality control, quality assurance, regulatory affairs, etc. So every department should put effort to identify the risks and rank them i.e., prioritizing which risk is having more potential to cause a serious trouble.
Quantifying risks: Risk is assessed by mixture of likelihood and impact. So likelihood is probability of happening anything. For example system x has been broke down so there are other systems installed on the same date y, z so there is a probability that they may also broke down. Probability is given in percentage. Impact, if the risk has occurred then what would be possible outcome or problem. For example when the system get broke down then there would be possibility for work cessation about a couple of hours to a day then this might delay in time to reach specific objectives. Some impacts of the risks are very huge like loss of capital, assets, share holders, etc… So at the end by identifying and quantifying risks, we can scale the identified risks and risks that are mostly occur (likelihood) and risks that might cause serious trouble (impact). The likelihood of risks can be assessed by previous experiences. A various number of statistics are there to analyze the risks and rank them but mostly common sense is important to deal with a risk. For example every year there is huge rain in the month of December but that does not mean probability of occurrence of rain is only in December it might be any day or night. Sometimes there would be low likelihood but high impact example like an earthquake in which probability of occurrence is low but impact of it high. Some of the most disastrous events will be never happened before but when it occurred now the impact will be extreme. While we scale the things on the likelihood vs. impact we get always four basic characteristics 1) Low impact and low probability 2) Low impact and high probability. 3) High impact and low probability. 4) High impact and high probability. So we should identify things which come on the high impact area and to focus more on the 4th one i.e. high impact and high probability. The high impact and low probability (3rd) risks should be dealt with contingency plans. These contingency plans are like plan B. It helps in preparing for unwelcomed and unexpected events. Risk matrix is to analyze the risks by likelihood vs. impact where we figure impact on Y axis and likelihood on Y axis. And there are also various grids of (3*3, 4*4, and 6*6) to analyze low, medium, high, and severe risks.
You can handle risks by 4 ways: 1) Avoid 2) Mitigate 3) Transfer 4) Accept
1) Avoid: To avoid a risk is not performing any activity that involves risk. But when we avoid risk we are not exploring things we are capable of and not to grab the potential opportunity.
2) Mitigate: when we can’t avoid a risk then we can try to mitigate it by performing some action or developing a plan that causes a little damage to our process or work. As we say something is always better than nothing. So we perform actions against it to minimize the effect of it than doing nothing.
3) Transfer: we share our risk or transfer it by purchasing insurance. The loss by the risk is paid by insurance company but if it involves only monetary terms, where as the risk which involves delaying time to reach our goal, or any other risks are shared with stakeholders which is a great loss of goodwill against the organization.
4) Accept: The last and the very least we can do, is facing a risk that is accepting it when you can’t avoid, mitigate, or transfer it. Accepting the risk is not just accepting the problem but it is also accepting the gain of the positive potential risks.
Implementing measures: we spend a lot of time, efforts on identifying, quantifying the risks but what is the real need to do that? It is in vain if we do not implement the measures. To make organization more resilient we need to effectively manage implementing measures. Some measures are easily to implement but some measures needs time, efforts, money and more discussions with stake holders too. Although we implement risk measures there will be some risk left at any level it is called as residual risks. But our main aim is to end up with a risk level that is acceptable and does not affect any event deviating from reaching the objectives. Maintaining a risk register, which is a document that records all the risks identified, quantified (likelihood and impact), measures found out, implemented measures on the risks (actions taken) this register helps to manage things more effectively and proper responsibility can be given and taken.
Monitor and review: we should monitor few aspects like Is it cost effective; Does it minimizing the risk; The risk level is acceptable; Are the measures implemented causing any future risks? Are the measures implemented efficient? Once the measures made should not be fixed or rigid they should be flexible and dynamic so that when new risks or opportunities rise they can be properly addressed. We must monitor to make sure things are going right. Review: It is important to continue assessing all the inputs at every level of the process of risk management- Identification, quantifying, identifying measures, and implementing measures.
The risk management is to be central of any organization and the risk management should make every individual aware of the risks. Responsibilities might be given to single person but no individual should felicitate it alone. Proper team work and every individual’s effort and interests make the risks to be in acceptable level.
Risk management in pharma: Risk is associated in every single aspect in pharma sector fromR&Dto its way to a customer.We should be aware of important risks associated in pharma 1). Regulatory risks – These risks are involved in new or old regulations. 2). Human risks - human errors, risks involved in shortage of skills, loss of personnel. 3). Financial risk – These risks involve in financial transactions, loans, uncertainty of a return, interests rate etc... 4). Foreign exchange risk – risks of exchange rates, economic conflict between countries. 5). Market risk – this might be due to risks from stock, interest rates, commodity rates, even foreign exchange rates also affect the market. 6). Political risk – this risks associated are due to change of governments, leaders. 7).Area risk – location of the business running, support of the public nearby. 8). Natural hazard risk – risks because of natural calamities which is danger for every type of business. 9). External threats – risks like loss of value due to competitors, substitutes in the market. 10). Security – risk of security breach, loss of documents, data or any other value information. It might be either due to external or internal persons.
These are the risks mostly associated with pharma industry. But pharmaceutical industries involve in making a product which is used or consumed by living creatures which is called as drug. So making of a drug is a complex process from research & development to the end that is drug in consumer’s hand. The uncertainty of risk associated is very high. To understand the various risks involved we should know the drug life cycle.
First phase: Discovery and research – First we need to understand the basic of a disease, how it occurs and its effect on the body from cellular level to genetic level, every aspect should be clear. Then every known molecule or discovered molecule is been targeted to interact with the target and its action is known whether it is slowing the disease action or no effect has found. Drug development – it involves developing the lead molecule or the most potent structure is made which is effective. After the developing a lead molecule then its testing is done which is very much required by regulatory bodies in cellular level that is cells (in vitro) and in animals (in vivo). By this the effects or the action of the drug is well known. A drug molecule is subjected to clinical trials which help to find out valuable information of the molecule or drug those are safety, efficacy, toxicity and various studies of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic characteristics. These clinical trials involve testing drug on human volunteers. Regulatory review and approval – After the clinical trials, the data or the results obtained in the clinical trials have been made as a report and submitted to authorities e.g. FDA and national authorities. These authorities after a thorough inspection of the clinical data, safety, and efficacy of the drug molecule give approval to drug production. Production and marketing – After the approval by the regulatory authorities the drug can be manufactured in large scale and marketed which involves lot of time, money, and mostly required is quality. Later the post marketing surveillance is conducted which is called as phase 4 clinical trial. To know the effect of the drug after it has been marketed and used by the patients.
Pharma world is growing rapidly and market is growing in terms of value and volume. The norms of the regulatory bodies make new challenges to the industry because laws in the pharma made by regulatory bodies are more stringent. So the risk involved in pharma industry is very high starting from the drug development to drug use by the customer or patient. The uncertainty of risk levels in the research is high because we do not know whether the drug molecule works or not. It involves lot of time, money and much more prone to failure. The drug research is complex process and companies which are huge can face these problems than the small ones which are new and financially unstable with less experience in the research. Patent is very much required for a drug in development and to get the rights to sell the developed drug for a time period. The company which has a patent on the drug molecule enjoys the monopoly pricing for a period of twenty years. There might be no need a company should invent or formulate a new drug; it might also enter the generic market in which the drug prices of a generic drug are 30-90% less than the branded drugs. But the generic drugs can be manufactured only after a time period i.e. if a patent expires of the branded drug or filing an ANDA application which involves stringent regulations, and time driven actions to make and market the generic drugs. So the target molecule which shows the action has been selected and its action or effect will be recorded or known by performing clinical trials. The trials involves on animals in laboratory later on humans. This clinical trial involves four phases. Phase 1 – It involves testing the drug on 20 – 80 volunteers to check the safety of the drug in the given dose level. If there is any abnormalities or unacceptable reactions occur the drug has been terminated. This means after the research of the drug for years investing time, money, and efforts if the drug molecule is working negatively than required action it has been terminated, so the level of risk is high. Phase 2 – It involves testing the drug on more humans counting in hundreds (100 – 300). In this drug efficacy along with effective dosage and administration frequency are found out, if the required results are not satisfactory the drug is then taken back to further development. Phase 3 – Thousands of patients are involved in phase 3, about 300 – 3000 patients are selected and testing is done. This phase is most expensive. Efficacy of the drug and drug-drug interactions, side effects, toxicity, plant design are also been studied, and every aspect should be documented and statistical data must be presented to regulatory bodies if there is any absence of required data or any manipulations present the drug project has been terminated. Phase 4 – It is called as post marketing surveillance i.e. after approval of the drug to enter into the market. The safety surveillance is done that is called as pharmacovigilance. In which further drug – drug interactions, actions of drugs on pregnant women and long term adverse effects on large population and over the long time is collected. If there are any adverse reactions occurred over long time the drug manufacturing is stopped and all the investment made is a loss. The entire process from drug research to this point takes about 12 – 14 years and involves billions of us dollar. (Costing over 1 billion U.S.$). Out of approximately 5000 screened compounds only 250 goes for preclinical testing and 5 move to clinical testing and only one compound gets approval to manufacture and market. The risk involved in clinical trials is the highest because humans are involved and lots of works (studies) are conducted and the probability of uncertainty is high. The molecule when shows undesired effect the whole project of drug development is terminated. Then the manufacturing of the drug at industry scale is done, which involves the suppliers, raw materials, equipments - machines, technology, employees, teams, managers, share holders and huge money investment. All these are called internal and external stake holders. External also involves consumers, public, political systems, etc... So the personnel involved in pharma drug manufacturing should be skilled and qualified. The equipments should have required standards so that the quality of the product is never reduced. The quality is one of the most important assets and it is very much required because the drug designed has been administered by a human and any deteriorated quality will lead to, affect the health of the person and cause serious adverse reactions too. Even the huge or the large companies may have lot of rigorous research going but will have very few products in the market which should cover the expenses of the research going and manufacturing of the current products. Fraud is the most dangerous risk, which involves either own personnel or external person involving in stealing the data or the formulae and other important information which makes huge loss of efforts made and time spent. The marketing and sales is a high priority in pharma, which involves post surveillance and making sales effective by sales force, who focus on primarily the doctor and the pharmacists. These sales people who are known as pharma marketers require scientific knowledge about the product with more of communication and interpersonal skills because they need to sell the product or should make a doctor to prescribe it to a patient. Risk involved here is skilled and proper knowledgeable personnel should be employed and trained well, if not competitors product might be prescribed by the doctor and loss of sales may occur, a proper relationship should be maintained with doctor. As in every industry the risk of natural calamities is often, the pharma industry is also prone to it when proper measures are not taken against fire, earthquake, floods, rains, etc... Always a contingency plan should be present and made with past experiences and expert references.
Risk management plan – a risk management plan helps to find out the possible risks involved in every aspect of research, development, manufacture and marketing. • What are the risks? • When might they occur at which phase? • Who is at risk? • What might be the loss due to the risk? • Are they avoidable? So first the root cause of the risk should be know then the probability of occurrence and its impact is figured and this helps to reduce the loss level to acceptable level. The Risk Management Strategy gives an idea in which risks and issues will be figured, by whom? Which responsible individual and how risks and issues will be raised, analyzed, reviewed, communicated, and escalated.
Risk management process: The process of Risk management involves four phases. 1) Mitigation 2) Preparedness 3) Response 4) Recovery
Mitigation: Mitigation efforts attempt to prevent hazards from developing into disasters, or to reduce the adverse impact of disasters when they occur. The mitigation phase differs from the other phases because it focuses on the long-term measures for reducing or eliminating risk. The implementation of mitigation strategies can also be considered a part of the recovery process if applied after a disaster occurs. However, even if applied as part of recovery efforts, actions that reduce or eliminate risk over time are considered mitigation efforts. A fore running activity to the mitigation is the better identification of risks. Identifying and evaluating hazard is a physical process. In risk assessment, various hazards within a given area are identified. Mitigation measures can be any kind structural or non structural. Structural measures use technological solutions while non-structural measures include legislation, land use planning and insurance. Mitigation is the most cost efficient process to reduce the impact or of hazards. However, mitigation is not always suitable and structural mitigation in particular may have adverse effects on ecosystem. Mitigation provides the regulations regarding evacuations and sanctions against those who break the rules. If there is higher risk, then mitigation should be higher to slow down the severity, seriousness or painfulness. Preparedness: An efficient preparedness measure is to create an Emergency Operations Center (EOC). Common preparedness measures include the following: • Communication plans having terminology and methods that can be understood easily. • Development and practice of multi-agency coordination and incident command. • Proper maintenance and training of emergency services, including mass human resources such as community emergency response teams. • Development and exercise of emergency population warning methods combined with emergency shelters and evacuation plans. • Inventory, stockpiling and maintenance of supplies and equipment. • Developing organizations of trained volunteers from amongst civilian populations. Professional emergency workers are immediately overwhelmed in mass emergencies, trained, organized and responsible volunteers can be extremely valuable. Another is the Red Cross. If volunteers are organized, trained in the incident command system, and agree to mobilize, it may go a long way in the mitigating hazards as has been demonstrated by experience of Emergency Response Teams such as in the Red Cross etc, • Casualty prediction to forecast casualties and injuries or deaths arising out of a given kind of event. This gives planners and administrators an idea of size and package of resources needed to be made available to respond to a particular kind of event. Response & Recovery: In the recovery phase, an attempt is made to restore the affected area to its original state. It differs from the response phase in its focus; recovery should be started as soon as possible after the emergency needs have been addressed. Recovery efforts are primarily concerned with actions that involve reconstruction of destroyed property may be some reemployment and bring purchase of infrastructure. An important aspect of effective recovery efforts is taking advantage of a ‘window of opportunity’ to take measures that might be otherwise unpopular. The citizens or public who has affected from the disaster are likely to accept the mitigation changes if the wound of disaster is still ripe.
Preventing chemical disasters:
In 1987 the global chemical industry launched a voluntary initiative, Responsible Care, committing chemical companies to achieve frequent improvements in environmental, health and safety performance beyond or more levels of regulations required by the local or international regulations.
The chemical industry, in countries such as Japan, Mexico, Canada, China and Thailand has also set up emergency networks. Every major region and country has developed and adapted its own system, following ICE and CHEMTREC guidelines. Chemical companies are complementing emergency networks with their own schemes and systems. Most chemical companies provide their deliveries with safety data sheets, emergency procedures and emergency labels, under the supervision of technical agencies.
Companies may also offer direct assistance and support to disaster victims, by funding recovery activities, helping implement conservation and emergency preparedness plans, and offering medical care to victims and their families.
Experience at the organization and association has made us to formulate our own references on how great we can use international resources in the disaster prevention and how public-private partnerships may reduce impacts over the hazards.
We must create a case or brief bag of disaster reduction actions compiling best practice and lessons learned from previous disasters, and an archive or classification of technologies for disaster reduction. The chemical industry should have well developed codes, translated into several other languages and adapt to the different environments in which we operate the organization.
After all we must enroot, establish and enhance early warning systems still the most severe aspect of risk reduction or attrition. We need to create suitable technical instruments, constantly monitored and improved by network of professionals. The lack of suitable early-warning systems is the key obstacle to prevention, allowing accidents to develop into fully-fledged disasters.
Risk management methods and tools are very important to find the risk and minimize its impact: 1) Basic risk management methods – this involve flowcharts, previous data, cause and effects diagrams. 2) FMEA (Failure Mode Effect Analysis) – potential tool for evaluation of processes failures and its impact on the product. It helps to find out important failures and its impact. It can be used for analyzing the equipment or machines involved in process of manufacturing the product. 3) FMECA (failure modes, effects, and critical analysis) – it is helpful to find out the occurrence; degree of severity can be measured. It is helpful in finding out the risks and their impact in manufacturing process. 4) Fault tree analysis – it is model of tree or a chain which shows the failure (single failure) and reason for the failure with one or more reasons involved for the cause of failure. It is helpful to find out the root cause of the failure. 5) HACCP (Hazard analysis critical control point) – This is a systematic, proactive, and preventive tool for assuring product quality, reliability, and safety. It is a framed approach that employs technical and scientific principles to analyze, evaluate, prevent, and control the risks and cause of risks from manufacturing process, product and marketing. HACCP consists of the following seven steps: • Determine the critical control points • Inculcate the critical limits • Authorize a team to monitor the critical control points. • Monitor and control is required when there is deviation. • Set up system to verify that the HACCP system is working effectively. • A record-keeping system to note down the process in employed.
Conclusion: Risk is present at every level in the industry and any type of the industry is associated with risk. The probability of uncertainty is may be high or low. Risks may be negative or positive (which are assumed as opportunities). Proper approach to manage the risk is very important it cannot be done alone by a single individual. It is a team approach and followed by every individual. Everyone has a part to play and which involves assessing, evaluating, and implementing the strategies. The risk management is at the core of any organization. Risk management should be part of organization culture. Risk cannot be avoided but it can be turned to our advantage and make organization more resilient in coming future. As pharma sector or industry is involved more in innovation, research and development the probability of uncertainty is very high and risk involved can cause huge loss as time, money, efforts are involved in it. Proper risk management methods and tools are required to assess and evaluate the risks. By evaluation, serious risks with severe impact can be found and solutions or measures are implemented to reduce the impact of risks. The risks measures implemented are properly monitored and controlled so that to assure all things are going according to the plan. The risk management is a wise investment if properly processed.
1) Definitions of risk by Brian A. Burt, BDS, MPH, PhD. 2) ISO 31000:2009 Risk management - Principles and guidelines (Reference number ISO/FDIS 31000:2009(E) 3) http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/risk/#Bib 4) ISO Guide 73:2009, Risk management — Vocabulary5) IEC 31010, Risk management — Risk assessment guidelines 6) Risk Management Basics - ISO 31000 Standards, by Louis Kunimatsu, CRISC, IT Security & Strategy, Ford Motor Company. 7) Risk Management for the Pharmaceutical Industry by Edward Griffith Principal Consultant, Fujitsu Consulting. 8) Guidance for industry, quality risk management Q 9 June 2006 ICH. 9) Risk management simplified Andy Osborne ISBN- 978-1-906316-48-8. 10) http://www.theirm.org/ (The institute of risk management). 11) RISK MANAGEMENT: PROCEDURES, METHODS AND EXPERIENCES by Heinz-Peter Berg (Vol.1) 2010, June 12) Principles of emergency management, September 11, 2007. 13) Pharmaceutical R&D: Costs, Risks, and Rewards, February 1993, OTA-H-522. 14) Guidance for industry, pharmaceutical quality system Q 10, April 2010 ICH. 15) Quality Risk Management Principles and Industry Case Studies. Frank, S. Brooks, R. Creek more, December 28, 2008. 16) WHO, Guideline on quality risk management by Dr Simon Mills, United Kingdom, August 2010. 17) Risk management in drug development projects by Helsinki University of technology laboratory of industrial management, report 2004. 18) The Future of Pharmaceuticals Health Care, Horizons Institute for the Future, 2001. 19) Risk management in pharmaceuticals and life sciences industry, KMPG, June 2009. 20) A Risk Modeling Framework for the Pharmaceutical Industry, Warren Adis, Hagan School of Business, Iona College. 21) Managing hazards to prevent major industrial accidents, JULY 1994 ISBN 0-477-03549-3.
HEI ITS SO SIMILAR TALKNG ABOUT DRUGS .. I HAVE A QUESTION AND A CONCLUSION TOO RESOLVE 1 FRST QUESTION IZZ WAT IZZ MD /NN IN INDIA ITS A DRUG RUNS UNDER CHEMIST /DRUGGIST CHAIN.... NOW ITS TIME FOR NEXT CONCLUSION IZZ .CHEMICAL FORM DO HAVE NEGATIVE OR POSITIVE REACTION
WITH HUMAN TERMS .I WOULD LIKE TO SPICIFY IT IN MORE UNDERSTANDABLE WAY THAT EACH INDIVISUAL MIND SET CAN UNDERSTAND .... AND COME UP WITH MORE ...WORDS ..I HOPE IN A POSITIVE WAY ..... STILL I HAVE DONT HAVE CONCRET SUBJECT TO DEBAIT ON....... HI AM DEV 26 ... TALKING WITH LAST 14 YRS OF EXPERIENCE..IN MY HABITUAL SATISFACTION MINOR WAYS. UNDER LOTS OF FORMS .. GAS;LIQUID;CHEMICAL' ITS JUST MANDATORY SCENE WHEN U R THROUGH THIS STAGE — Preceding unsigned comment added by 126.96.36.199 (talk) 11:41, 22 August 2013 (UTC)
About the system ssl
- Replied at Talk:Main Page#About the system ssl where you also posted. This is also the wrong place. PrimeHunter (talk) 13:47, 2 September 2013 (UTC)
Mark Wright (footballer born 1963)
|This edit request has been answered. Set the
He had spent seven years with Liverpool, but had only managed to collect one major trophy in that time. His seven years on Merseyside could not have been more different to the 10 years leading up to his arrival; before he arrived, the Reds had achieved 10 successive top two finishes (six of them championships), won two FA Cups, three League Cups and a European Cup. In the seven years after his arrival, they never finished higher than third (once finishing as low as eighth) and won just two major trophies.
- Not done: Please see the box at the top of this page. "This page is for discussing the questions page itself". Thanks. --Stfg (talk) 21:09, 21 October 2013 (UTC)
essar by product list..
sir, I want to kow the essar oil product list and there by product.. please let me know the product and by product of essar oil refinery,vadinar,jamnagar,gujarat... — Preceding unsigned comment added by 188.8.131.52 (talk) 04:44, 18 November 2013 (UTC)