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In ancient texts of Indian philosophy, depending on the context, Īśvara can mean supreme soul, ruler, lord, king, queen or husband. In medieval era Hindu texts, depending on the school of Hinduism, Īśvara means God, Supreme Being, personal god, or special Self. Swami Vivekananda had opined that according to Vedas, Īśvara is the supreme god and creator of the universe.
- Indian History Congress (1955). Proceedings, Indian History Congress. p. 35.
- Dharmanarayan Das (1977). The early history of Kaliṅga: a socio-economic and cultural history of coastal Orissa. Punthi Pustak. p. 67.
- The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda - Volume 1. Advaita Ashrama (Publication House of Ramakrishna Math, Belur Math). pp. 183–. ISBN 978-81-7505-862-0.
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