Big Mama Thornton

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Big Mama Thornton
Thornton Big Mama 01.jpg
Big Mama Thornton circa 1955-1960
Background information
Birth name Willie Mae Thornton
Born (1926-12-11)December 11, 1926
Origin Ariton, Alabama, United States
Died July 25, 1984(1984-07-25) (aged 57)
Los Angeles, California, United States
Genres Rhythm and blues, Texas blues
Occupations Singer, songwriter
Instruments Vocals, drums, harmonica
Years active 1947–1984
Labels Peacock, Arhoolie, Mercury, Pentagram, Backbeat, Vanguard, Ace Records (UK)
Associated acts Muddy Waters Blues Band, Lightnin' Hopkins, John Lee Hooker

Willie Mae "Big Mama" Thornton (December 11, 1926 – July 25, 1984) was an American rhythm and blues singer and songwriter. She was the first to record Leiber and Stoller's "Hound Dog" in 1952,[1] which became her biggest hit. It spent seven weeks at number one on the Billboard R&B charts in 1953[2] and sold almost two million copies.[3] However, her success was overshadowed three years later, when Elvis Presley recorded his more popular rendition of "Hound Dog".[4] Similarly, Thornton's "Ball 'n' Chain" had a bigger impact when performed and recorded by Janis Joplin in the late 1960s.

Style[edit]

Thornton's performances were characterized by her deep, powerful voice and strong sense of self. Many collaborators described her with words such as monstrous, intimidating, formidable, and menacing.[citation needed] She was given her nickname, "Big Mama," by Frank Schiffman, manager of Harlem's Apollo Theater, due to her big voice, size, and personality. Thornton specialized in playing drums and harmonica as well as singing, and she taught herself how to play these instruments simply by watching other musicians perform. Her style was heavily influenced by the gospel music that she witnessed growing up in the home of a preacher, though her genre could be described as blues.[5]

Thornton was famous for her transgressive gender expression. She often dressed as a man in her performances, wearing items such as work shirts and slacks. This led to many rumors about her sexuality, though none confirmed. Her improvisation was a notable part of her performance. She often enters call-and-response exchanges with her band, inserting confident and notably subversive remarks. Her play with gender and sexuality set the stage for later rock 'n' roll artists' own plays with sexuality.[5]

Feminist scholars such as Maureen Mahon often praise Thornton for subverting traditional roles of African American women.[5] She added a female voice to a field that was dominated by white males, and her strong personality transgressed patriarchal and white supremacist stereotypes of what an African American woman should be. This transgression was an integral part of her performance and stage persona.[6]

Biography[edit]

Early life[edit]

Thornton's birth certificate states that she was born in Ariton, Alabama,[7] but in an interview with Chris Strachwitz she claims Montgomery, Alabama as her birthplace.[citation needed] Her introduction to music started in a Baptist church, where her father was a minister and her mother a church singer. She and her six siblings began to sing at very early ages. Thornton left Montgomery at age 14 in 1941, following her mother's death.[8] In her early teens she moved to Atlanta, Georgia where she appeared as a dancer in a variety show; subsequently, in the early '40s, she became a member of Sammy Green's Hot Harlem Review. Although her introduction to music started within the church, Thornton's musical education came through pure observation of Rhythm and Blues artists Bessie Smith and Memphis Minnie, whom she admired deeply.[9]

Career[edit]

Thornton's deep, forceful voice had no trace of her roots in Alabama, where she wasn’t as accepted as she was in the blues community.[citation needed] With the change that Rhythm and Blues was experiencing in the late 1940s, Thornton’s career began to take off when she moved to Houston in 1948. "A new kind of popular blues was coming out of the clubs in Texas and Los Angeles, full of brass horns, jumpy rhythms, and wisecracking lyrics."[10] She signed a recording contract with Peacock Records in 1951 and performed at the Apollo Theater in 1952. Also in 1952, she recorded "Hound Dog" while working with another Peacock artist, Johnny Otis. Songwriters Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller[4] were present at the recording, with Leiber demonstrating the song in the vocal style they had envisioned.[11][12] The record was produced by Leiber and Stoller as Otis had to play drums after it was found that the original drummer couldn't play an adequate part. It was the first time Leiber and Stoller produced a recording, which went to number one on the R&B chart.[13] Although the record made her a star, she saw little of the profits.[14] Thornton continued to record for Peacock until 1957 and performed in R&B package tours with Junior Parker and Esther Phillips. Thornton originally recorded her song "Ball and Chain" for Bay-Tone Records in the early 1960s, "and though the label chose not to release the song…they did hold on to the copyright—which meant that Thornton missed out on the publishing royalties when Janis Joplin recorded the song later in the decade."[9]

As her career began to fade in the late 1950s and early 1960s,[1] she left Houston and relocated to the San Francisco Bay Area, "playing clubs in San Francisco and L.A. and recording for a succession of labels",[9] notably Berkeley-based Arhoolie Records. In 1965, she toured with the American Folk Blues Festival package in Europe,[15] where her success was notable "because very few female blues singers at that time had ever enjoyed success across the Atlantic."[16] While in England that year, she recorded her first album for Arhoolie, titled Big Mama Thornton – In Europe. It featured backing by blues veterans Buddy Guy (guitar), Fred Below (drums), Eddie Boyd (keyboards), Jimmy Lee Robinson (bass), and Walter "Shakey" Horton (harmonica), except for three songs on which Fred McDowell provided acoustic slide guitar.

In 1966, Thornton recorded her second album for Arhoolie titled Big Mama Thornton with the Muddy Waters Blues Band – 1966, with Muddy Waters (guitar), Sammy Lawhorn (guitar), James Cotton (harmonica), Otis Spann (piano), Luther Johnson (bass guitar), and Francis Clay (drums). She performed at the Monterey Jazz Festival in 1966 and 1968. Her last album for Arhoolie, Ball n' Chain, was released in 1968. It was made up of tracks from her two previous albums, plus her composition "Ball and Chain" and the standard "Wade in the Water". A small combo including her frequent guitarist Edward "Bee" Houston provided backup for the two songs. Janis Joplin and Big Brother and the Holding Company's performance of "Ball 'n' Chain" at the Monterey Pop Festival in 1967 and release of the song on their number one album Cheap Thrills renewed interest in Thornton's career.[5]

By 1969, she signed with Mercury Records. Mercury released her most successful album, Stronger Than Dirt, which reached number 198 in the Billboard Top 200 record chart. Thornton had now signed a contract with Pentagram Records and could finally fulfill one of her biggest dreams. A blues woman and the daughter of a preacher, Thornton loved the blues and what she called the “good singing” of gospel artists like the Dixie Hummingbirds and Mahalia Jackson. That’s why she always wanted to record a gospel record. And of course Thornton really had the power to sing those gospel songs, and with the album called Saved (PE 10005), she achieved her longtime goal. You can hear the gospel classics “Oh, Happy Day,” “Down By The Riverside,” “Glory, Glory Hallelujah,” “He’s Got The Whole World In His Hands,” “Lord Save Me,” “Swing Low, Sweet Chariot,” “One More River” and “Go Down Moses” on this LP.[17] By now the American blues revival had come to an end. While the original blues acts like Big Mama Thornton mostly played smaller venues, younger people played their versions of blues in massive arenas for big money. Since the blues had seeped into other genres of music, the blues musician no longer needed impoverishment or geography for substantiation; the style was enough. While at home the offers became fewer and smaller, things changed for good in 1972. Again, like seven years before, the reason was a call from Europe. Thornton was asked to rejoin the American Folk Blues Festival tour and, since she always thought of Europe as a very good place for her and given the lack of engagements in the U.S. she agreed happily. Thus, on March 2, the tour brought Big Mama Thornton to Germany, France, Switzerland, Austria, Italy, Holland, Denmark, Norway, and Finland ending on March 27 in Stockholm. With her on the bill were Eddie Boyd, Big Joe Williams, Robert Pete Williams, T- Bone Walker, Paul Lenart, Hartley Severns, Edward Taylor and Vinton Johnson. As in 1965 they garnered recognition and respect from other great musicians who wanted to see them. [18] In the 1970s, years of heavy drinking began to hurt Thornton's health. She was in a serious auto accident, but recovered to perform at the 1973 Newport Jazz Festival with Muddy Waters, B.B. King, and Eddie "Cleanhead" Vinson, a recording of which is called The Blues—A Real Summit Meeting released by Buddha Records. One of Thornton's last albums was Jail for Vanguard Records in 1975. It captured her performances during mid-1970s concerts at two Northwestern U.S. prisons. She was backed by a blues ensemble that featured sustained jams from George "Harmonica" Smith, as well as guitarists Doug Macleod, Bee Houston and Steve Wachsman, drummer Todd Nelson, saxophonist Bill Potter, bassist Bruce Sieverson, and pianist J. D. Nicholson.

In 1979, she performed at the San Francisco Blues Festival and the Newport Jazz Festival in 1980. In the early 1970s, Thornton's sexual proclivities became a question among blues fans.[10] Big Mama also performed in the Blues Is A Woman concert that year, alongside classic blues legend Sippie Wallace, sporting a man's 3-piece suit, straw hat, and gold watch. She sat at stage center and played the pieces she wanted to play that were not on the program.[19]

Thornton died at age 57 in Los Angeles July 25, 1984 of heart and liver complications due to her long-standing alcohol abuse. Her weight dropped from 350 to 95 pounds within a short period of time; that is a total of 255 pounds that she lost because of her critical condition.[9]

Recognition[edit]

During her career, Thornton was nominated for the Blues Music Awards six times.[5] In 1984, she was inducted into the Blues Hall of Fame. In addition to "Ball 'n' Chain" and "They Call Me Big Mama," Thornton wrote twenty other blues songs.[20] Her "Ball 'n' Chain" is included in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame list of the "500 Songs that Shaped Rock and Roll".[21]

In 2004, the non-profit Willie Mae Rock Camp for Girls—named for Thornton—was founded to offer a musical education to girls from ages eight to eighteen.[5]

The first full-length biography of Thornton will be published in 2014.[22]

Discography[edit]

Studio & live albums[edit]

Year Title Label
1965 Big Mama Thornton – In Europe Arhoolie
1966 Big Mama Thornton with the Muddy Water Blues Band Arhoolie
1969 Stronger Than Dirt Mercury
1970 The Way It Is Mercury
1970 Maybe Roulette Records
1970 She's Back Backbeat
1973 Saved Backbeat
1975 Jail (Live) Vanguard
1975 Sassy Mama! (Live) Vanguard
1978 Mama's Pride Vanguard

Compilation[edit]

Year Title Label
1968 Ball N' Chain Arhoolie

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Russell, Tony (1997). The Blues: From Robert Johnson to Robert Cray. Dubai: Carlton Books Limited. p. 177. ISBN 1-85868-255-X. 
  2. ^ Billboard: Big Mama Thornton – Biography
  3. ^ University of Texas: Willa Mae Thornton
  4. ^ a b Gilliland, John (1969). "Show 7 - The All American Boy: Enter Elvis and the rock-a-billies. [Part 1]" (audio). Pop Chronicles. Digital.library.unt.edu. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Mahon, Maureen (2011). "Listening for Willie Mae "Big Mama" Thornton’s Voice: The Sound of Race and Gender Transgressions in Rock and Roll". Women and Music: A Journal of Gender and Culture 15: 1–17. doi:10.1353/wam.2011.0005. 
  6. ^ Waterman, Dick (2003). Between Midnight and Day: The Last Unpublished Blues Archive. New York: Thunder's Mouth. ISBN 978-1933784458. 
  7. ^ Mahon, Maureen. "Mama's Voice". Rock & Roll Hall of Fame. Retrieved 2 June 2014. 
  8. ^ Fay, Robert (1999). "Thornton, Willie Mae ('Big Mama')". In Appiah, Kwame Anthony; Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience (1st ed.). Basic Civitas Books. p. 1845. ISBN 0-465-00071-1. 
  9. ^ a b c d Gaar, Gillian (1992). She's a Rebel: The History of Women in Rock & Roll. Seattle: Seal Press. pp. 2–4. ISBN 978-1580050784. 
  10. ^ a b O'Dair, Barbara (1997). Trouble Girls: The Rolling Stone Book of Women in Rock. New York: Random House. 
  11. ^ Hound Dog - The Leiber and Stoller Autobiography. pages 61-65
  12. ^ Rooks, Rikky. Lyrics: Writing Better Words for Your Songs, Backbeat Books, page 171, (2006) - ISBN 0-87930-885-0
  13. ^ Bronson, Fred. The Billboard Book of Number 1 Hits, Billboard Books, - ISBN 0-8230-7677-6
  14. ^ Santelli, Robert. The Big Book of Blues, page 464
  15. ^ American Folk Blues Festival 1962-1965, Vol. 2
  16. ^ Dicaire, David (1999). Blues Singers: Biographies of 50 Legendary Artists of the Early 20th Century. North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc. p. 212. ISBN 978-0786406067. 
  17. ^ Big Mama Thornton: The Life and Music. McFarland Inc. ISBN 978-0-7864-7759-3
  18. ^ Big Mama Thornton: The Life and Music. McFarland Inc. ISBN 978-0-7864-7759-3
  19. ^ Johnson, Maria (2010). ""You Just Can't Keep a Good Woman Down": Alice Walker Sings the Blues". African American Review 30: 221–236. 
  20. ^ Jessie Carney, Smith. Notable Black American Women, Gale Research, page 642, (2003) - ISBN 0-8103-9177-5
  21. ^ "500 Songs that Shaped Rock and Roll". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. 1995. Retrieved May 10, 2013. 
  22. ^ Big Mama Thornton: The Life and Music. McFarland Inc. ISBN 978-0-7864-7759-3

External links[edit]