|about 5 million|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Various Mizo/Kuki/Chin languages|
|Christianity, animism, Buddhism|
|Related ethnic groups|
The Zo, also known as the Mizo, the Kuki, the Chin, the Zomi and a number of other names, are a large group of related Tibeto-Burman tribal peoples spread throughout the northeastern states of India, northwestern Burma, and the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh. In northeastern India, they are present in: Nagaland, Mizoram, Manipur and Assam. This dispersal across international borders resulted from British colonial policy that drew the borders on political grounds rather than ethnic ones.
The Zo have typical Tibeto-Burman features and are generally of short-stature with straight black hair and dark brown eyes. Natively, the Zo speak one of the fifty or so languages that linguists call the Kukish language group, which is also known as Kuki-Chin (Kuki/Chin), Mizo/Kuki/Chin, or Kuki Naga.
Various name have been used for the Zo peoples, but the individual groups general acknowledge descent from ancestral Zo. Among the more prominent names given to this group are "Chin" generally in Burma, "Lushai" generally in Burma, "Kuki" generally in India, "Mizo" generally in India
In the literature, the term Kuki first appeared in the writings of Rawlins when he wrote about the tribes of the Chittagong Hill Tracts. It referred to a "wild tribe" comprising numerous clans. These clans shared a common past, culture, customs and tradition. They spoke in dialects that had a common root language belonging to the Tibeto-Burman group.
The origin of the name "Chin" is uncertain. Later the British used the compound term 'Chin-Kuki-Mizo' to group the Kukish language speaking people, and the Government of India inherited this. Missionaries chose to employ the term Chin to christen those on the Burmese side and the term Kuki on the Indian side of the border. Chin nationalist leaders in Burma's Chin State popularized the term “Chin” following Burma's independence from Britain.
Beginning the 1990s, the generic names Chin and Kuki have been rejected by some for "Zomi", a name used by several small groups speaking Northern Kukish languages, including the Zou. The speakers of the Northern Kukish languages, are sometimes lumped together as the Gangte people. Some Zomi nationalists have stated that the use of the label Chin would mean subtle domination by Burmese groups.
They spread out in the contiguous regions of Northeast India, Northwest Burma (Myanmar), and the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh. In India, they are most prominent in Manipur, Nagaland, Assam and Mizoram. Some fifty Zo peoples are recognised as Scheduled tribes.
- T. Haokip, 'The Kuki Tribes of Meghalaya: A Study of their Socio-Political Problems', in S.R. Padhi (Ed.). Current Tribal Situation: Strategies for Planning, Welfare and Sustainable Development. Delhi: Mangalam Publications, 2013, p. 85.
- Grierson (1909), Linguistic Survey of India, Vol. 111, Tibeto-Burman Family, General Introduction, Specimens of the Tibetan Dialects, The Himalayan Dialects and The North Assam Group, Pt. II, with Grierson (1903), Specimens of the Bodo, Naga and Kachin Groups, Pt. III, Grierson (1904) Specimens of the Kuki, Chin and Burma Groups, Pt. 111, Vol. 111
- Violence and identity in North-east India: Naga-Kuki conflict - Page 201 S. R. Tohring - 2010 "... for these tribes including • the Kuki/ speaking tribe such as: 'Chin', 'Mizo', 'Chin-Kuki-Mizo', 'CHIKIM', 'Zomi', 'Zou', 'Zo'. ... During the British era, the British rulers used the term 'Chin-Kuki-Mizo' and the Government of India seemed to follow ..."
- Sachchidananda, R. R. Prasad -Encyclopaedic profile of Indian tribes- Page 530 1996
- Pradip Chandra Sarma, Traditional Customs and Rituals of Northeast India: Arunachal ... Page 288 Vivekananda Kendra Institute of Culture "chose to employ the term Chin to christen those on the Burmese side and the term Kuki on the Indian side of the ... The Mizo of today's Mizoram are the descendants of Luseia, and the Zomi of Manipur are from the Songthu line, and thus all ..."
- Amy Alexander Burma: "we are Like Forgotten People" : the Chin People of Burma Page 16 2009 "... within Chin State, Chin nationalist leaders popularized the term “Chin” following Burma's independence from Britain."
- History of Zomi T. Gougin - 1984 "In Burma the people like to renounce the term Chin in favour of Zomi. Zomi is becoming more and more popular in Churachandpur district of Manipur adjoining the Chin State of Burma as group identity in repudiating Chin and Kuki. The term ..."
- B. Datta-Ray Tribal identity and tension in north-east India Page 34 1989 "Now to accept the term Chin would mean subtle Paite domination in the matter, which the other groups like the Hmars, Zous, Anals and Koms may not coopt. A Zomi leader categorically stated that 'Chin' is a Burmese word which literally ..."
- Keat Gin Ooi - Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East ... - Volume 1 - Page 353 2004 "Until recently, there appeared to be a consensus that the term Chin was not an identity that any of these peoples would choose to describe themselves, ... Some promote the terms Zo and Zomi, stating that they are derived from the name of the mythic common ancestor of all ..."
- Ramamoorthy Gopalakrishnan - Socio-political framework in North-East India Page 149 1996 "Later, the term 'Mizo' created a lot of confusion particularly when the Zomi National Congress emerged. ... But the problem arose with the use of the term 'Chin' (it is not given due recognition in the List of Scheduled Tribes in Manipur)."
- Chinkholian Guite - Politico-economic development of the tribals of Manipur: a study ... Page 8 1999 "Conceptual Meaning and Various Interpretations of the Terms— Chin, Kuki and Mizo (a) Chin The term Chin is the name given to this Zo/Zou tribes (formerly known as Chin-Kuki-Mizo) group of people in Myanmar (Burma). They are mostly found in the ..."
- "Alphabetical List of India's Scheduled Tribes". Archived from the original on 10 February 2009.