1902 Shaposhnikov

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1902 Shaposhnikov
Discovery [1]
Discovered byT. Smirnova
Discovery siteCrimean Astrophysical Obs.
Discovery date18 April 1972
MPC designation(1902) Shaposhnikov
Named after
Vladimir Shaposhnikov
(Soviet astronomer)[2]
1972 HU · 1940 GK
1941 MC · 1950 TD4
1951 WY1 · 1951 YD
1958 TP1 · 1958 VB
1959 XA · 1972 JA
main-belt · (outer)[1]
Hilda[3] · background [4]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc77.07 yr (28,149 days)
Aphelion4.8450 AU
Perihelion3.0853 AU
3.9651 AU
7.90 yr (2,884 days)
0° 7m 29.28s / day
Physical characteristics
Dimensions83.443±1.723 km[5]
89.24±33.98 km[6]
91.60±1.54 km[7]
96.86±3.2 km[8]
97.01 km (derived)[3]
14h (dated)[9]
20.987±0.005 h[10][a]
20.9959±0.0005 h[11]
21.2 h[12]
21.34 h[13]
0.0385 (derived)[3]
Tholen = X[1][3] · P[14]
B–V = 0.729 [1]
U–B = 0.254 [1]
9.22[3][12] · 9.29±0.27[15] · 9.51[1][6][7][8]

1902 Shaposhnikov, provisional designation 1972 HU, is a dark Hildian asteroid from the outermost region of the asteroid belt, approximately 92 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 18 April 1972, by Russian astronomer Tamara Smirnova at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory in Nauchnyj, on the Crimean peninsula.[16] The asteroid was named after Soviet astronomer and WWII casualty Vladimir Shaposhnikov.[2] It was one of the last larger asteroids discovered in the main belt.

Orbit and characteristics[edit]

Shaposhnikov belongs to the dynamical Hilda group.[3] Members of this group stay in a 3:2 orbital resonance with the gas giant Jupiter and are located in the outermost part of the asteroid belt. Shaposhnikov is, however, not a member of the collisional Hilda family (001) but a non-family asteroid of the background population when applying the Hierarchical Clustering Method to its proper orbital elements.[4] It orbits the Sun at a distance of 3.1–4.8 AU once every 7 years and 11 months (2,884 days; semi-major axis of 3.97 AU). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.22 and an inclination of 12° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] The body's observation arc begins with its first observation as 1940 GK at Turku Observatory in April 1940, or 32 years prior to its official discovery observation at Nauchnyj.[16]

Physical characteristics[edit]

In the Tholen classification, Shaposhnikov is an X-type asteroid, which encompasses the E, M and P-types.[1][3] Since its albedo is known to be very low (see below), its spectral type has been refined to a primitive P-type asteroid.[14] In addition, it has been characterized as a D-type asteroid in the Bus–DeMeo taxonomy.[14]:42

Rotation period and poles[edit]

Several rotational lightcurves of Shaposhnikov have been obtained from photometric observations since 1989.[9][10][12][13][a] Lightcurve analysis gave a consolidated rotation period of 21.2 hours with a brightness amplitude between 0.29 and 0.42 magnitude (U=2/2+/3).[3][12] Most asteroid have periods below 20 hours.

A 2016-published study also modeled Shaposhnikov's lightcurve using photometric data from various sources. It gave a sidereal period of 20.9959 hours, as well as a spin axis in ecliptic coordinates (λ, β) of (326.0°, 37.0°) and (144.0°, 79.0°).[11]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Shaposhnikov measures between 83.443 and 96.86 kilometers in diameter and its surface has a low albedo between 0.0296 and 0.04.[5][6][7][8]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.0385 and a diameter of 97.01 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 9.22.[3]

Based on current diameter estimates, Shaposhnikov is the most recent discovered outer main-belt asteroid that is near the 100-kilometer diameter range. The next larger asteroid, 1390 Abastumani (101 km) was already discovered in the 1930s, four decades earlier.[17]


This minor planet was named in honour of Vladimir Grigorevich Shaposhnikov (1905–1942), who worked at the Simeiz Observatory and was an expert in astrometry, before he was killed on the Eastern Front during the Second World War.[2] The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center before November 1977 (M.P.C. 3936).[18]


  1. ^ a b Lightcurve plot of (1902) Shaposhnikov by Brian Warner (2017) at CS3. Rotation period of 20.987±0.005 hours. Quality Code of 2+. Summary figures at the LCDB


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1902 Shaposhnikov (1972 HU)" (2017-11-02 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(1902) Shaposhnikov". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1902) Shaposhnikov. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 152. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_1903. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i "LCDB Data for (1902) Shaposhnikov". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  4. ^ a b "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  5. ^ a b c Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Spahr, T.; McMillan, R. S.; et al. (January 2012). "WISE/NEOWISE Observations of the Hilda Population: Preliminary Results". The Astrophysical Journal. 744 (2): 15. arXiv:1110.0283. Bibcode:2012ApJ...744..197G. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/744/2/197. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; et al. (December 2015). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year One: Preliminary Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 814 (2): 13. arXiv:1509.02522. Bibcode:2015ApJ...814..117N. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/814/2/117. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  7. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  8. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System: IRAS–A–FPA–3–RDR–IMPS–V6.0. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Archived from the original on 2016-06-03. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  9. ^ a b Binzel, Richard P.; Sauter, Linda M. (February 1992). "Trojan, Hilda, and Cybele asteroids - New lightcurve observations and analysis". Icarus. 95 (2): 222–238. Bibcode:1992Icar...95..222B. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(92)90039-A. ISSN 0019-1035. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  10. ^ a b Warner, Brian D.; Stephens, Robert D. (July 2017). "Lightcurve Analysis of Hilda Asteroids at the Center for Solar System Studies: 2016 December thru 2017 April". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 44 (3): 220–222. Bibcode:2017MPBu...44..220W. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  11. ^ a b Hanus, J.; Durech, J.; Oszkiewicz, D. A.; Behrend, R.; Carry, B.; Delbo, M.; et al. (February 2016). "New and updated convex shape models of asteroids based on optical data from a large collaboration network". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 586: 24. arXiv:1510.07422. Bibcode:2016A&A...586A.108H. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201527441.
  12. ^ a b c d Dahlgren, M.; Lahulla, J. F.; Lagerkvist, C.-I.; Lagerros, J.; Mottola, S.; Erikson, A.; et al. (June 1998). "A Study of Hilda Asteroids. V. Lightcurves of 47 Hilda Asteroids". Icarus. 133 (2): 247–285. Bibcode:1998Icar..133..247D. doi:10.1006/icar.1998.5919. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  13. ^ a b Gonano, M.; Mottola, S.; Neukum, G.; di Martino, M. (December 1990). "Physical study of outer belt asteroids". Space Dust and Debris; Proceedings of the Topical Meeting of the Interdisciplinary Scientific Commission B /Meetings B2. 11 (12): 197–200. Bibcode:1991AdSpR..11..197G. doi:10.1016/0273-1177(91)90563-Y. ISSN 0273-1177. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  14. ^ a b c Fornasier, S.; Clark, B. E.; Dotto, E. (July 2011). "Spectroscopic survey of X-type asteroids". Icarus. 214 (1): 131–146. arXiv:1105.3380. Bibcode:2011Icar..214..131F. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2011.04.022.
  15. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  16. ^ a b "1902 Shaposhnikov (1972 HU)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  17. ^ "JPL Small-Body Database Search Engine: orbital class (IMB or MBA or OMB) and H < 10 (mag)". JPL Solar System Dynamics. Retrieved 2014-03-17.
  18. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 10 November 2017.

External links[edit]