Z. K. Matthews
Kimberley, Cape Colony
|Died||12 May 1968
|Fields||Social Anthropology and Custom Law|
|Institutions||University of Fort Hare|
|Alma mater||University of South Africa
London School of Economics
|Doctoral advisor||Bronisław Malinowski|
|Part of a series on|
|Social and cultural anthropology|
Zachariah Keodirelang "ZK" Matthews (1901 – 12 May 1968) was a prominent black academic in South Africa, lecturing at South African Native College (since 1955 University of Fort Hare), where many future leaders of the African continent were among his students.
Z.K. Matthews was born in Winter's Rush near Kimberley in 1901, the son of a Bamangwato mineworker. Z.K. grew up in urban Kimberley, but maintained close connections with his mother’s rural Barolong relatives. He went to Mission high school in the eastern Cape where he attended Lovedale. After Lovedale he studied at South African Native College in Fort Hare, and in 1923 he wrote the external examination of the University of South Africa.
In 1924 he was appointed head of the high school at Adams College in Natal, where Albert Luthuli was also a teacher. With Luthuli he attended meetings of the Durban Joint Council and held office in the Natal Teacher’s Association, of which he eventually became President.
In 1930 after private study, Matthews earned an LLB degree in South Africa, a degree he was awarded once again by the University of South Africa. He was admitted as an attorney and practiced for a short time in Alice. In 1933 he was invited to study at Yale University in the United States, and there in the following year he completed an MA. He then went on to spend a year at the London School of Economics where he studied anthropology under Bronisław Malinowski.
He returned to South Africa in 1935 and in 1936 was appointed Lecturer in Social Anthropology and Native Law and Administration at University of Fort Hare. After Davidson Don Tengo Jabavu’s retirement in 1944, Matthews was promoted to Professor and became head of Fort Hare’s Department of African Studies.
Matthews did not confine himself to academic studies; he combined his study of anthropology and the law with an active political involvement. He found his true political home in the ANC. He had attended meetings of Congress as a boy in the company of Sol Plaatje, a senior relative, but it was only in 1940 that he became a member of the organisation. In 1943 he was elected to the National Executive Committee and at the same time he became a member of the Native Representative Council, a purely advisory body that has been condemned as a “toy telephone” and which Z.K. found generally frustrating, although he found dealing with the Native Education Act of 1945 a “valuable experience” not for the process but for the people he met. In June 1949 Matthews succeeded James Calata as ANC provincial president in the Cape.
In June 1952, on the eve of the Defiance Campaign, he left South Africa, and took up a position as visiting professor at New York’s Union Theological Seminary. He returned home in May 1953, and although he was not present at the Congress of the People in 1955 he assisted Lionel "Rusty" Bernstein draw up the Freedom Charter that was adopted there.
Matthews was arrested in December 1956, and was one of the accused in the Treason Trial. On his release from the trial in late 1958, he returned to Fort Hare, but resigned his post in protest against the passing of legislation that reduced the university to an ethnic college for the Xhosa community only. In 1961 he moved to Geneva to become secretary of the Africa division of the World Council of Churches. In 1966 he accepted the post of Botswana ambassador to the United States and he died there in Washington in May 1968.
An interview with Matthews was conducted by George M. Houser in September 1954.
- A New Native Teachers' Course, Ilanga lase Natal , November 4, 11, 1927
- Bantu Law and Western Civilisation in South Africa: A Study in the Clash of Cultures Yale University, 1934. Master of Arts thesis.
- A Short History of the Tshidi Barolong, Fort Hare Papers , vol. 1 no. 1, June 1945
- Foreword, in Responsible Government in a Revolutionary Age, [ed.] Z. K. Matthews, Association Press, New York, 1966.
- Freedom For My People, Cape Town: Collings, 1981. (Published posthumously in 1981)
- Africa holds her own. An appreciation of Bantu tribal and national culture in the Imperial Protectorates and in the Union of South Africa. By W. Bryant Mumford. in co-operation with Hugh Ashton . [and] Z.K. Matthews.
- African awakening and the universities, [Cape Town] University of Cape Town, 1961.
- Rich, Paul B. (1993). Hope and despair : English-speaking intellectuals and South African politics : 1896-1976. London u.a.: British Acad. Press. p. 78. ISBN 1850434891.
- Former deputy minister Joe Matthews dies Mail & Guardian, 19 August 2010
- Interview with Z.K. Matthews at the African Activist Archive