1815 Beethoven

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1815 Beethoven
Discovery [1]
Discovered byK. Reinmuth
Discovery siteHeidelberg Obs.
Discovery date27 January 1932
MPC designation(1815) Beethoven
Named after
Ludwig van Beethoven[1]
(German composer)
1932 CE1 · 1938 EP
1952 SO · 1954 BD
1958 TJ · 1969 UY1
1971 BN1
main-belt[1][2] · (outer)
Orbital characteristics[2]
Epoch 27 April 2019 (JD 2458600.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc86.62 yr (31,638 d)
Aphelion3.7534 AU
Perihelion2.5495 AU
3.1515 AU
5.59 yr (2,043 d)
0° 10m 34.32s / day
Physical characteristics
Mean diameter
23.74±7.79 km[5]
29.82±0.28 km[6]
30.36±2.2 km[7]
30.598±0.168 km[8][9]
32.74±1.30 km[10]
33.899±0.294 km[11]
Tholen = F[2][13]
C0 (Barucci)[3]
B–V = 0.617[2]
U–B = 0.330[2]

1815 Beethoven, provisional designation 1932 CE1, is a carbonaceous background asteroid from the outer regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 30 kilometers (19 miles) in diameter. It was discovered on 27 January 1932, by German astronomer Karl Reinmuth at the Heidelberg Observatory.[1] The uncommon F-type asteroid seems to have a long rotation period of 54 hours (tentative).[13] It was named after Ludwig van Beethoven.[1]

Orbit and classification[edit]

Beethoven is a non-family asteroid from the main belt's background population when applying the hierarchical clustering method to its proper orbital elements.[3][4] Based on osculating Keplerian orbital elements and in previous analysis by Zappalà, the asteroid has also been classified as a member of the Themis family (602), a very large family of carbonaceous asteroids, named after 24 Themis.[3][13]

It orbits the Sun in the outer main-belt at a distance of 2.5–3.8 AU once every 5 years and 7 months (2,043 days; semi-major axis of 3.15 AU). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.19 and an inclination of 3° with respect to the ecliptic.[2] The body's observation arc begins with its official discovery observation at Heidelberg in January 1992.[1]


This minor planet was named after German composer Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827).[1] The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center before November 1977 (M.P.C. 3935).[14]

Physical characteristics[edit]

In the Tholen classification, Beethoven is an uncommon, carbonaceous F-type asteroid,[2] while in the Barucci taxonomy, it is a C0 type.[3]

Rotation period[edit]

In January 2005, a fragmentary rotational lightcurve of Beethoven was obtained from photometric observations by Robert Stephens at his Santana Observatory (646) in California. Lightcurve analysis gave a rotation period of 54±1 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.2 magnitude (U=1).[12]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite and several publications by the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Beethoven measures between 23.7 and 33.9 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.04 and 0.10.[5][6][7][8][9][10][11]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link adopts the results obtained by IRAS, that is, an albedo of 0.0548 and a diameter of 30.36 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 11.36.[13]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "1815 Beethoven (1932 CE1)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1815 Beethoven (1932 CE1)" (2018-09-10 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
  3. ^ a b c d e "Asteroid 1815 Beethoven". Small Bodies Data Ferret. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
  4. ^ a b "Asteroid (1815) Beethoven – Proper elements". AstDyS-2, Asteroids – Dynamic Site. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  5. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Kramer, E. A.; Grav, T.; et al. (September 2016). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Two: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astronomical Journal. 152 (3): 12. arXiv:1606.08923. Bibcode:2016AJ....152...63N. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/3/63.
  6. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8.
  7. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System – IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0: IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
  8. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; Kramer, E. A.; Masiero, J. R.; et al. (June 2016). "NEOWISE Diameters and Albedos V1.0". NASA Planetary Data System: EAR-A-COMPIL-5-NEOWISEDIAM-V1.0. Bibcode:2016PDSS..247.....M. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
  9. ^ a b Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121.
  10. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 7 December 2018. (online, AcuA catalog p. 153)
  11. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90. (catalog)
  12. ^ a b Stephens, Robert D. (September 2005). "Asteroid lightcurve photometry from Santana Observatory - winter 2005". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 32 (3): 66–68. Bibcode:2005MPBu...32...66S. ISSN 1052-8091.
  13. ^ a b c d e "LCDB Data for (1815) Beethoven". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 7 December 2018.
  14. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 7 December 2018.

External links[edit]