Page semi-protected

Jupiter

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Jupiter Astronomical symbol of Jupiter
An image of Jupiter taken by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope
Full disk view in natural color, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope in April 2014[a]
Designations
Pronunciation/ˈpɪtər/ (About this soundlisten)[1]
AdjectivesJovian /ˈviən/
Orbital characteristics[7]
Epoch J2000
Aphelion816.62 million km (5.4588 AU)
Perihelion740.52 million km (4.9501 AU)
778.57 million km (5.2044 AU)
Eccentricity0.0489
398.88 d
13.07 km/s (8.12 mi/s)
20.020°[3]
Inclination
100.464°
2023-Jan-21[5]
273.867°[3]
Known satellites79 (as of 2018)[6]
Physical characteristics[7][15][16]
Mean radius
69,911 km (43,441 mi)[b]
Equatorial radius
  • 71,492 km (44,423 mi)[b]
  • 11.209 Earths
Polar radius
  • 66,854 km (41,541 mi)[b]
  • 10.517 Earths
Flattening0.06487
  • 6.1419×1010 km2 (2.3714×1010 sq mi)[b][8]
  • 121.9 Earths
Volume
  • 1.4313×1015 km3 (3.434×1014 cu mi)[b]
  • 1,321 Earths
Mass
  • 1.8982×1027 kg (4.1848×1027 lb)
  • 317.8 Earths
  • 1/1047 Sun[9]
Mean density
1,326 kg/m3 (2,235 lb/cu yd)[c]
24.79 m/s2 (81.3 ft/s2)[b]
2.528 g
0.2756±0.0006[10]
59.5 km/s (37.0 mi/s)[b]
9.925 hours[11] (9 h 55 m 30 s)
Equatorial rotation velocity
12.6 km/s (7.8 mi/s; 45,000 km/h)
3.13° (to orbit)
North pole right ascension
268.057°; 17h 52m 14s
North pole declination
64.495°
Albedo0.503 (Bond)[12]
0.538 (geometric)[13]
Surface temp. min mean max
1 bar level 165 K (−108 °C)
0.1 bar 112 K (−161 °C)
−2.94[14] to –1.66[14]
29.8" to 50.1"
Atmosphere[7]
Surface pressure
20–200 kPa;[17] 70 kPa[18]
27 km (17 mi)
Composition by volume

Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System. It is a gas giant with a mass one-thousandth that of the Sun, but two-and-a-half times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined. Jupiter is one of the brightest objects visible to the naked eye in the night sky and has been known to ancient civilizations since before recorded history. It is named after the Roman god Jupiter.[19] When viewed from Earth, Jupiter can be bright enough for its reflected light to cast visible shadows,[20] and is on average the third-brightest natural object in the night sky after the Moon and Venus.

Jupiter is primarily composed of hydrogen with a quarter of its mass being helium, though only about a tenth of the number of molecules are helium. It may also have a rocky core of heavier elements,[21] but like the other giant planets, Jupiter lacks a well-defined solid surface. Because of its rapid rotation, the planet's shape is that of an oblate spheroid (it has a slight but noticeable bulge around the equator). The outer atmosphere is visibly segregated into several bands at different latitudes, resulting in turbulence and storms along their interacting boundaries. A prominent result is the Great Red Spot, a giant storm that is known to have existed since at least the 17th century when it was first seen by telescope. Surrounding Jupiter is a faint planetary ring system and a powerful magnetosphere. Jupiter has almost a hundred known moons and possibly many more,[22] including the four large Galilean moons discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610. Ganymede, the largest of these, has a diameter greater than that of the planet Mercury.

Pioneer 10 was the first spacecraft to visit Jupiter, making its closest approach to the planet in December 1973; Pioneer 10 identified plasma in Jupiter's magnetic field and also found that Jupiter's magnetic tail is nearly 800 million kilometres long, covering the entire distance to Saturn.[23] Jupiter has been explored on a number of occasions by robotic spacecraft, beginning with the Pioneer and Voyager flyby missions from 1973 to 1979, and later by the Galileo orbiter, which arrived at Jupiter in 1995.[24] In 2007 Jupiter was visited by the New Horizons probe, which used Jupiter's gravity to increase its speed and bend its trajectory en route to Pluto. The latest probe to visit the planet is Juno, which entered orbit around Jupiter in July 2016.[25][26] Future targets for exploration in the Jupiter system include the probable ice-covered liquid ocean of its moon Europa.

Formation and migration

Astronomers have discovered 720 planetary systems with multiple planets.[27] Regularly these systems include a few planets with masses several times greater than Earth's (super-Earths), orbiting closer to their star than Mercury is to the Sun, and sometimes also Jupiter-mass gas giants close to their star. Earth and its neighbor planets may have formed from fragments of planets after collisions with Jupiter destroyed those super-Earths near the Sun. As Jupiter came toward the inner Solar System, in what theorists call the grand tack hypothesis, gravitational tugs and pulls occurred causing a series of collisions between the super-Earths as their orbits began to overlap.[28] Researchers from Lund University found that Jupiter's migration went on for around 700,000 years, in a period approximately 2–3 million years after the celestial body started its life as an ice asteroid far from the sun. The journey inwards in the solar system followed a spiralling course in which Jupiter continued to circle around the sun, albeit in an increasingly tight path due to gravitational forces from the surrounding gases in the solar system.[29] Jupiter moving out of the inner Solar System would have allowed the formation of inner planets, including Earth.[30] However, the formation timescales of terrestrial planets resulting from the grand tack hypothesis appear inconsistent with the measured terrestrial composition.[31] Moreover, the likelihood that the grand tack actually occurred in the solar nebula is very low.[32] In fact, some models predict the formation of Jupiter's analogues whose properties are close to those of the planet at the current epoch.[33]

Physical characteristics

Jupiter is mainly gas and liquid and is the largest planet in the Solar System, with a diameter of 142,984 km (88,846 mi) at its equator.[34] The average density of Jupiter, 1.326 g/cm3, is the second highest of the giant planets, but lower than those of the four terrestrial planets.[35]

Composition

Jupiter's upper atmosphere is about 90% hydrogen and 10% helium by percent volume of gas molecules. A helium atom has about four times the mass of a hydrogen atom, so the composition is different when described as the proportion of mass contributed by different atoms. Thus, Jupiter's atmosphere is approximately 75% hydrogen and 24% helium by mass, with the remaining one percent of the mass consisting of other elements. The atmosphere contains trace amounts of methane, water vapor, ammonia, and silicon-based compounds. There are also traces of carbon, ethane, hydrogen sulfide, neon, oxygen, phosphine, and sulfur. The outermost layer of the atmosphere contains crystals of frozen ammonia. Through infrared and ultraviolet measurements, trace amounts of benzene and other hydrocarbons have also been found.[36] The interior contains denser materials—by mass it is roughly 71% hydrogen, 24% helium, and 5% other elements.[37][38]

The atmospheric proportions of hydrogen and helium are close to the theoretical composition of the primordial solar nebula. Neon in the upper atmosphere only consists of 20 parts per million by mass, which is about a tenth as abundant as in the Sun.[39] Helium is also depleted to about 80% of the Sun's helium composition. This depletion is a result of precipitation of these elements into the interior of the planet.[40]

Based on spectroscopy, Saturn is thought to be similar in composition to Jupiter, but the other giant planets Uranus and Neptune have relatively less hydrogen and helium and relatively more ices and are thus now termed ice giants.[41]

Mass and size

Jupiter's diameter is one order of magnitude smaller (×0.10045) than that of the Sun, and one order of magnitude larger (×10.9733) than that of Earth. The Great Red Spot is roughly the same size as Earth.

Jupiter's mass is 2.5 times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined—this is so massive that its barycenter with the Sun lies above the Sun's surface at 1.068 solar radii from the Sun's center.[42] Jupiter is much larger than Earth and considerably less dense: its volume is that of about 1,321 Earths, but it is only 318 times as massive.[7][43] Jupiter's radius is about one tenth the radius of the Sun,[44] and its mass is one thousandth the mass of the Sun, so the densities of the two bodies are similar.[45] A "Jupiter mass" (MJ or MJup) is often used as a unit to describe masses of other objects, particularly extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs. So, for example, the extrasolar planet HD 209458 b has a mass of 0.69 MJ, while Kappa Andromedae b has a mass of 12.8 MJ.[46]

Theoretical models indicate that if Jupiter had much more mass than it does at present, it would shrink.[47] For small changes in mass, the radius would not change appreciably, and above about 500 M (1.6 Jupiter masses)[47] the interior would become so much more compressed under the increased pressure that its volume would decrease despite the increasing amount of matter. As a result, Jupiter is thought to have about as large a diameter as a planet of its composition and evolutionary history can achieve.[48] The process of further shrinkage with increasing mass would continue until appreciable stellar ignition was achieved, as in high-mass brown dwarfs having around 50 Jupiter masses.[49]

Although Jupiter would need to be about 75 times as massive to fuse hydrogen and become a star, the smallest red dwarf is only about 30 percent larger in radius than Jupiter.[50][51] Despite this, Jupiter still radiates more heat than it receives from the Sun; the amount of heat produced inside it is similar to the total solar radiation it receives.[52] This additional heat is generated by the Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism through contraction. This process causes Jupiter to shrink by about 1 mm/yr.[53][54] When it was first formed, Jupiter was much hotter and was about twice its current diameter.[55]

Internal structure

Jupiter was expected to either consist of a dense core, a surrounding layer of liquid metallic hydrogen (with some helium) extending outward to about 78% of the radius of the planet,[52] and an outer atmosphere consisting predominantly of molecular hydrogen,[54] or perhaps to have no core at all, consisting instead of denser and denser fluid (predominantly molecular and metallic hydrogen) all the way to the center, depending on whether the planet accreted first as a solid body or collapsed directly from the gaseous protoplanetary disk. However, the Juno mission, which arrived in July 2016,[25] found that Jupiter has a very diffuse core, mixed into the mantle.[56] A possible cause is an impact from a planet of about ten Earth masses a few million years after Jupiter's formation, which would have disrupted an originally solid Jovian core.[57][58] It is estimated that the core is 0.3–0.5 of the planetary radius, and contains heavy elements 7–25 the mass of Earth.[59]

Above the layer of metallic hydrogen lies a transparent interior atmosphere of hydrogen. At this depth, the pressure and temperature are above hydrogen's critical pressure of 1.2858 MPa and critical temperature of only 32.938 K.[60] In this state, there are no distinct liquid and gas phases—hydrogen is said to be in a supercritical fluid state. It is convenient to treat hydrogen as gas extending downward from the cloud layer to a depth of about 1,000 km,[52] and as liquid in deeper layers. Physically, there is no clear boundary—the gas smoothly becomes hotter and denser as one descends.[61][62] Rain-like droplets of helium and neon precipitate downward through the lower atmosphere, depleting the abundance of these elements in the upper atmosphere.[40][63] Rainfalls of diamonds have been suggested to occur, as well as on Saturn[64] and the ice giants Uranus and Neptune.[65]

The temperature and pressure inside Jupiter increase steadily inward, This is observed in microwave emission and required because the heat of formation can only escape by convection. At the pressure level of 10 bars (1 MPa), the temperature is around 340 K (67 °C; 152 °F). The hydrogen is always supercritical (that is, never encounters a first-order phase transition) even as it changes gradually from molecular fluid to a metallic fluid at around 100–200 GPa, where the temperature is perhaps 5,000 K (4,730 °C; 8,540 °F). The temperature of Jupiter's diluted core is estimated at around 20,000 K (19,700 °C; 35,500 °F) or more with an estimated pressure of around 4,500 GPa.[66]

Atmosphere

Jupiter has the largest planetary atmosphere in the Solar System, spanning over 5,000 km (3,000 mi) in altitude.[67][68]

Cloud layers

South polar view of Jupiter
Enhanced color view of Jupiter's southern storms

Jupiter is perpetually covered with clouds composed of ammonia crystals, and possibly ammonium hydrosulfide. The clouds are in the tropopause and are in bands of different latitudes, known as tropical regions. These are sub-divided into lighter-hued zones and darker belts. The interactions of these conflicting circulation patterns cause storms and turbulence. Wind speeds of 100 m/s (360 km/h) are common in zonal jet streams.[69] The zones have been observed to vary in width, color and intensity from year to year, but they have remained sufficiently stable for scientists to name them.[43]

The cloud layer is only about 50 km (31 mi) deep, and consists of at least two decks of clouds: a thick lower deck and a thin clearer region. There may also be a thin layer of water clouds underlying the ammonia layer. Supporting the idea of water clouds are the flashes of lightning detected in the atmosphere of Jupiter. These electrical discharges can be up to a thousand times as powerful as lightning on Earth.[70] The water clouds are assumed to generate thunderstorms in the same way as terrestrial thunderstorms, driven by the heat rising from the interior.[71] The Juno mission revealed the presence of "shallow lightning" which originates from ammonia-water clouds relatively high in the atmosphere.[72] These discharges carry "mushballs" of water-ammonia slushes covered in ice, which fall deep into the atmosphere.[73] Upper-atmospheric lightning has been observed in Jupiter's upper atmosphere, bright flashes of light that last around 1.4 milliseconds. These are known as "elves" or "sprites" and appear blue or pink due to the hydrogen.[74][75]

The orange and brown colors in the clouds of Jupiter are caused by upwelling compounds that change color when they are exposed to ultraviolet light from the Sun. The exact makeup remains uncertain, but the substances are thought to be phosphorus, sulfur or possibly hydrocarbons.[52][76] These colorful compounds, known as chromophores, mix with the warmer, lower deck of clouds. The zones are formed when rising convection cells form crystallizing ammonia that masks out these lower clouds from view.[77]

Jupiter's low axial tilt means that the poles always receive less solar radiation than the planet's equatorial region. Convection within the interior of the planet transports energy to the poles, balancing out the temperatures at the cloud layer.[43]

Time-lapse sequence from the approach of Voyager 1, showing the motion of atmospheric bands and circulation of the Great Red Spot. Recorded over 32 days with one photograph taken every 10 hours (once per Jovian day). See full size video.

Great Red Spot and other vortices

The best known feature of Jupiter is the Great Red Spot,[78] a persistent anticyclonic storm that is larger than Earth, located 22° south of the equator. It is known to have existed since at least 1831,[79] and possibly since 1665.[80][81] Images by the Hubble Space Telescope have shown as many as two "red spots" adjacent to the Great Red Spot.[82][83] The storm is large enough to be visible through Earth-based telescopes with an aperture of 12 cm or larger.[84] The oval object rotates counterclockwise, with a period of about six days.[85] The maximum altitude of this storm is about 8 km (5 mi) above the surrounding cloudtops.[86]

The Great Red Spot is larger than the Earth.[87] Mathematical models suggest that the storm is stable and may be a permanent feature of the planet.[88] However, it has significantly decreased in size since its discovery. Initial observations in the late 1800s showed it to be approximately 41,000 km (25,500 mi) across. By the time of the Voyager flybys in 1979, the storm had a length of 23,300 km (14,500 mi) and a width of approximately 13,000 km (8,000 mi).[89] Hubble observations in 1995 showed it had decreased in size again to 20,950 km (13,020 mi), and observations in 2009 showed the size to be 17,910 km (11,130 mi). As of 2015, the storm was measured at approximately 16,500 by 10,940 km (10,250 by 6,800 mi),[89] and is decreasing in length by about 930 km (580 mi) per year.[87][90]

In 2000, an atmospheric feature formed in the southern hemisphere that is similar in appearance to the Great Red Spot, but smaller. This was created when several smaller, white oval-shaped storms merged to form a single feature—these three smaller white ovals were first observed in 1938. The merged feature was named Oval BA, and has been nicknamed Red Spot Junior. It has since increased in intensity and changed color from white to red.[91][92][93]

The Great Red Spot is decreasing in size (May 15, 2014).[94]

In April 2017, scientists reported the discovery of a "Great Cold Spot" in Jupiter's thermosphere at its north pole that is 24,000 km (15,000 mi) across, 12,000 km (7,500 mi) wide, and 200 °C (360 °F) cooler than surrounding material. The feature was discovered by researchers at the Very Large Telescope in Chile, who then searched archived data from the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility between 1995 and 2000. They found that, while the Spot changes size, shape and intensity over the short term, it has maintained its general position in the atmosphere across more than 15 years of available data. Scientists believe the Spot is a giant vortex similar to the Great Red Spot, and also appears to be quasi-stable like the vortices in Earth's thermosphere. Interactions between charged particles generated from Io and the planet's strong magnetic field likely resulted in redistribution of heat flow, forming the Spot.[95]

Magnetosphere

Aurorae
Aurorae on the north and south poles
(animation).
Aurorae on the north pole of Jupiter
(Hubble)
Infrared view of southern lights
(Jovian IR Mapper)

Jupiter's magnetic field is fourteen times stronger than Earth's, ranging from 4.2 gauss (0.42 mT) at the equator to 10–14 gauss (1.0–1.4 mT) at the poles, making it the strongest in the Solar System (except for sunspots).[77] This field is thought to be generated by eddy currents—swirling movements of conducting materials—within the liquid metallic hydrogen core. The volcanoes on the moon Io emit large amounts of sulfur dioxide, forming a gas torus along the moon's orbit. The gas is ionized in the magnetosphere, producing sulfur and oxygen ions. They, together with hydrogen ions originating from the atmosphere of Jupiter, form a plasma sheet in Jupiter's equatorial plane. The plasma in the sheet co-rotates with the planet, causing deformation of the dipole magnetic field into that of a magnetodisk. Electrons within the plasma sheet generate a strong radio signature that produces bursts in the range of 0.6–30 MHz which are detectable from Earth with consumer-grade shortwave radio receivers.[96][97]

At about 75 Jupiter radii from the planet, the interaction of the magnetosphere with the solar wind generates a bow shock. Surrounding Jupiter's magnetosphere is a magnetopause, located at the inner edge of a magnetosheath—a region between it and the bow shock. The solar wind interacts with these regions, elongating the magnetosphere on Jupiter's lee side and extending it outward until it nearly reaches the orbit of Saturn. The four largest moons of Jupiter all orbit within the magnetosphere, which protects them from the solar wind.[52]

The magnetosphere of Jupiter is responsible for intense episodes of radio emission from the planet's polar regions. Volcanic activity on Jupiter's moon Io (see below) injects gas into Jupiter's magnetosphere, producing a torus of particles about the planet. As Io moves through this torus, the interaction generates Alfvén waves that carry ionized matter into the polar regions of Jupiter. As a result, radio waves are generated through a cyclotron maser mechanism, and the energy is transmitted out along a cone-shaped surface. When Earth intersects this cone, the radio emissions from Jupiter can exceed the solar radio output.[98]

Orbit and rotation

Jupiter (red) completes one orbit of the Sun (center) for every 11.86 orbits of Earth (blue)

Jupiter is the only planet whose barycenter with the Sun lies outside the volume of the Sun, though by only 7% of the Sun's radius.[99] The average distance between Jupiter and the Sun is 778 million km (about 5.2 times the average distance between Earth and the Sun, or 5.2 AU) and it completes an orbit every 11.86 years. This is approximately two-fifths the orbital period of Saturn, forming a near orbital resonance between the two largest planets in the Solar System.[100] The elliptical orbit of Jupiter is inclined 1.31° compared to Earth. Because the eccentricity of its orbit is 0.048, Jupiter is slightly over 75 million km nearer the sun at perihelion than aphelion.[7]

The axial tilt of Jupiter is relatively small, only 3.13°, so its seasons are insignificant compared to Earth and Mars.[101]

Jupiter's rotation is the fastest of all the Solar System's planets, completing a rotation on its axis in slightly less than ten hours; this creates an equatorial bulge easily seen through an Earth-based amateur telescope. The planet is shaped as an oblate spheroid, meaning that the diameter across its equator is longer than the diameter measured between its poles. On Jupiter, the equatorial diameter is 9,275 km (5,763 mi) longer than the diameter measured through the poles.[62]

Because Jupiter is not a solid body, its upper atmosphere undergoes differential rotation. The rotation of Jupiter's polar atmosphere is about 5 minutes longer than that of the equatorial atmosphere; three systems are used as frames of reference, particularly when graphing the motion of atmospheric features. System I applies from the latitudes 10° N to 10° S; its period is the planet's shortest, at 9h 50m 30.0s. System II applies at all latitudes north and south of these; its period is 9h 55m 40.6s. System III was first defined by radio astronomers, and corresponds to the rotation of the planet's magnetosphere; its period is Jupiter's official rotation.[102]

Observation

Conjunction of Jupiter and the Moon
The retrograde motion of an outer planet is caused by its relative location with respect to Earth

Jupiter is usually the fourth brightest object in the sky (after the Sun, the Moon and Venus);[77] at times Mars is brighter than Jupiter. Depending on Jupiter's position with respect to the Earth, it can vary in visual magnitude from as bright as –2.94[14] at opposition down to[14] –1.66 during conjunction with the Sun. The mean apparent magnitude is –2.20 with a standard deviation of 0.33.[14] The angular diameter of Jupiter likewise varies from 50.1 to 29.8 arc seconds.[7] Favorable oppositions occur when Jupiter is passing through perihelion, an event that occurs once per orbit.[103]

Because the orbit of Jupiter is outside that of Earth, the phase angle of Jupiter as viewed from Earth never exceeds 11.5°: Jupiter always appears nearly fully illuminated when viewed through Earth-based telescopes. It was only during spacecraft missions to Jupiter that crescent views of the planet were obtained.[104] A small telescope will usually show Jupiter's four Galilean moons and the prominent cloud belts across Jupiter's atmosphere.[105] A large telescope will show Jupiter's Great Red Spot when it faces Earth.[106]

History of research and exploration

Pre-telescopic research

Model in the Almagest of the longitudinal motion of Jupiter (☉) relative to Earth (⊕)

The observation of Jupiter dates back to at least the Babylonian astronomers of the 7th or 8th century BC.[107] The ancient Chinese also observed the orbit of Suìxīng (歲星) and established their cycle of 12 earthly branches based on its approximate number of years; the Chinese language still uses its name (simplified as ) when referring to years of age. By the 4th century BC, these observations had developed into the Chinese zodiac,[108] with each year associated with a Tai Sui star and god controlling the region of the heavens opposite Jupiter's position in the night sky; these beliefs survive in some Taoist religious practices and in the East Asian zodiac's twelve animals, now often popularly assumed to be related to the arrival of the animals before Buddha. The Chinese historian Xi Zezong has claimed that Gan De, an ancient Chinese astronomer, discovered one of Jupiter's moons in 362 BC with the unaided eye. If true, this would predate Galileo's discovery by nearly two millennia.[109][110] In his 2nd century work the Almagest, the Hellenistic astronomer Claudius Ptolemaeus constructed a geocentric planetary model based on deferents and epicycles to explain Jupiter's motion relative to Earth, giving its orbital period around Earth as 4332.38 days, or 11.86 years.[111]

Ground-based telescope research

Galileo Galilei, discoverer of the four largest moons of Jupiter, now known as Galilean moons

In 1610, Italian polymath Galileo Galilei discovered the four largest moons of Jupiter (now known as the Galilean moons) using a telescope; thought to be the first telescopic observation of moons other than Earth's. One day after Galileo, Simon Marius independently discovered moons around Jupiter, though he did not publish his discovery in a book until 1614.[112] It was Marius's names for the four major moons, however, that stuck—Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. These findings were also the first discovery of celestial motion not apparently centered on Earth. The discovery was a major point in favor of Copernicus' heliocentric theory of the motions of the planets; Galileo's outspoken support of the Copernican theory placed him under the threat of the Inquisition.[113]

During the 1660s, Giovanni Cassini used a new telescope to discover spots and colorful bands on Jupiter and observed that the planet appeared oblate; that is, flattened at the poles. He was also able to estimate the rotation period of the planet.[114] In 1690 Cassini noticed that the atmosphere undergoes differential rotation.[52]

The Great Red Spot, a prominent oval-shaped feature in the southern hemisphere of Jupiter, may have been observed as early as 1664 by Robert Hooke and in 1665 by Cassini, although this is disputed. The pharmacist Heinrich Schwabe produced the earliest known drawing to show details of the Great Red Spot in 1831.[115]

The Red Spot was reportedly lost from sight on several occasions between 1665 and 1708 before becoming quite conspicuous in 1878. It was recorded as fading again in 1883 and at the start of the 20th century.[116]

Both Giovanni Borelli and Cassini made careful tables of the motions of Jupiter's moons, allowing predictions of the times when the moons would pass before or behind the planet. By the 1670s, it was observed that when Jupiter was on the opposite side of the Sun from Earth, these events would occur about 17 minutes later than expected. Ole Rømer deduced that light does not travel instantaneously (a conclusion that Cassini had earlier rejected),[38] and this timing discrepancy was used to estimate the speed of light.[117]

In 1892, E. E. Barnard observed a fifth satellite of Jupiter with the 36-inch (910 mm) refractor at Lick Observatory in California. The discovery of this relatively small object, a testament to his keen eyesight, quickly made him famous. This moon was later named Amalthea.[118] It was the last planetary moon to be discovered directly by visual observation.[119] An additional eight satellites were discovered before the flyby of the Voyager 1 probe in 1979.[d]

Infrared image of Jupiter taken by ESO's Very Large Telescope

In 1932, Rupert Wildt identified absorption bands of ammonia and methane in the spectra of Jupiter.[120]

Three long-lived anticyclonic features termed white ovals were observed in 1938. For several decades they remained as separate features in the atmosphere, sometimes approaching each other but never merging. Finally, two of the ovals merged in 1998, then absorbed the third in 2000, becoming Oval BA.[121]

Radiotelescope research

In 1955, Bernard Burke and Kenneth Franklin detected bursts of radio signals coming from Jupiter at 22.2 MHz.[52] The period of these bursts matched the rotation of the planet, and they were also able to use this information to refine the rotation rate. Radio bursts from Jupiter were found to come in two forms: long bursts (or L-bursts) lasting up to several seconds, and short bursts (or S-bursts) that had a duration of less than a hundredth of a second.[122]

Scientists discovered that there are three forms of radio signals transmitted from Jupiter.

  • Decametric radio bursts (with a wavelength of tens of meters) vary with the rotation of Jupiter, and are influenced by the interaction of Io with Jupiter's magnetic field.[123]
  • Decimetric radio emission (with wavelengths measured in centimetres) was first observed by Frank Drake and Hein Hvatum in 1959.[52] The origin of this signal was a torus-shaped belt around Jupiter's equator. This signal is caused by cyclotron radiation from electrons that are accelerated in Jupiter's magnetic field.[124]
  • Thermal radiation is produced by heat in the atmosphere of Jupiter.[52]

Exploration

Since 1973, a number of automated spacecraft have visited Jupiter, most notably the Pioneer 10 space probe, the first spacecraft to get close enough to Jupiter to send back revelations about the properties and phenomena of the Solar System's largest planet.[125][126] Flights to planets within the Solar System are accomplished at a cost in energy, which is described by the net change in velocity of the spacecraft, or delta-v. Entering a Hohmann transfer orbit from Earth to Jupiter from low Earth orbit requires a delta-v of 6.3 km/s,[127] which is comparable to the 9.7 km/s delta-v needed to reach low Earth orbit.[128] Gravity assists through planetary flybys can be used to reduce the energy required to reach Jupiter, albeit at the cost of a significantly longer flight duration.[129]

Flyby missions

Flyby missions
Spacecraft Closest
approach
Distance
Pioneer 10 December 3, 1973 130,000 km
Pioneer 11 December 4, 1974 34,000 km
Voyager 1 March 5, 1979 349,000 km
Voyager 2 July 9, 1979 570,000 km
Ulysses February 8, 1992[130] 408,894 km
February 4, 2004[130] 120,000,000 km
Cassini December 30, 2000 10,000,000 km
New Horizons February 28, 2007 2,304,535 km

Beginning in 1973, several spacecraft have performed planetary flyby maneuvers that brought them within observation range of Jupiter. The Pioneer missions obtained the first close-up images of Jupiter's atmosphere and several of its moons. They discovered that the radiation fields near the planet were much stronger than expected, but both spacecraft managed to survive in that environment. The trajectories of these spacecraft were used to refine the mass estimates of the Jovian system. Radio occultations by the planet resulted in better measurements of Jupiter's diameter and the amount of polar flattening.[43][131]

Six years later, the Voyager missions vastly improved the understanding of the Galilean moons and discovered Jupiter's rings. They also confirmed that the Great Red Spot was anticyclonic. Comparison of images showed that the Red Spot had changed hue since the Pioneer missions, turning from orange to dark brown. A torus of ionized atoms was discovered along Io's orbital path, and volcanoes were found on the moon's surface, some in the process of erupting. As the spacecraft passed behind the planet, it observed flashes of lightning in the night side atmosphere.[43][132]

The next mission to encounter Jupiter was the Ulysses solar probe. It performed a flyby maneuver to attain a polar orbit around the Sun. During this pass, the spacecraft conducted studies on Jupiter's magnetosphere. Ulysses has no cameras so no images were taken. A second flyby six years later was at a much greater distance.[130]

In 2000, the Cassini probe flew by Jupiter on its way to Saturn, and provided higher-resolution images.[133]

The New Horizons probe flew by Jupiter in 2007 for a gravity assist en route to Pluto.[134] The probe's cameras measured plasma output from volcanoes on Io and studied all four Galilean moons in detail, as well as making long-distance observations of the outer moons Himalia and Elara.[135]

Galileo mission

Jupiter as seen by the space probe Cassini

The first spacecraft to orbit Jupiter was the Galileo probe, which entered orbit on December 7, 1995.[48] It orbited the planet for over seven years, conducting multiple flybys of all the Galilean moons and Amalthea. The spacecraft also witnessed the impact of Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9 as it approached Jupiter in 1994, giving a unique vantage point for the event. Its originally designed capacity was limited by the failed deployment of its high-gain radio antenna, although extensive information was still gained about the Jovian system from Galileo.[136]

A 340-kilogram titanium atmospheric probe was released from the spacecraft in July 1995, entering Jupiter's atmosphere on December 7.[48] It parachuted through 150 km (93 mi) of the atmosphere at a speed of about 2,575 km/h (1600 mph)[48] and collected data for 57.6 minutes before the signal was lost at a pressure of about 23 atmospheres and a temperature of 153 °C.[137] It melted thereafter, and possibly vaporized. The Galileo orbiter itself experienced a more rapid version of the same fate when it was deliberately steered into the planet on September 21, 2003 at a speed of over 50 km/s to avoid any possibility of it crashing into and possibly contaminating the moon Europa which may harbor life.[136]

Data from this mission revealed that hydrogen composes up to 90% of Jupiter's atmosphere.[48] The recorded temperature was more than 300 °C (>570 °F) and the windspeed measured more than 644 km/h (>400 mph) before the probes vapourised.[48]

Juno mission

Jupiter viewed by the Juno spacecraft
(February 12, 2019)

NASA's Juno mission arrived at Jupiter on July 4, 2016 and was expected to complete thirty-seven orbits over the next twenty months.[25] The mission plan called for Juno to study the planet in detail from a polar orbit.[138] On August 27, 2016, the spacecraft completed its first fly-by of Jupiter and sent back the first ever images of Jupiter's north pole.[139] Juno would complete 12 science orbits before the end of its budgeted mission plan, ending July 2018.[140] In June of that year, NASA extended the mission operations plan to July 2021.[141] When Juno reaches the end of the mission, it will perform a controlled deorbit and disintegrate into Jupiter's atmosphere. During the mission, the spacecraft will be exposed to high levels of radiation from Jupiter's magnetosphere, which may cause future failure of certain instruments and risk collision with Jupiter's moons.[142][143]

Future probes

The next planned mission to the Jovian system will be the European Space Agency's Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer (JUICE), due to launch in 2022,[144] followed by NASA's Europa Clipper mission, scheduled for 2024.[145]

Canceled missions

There has been great interest in studying the icy moons in detail because of the possibility of subsurface liquid oceans on Jupiter's moons Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. Funding difficulties have delayed progress. NASA's JIMO (Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter) was cancelled in 2005.[146] A subsequent proposal was developed for a joint NASA/ESA mission called EJSM/Laplace, with a provisional launch date around 2020. EJSM/Laplace would have consisted of the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter.[147] However, ESA had formally ended the partnership by April 2011, citing budget issues at NASA and the consequences on the mission timetable. Instead, ESA planned to go ahead with a European-only mission to compete in its L1 Cosmic Vision selection.[148]

Moons

Jupiter has 79 known natural satellites.[6][149] Of these, 60 are less than 10 kilometres in diameter.[150] The four largest moons are Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto, collectively known as the "Galilean moons", and are visible from Earth with binoculars on a clear night.[151]

Galilean moons

The moons discovered by Galileo—Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto—are among the largest satellites in the Solar System. The orbits of three of them (Io, Europa, and Ganymede) form a pattern known as a Laplace resonance; for every four orbits that Io makes around Jupiter, Europa makes exactly two orbits and Ganymede makes exactly one. This resonance causes the gravitational effects of the three large moons to distort their orbits into elliptical shapes, because each moon receives an extra tug from its neighbors at the same point in every orbit it makes. The tidal force from Jupiter, on the other hand, works to circularize their orbits.[152]

The eccentricity of their orbits causes regular flexing of the three moons' shapes, with Jupiter's gravity stretching them out as they approach it and allowing them to spring back to more spherical shapes as they swing away. This tidal flexing heats the moons' interiors by friction.[153] This is seen most dramatically in the volcanic activity of Io (which is subject to the strongest tidal forces),[153] and to a lesser degree in the geological youth of Europa's surface, which indicates recent resurfacing of the moon's exterior.[154]

The Galilean moons, compared to Earth's Moon
Name IPA Diameter Mass Orbital radius Orbital period
km % kg % km % days %
Io /ˈaɪ.oʊ/ 3,643 105 8.9×1022 120 421,700 110 1.77 7
Europa /jʊˈroʊpə/ 3,122 90 4.8×1022 65 671,034 175 3.55 13
Ganymede /ˈɡænimiːd/ 5,262 150 14.8×1022 200 1,070,412 280 7.15 26
Callisto /kəˈlɪstoʊ/ 4,821 140 10.8×1022 150 1,882,709 490 16.69 61
The Galilean moons. From left to right, in order of increasing distance from Jupiter: Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto.
The Galilean moons Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto (in order of increasing distance from Jupiter)

Classification

Jupiter's moons were traditionally classified into four groups of four, based on commonality of their orbital elements.[155] This picture has been complicated by the discovery of numerous small outer moons by the Voyager in 1979. Jupiter's moons are currently divided into several different groups, although there are several moons which are not part of any group.[156]

The eight innermost regular moons, which have nearly circular orbits near the plane of Jupiter's equator, are thought to have formed alongside Jupiter, whilst the remainder are irregular moons and are thought to be captured asteroids or fragments of captured asteroids. Irregular moons that belong to a group share similar orbital elements and thus may have a common origin, perhaps as a larger moon or captured body that broke up.[157][158]

Regular moons
Inner group The inner group of four small moons all have diameters of less than 200 km, orbit at radii less than 200,000 km, and have orbital inclinations of less than half a degree.
Galilean moons[159] These four moons, discovered by Galileo Galilei and by Simon Marius in parallel, orbit between 400,000 and 2,000,000 km, and are some of the largest moons in the Solar System.
Irregular moons
Himalia group A tightly clustered group of moons with orbits around 11,000,000–12,000,000 km from Jupiter.[160]
Ananke group This retrograde orbit group has rather indistinct borders, averaging 21,276,000 km from Jupiter with an average inclination of 149 degrees.[161]
Carme group A fairly distinct retrograde group that averages 23,404,000 km from Jupiter with an average inclination of 165 degrees.[161]
Pasiphae group A dispersed and only vaguely distinct retrograde group that covers all the outermost moons.[162]

Planetary rings

Jupiter has a faint planetary ring system composed of three main segments: an inner torus of particles known as the halo, a relatively bright main ring, and an outer gossamer ring.[163] These rings appear to be made of dust, rather than ice as with Saturn's rings.[52] The main ring is probably made of material ejected from the satellites Adrastea and Metis. Material that would normally fall back to the moon is pulled into Jupiter because of its strong gravitational influence. The orbit of the material veers towards Jupiter and new material is added by additional impacts.[164] In a similar way, the moons Thebe and Amalthea probably produce the two distinct components of the dusty gossamer ring.[164] There is also evidence of a rocky ring strung along Amalthea's orbit which may consist of collisional debris from that moon.[165]

Interaction with the Solar System

This diagram shows the Trojan asteroids in Jupiter's orbit, as well as the main asteroid belt.

Along with the Sun, the gravitational influence of Jupiter has helped shape the Solar System. The orbits of most of the system's planets lie closer to Jupiter's orbital plane than the Sun's equatorial plane (Mercury is the only planet that is closer to the Sun's equator in orbital tilt). The Kirkwood gaps in the asteroid belt are mostly caused by Jupiter, and the planet may have been responsible for the Late Heavy Bombardment of the inner Solar System's history.[166]

In additon to its moons, Jupiter's gravitational field controls numerous asteroids that have settled into the regions of the Lagrangian points preceding and following Jupiter in its orbit around the Sun. These are known as the Trojan asteroids, and are divided into Greek and Trojan "camps" to commemorate the Iliad. The first of these, 588 Achilles, was discovered by Max Wolf in 1906; since then more than two thousand have been discovered.[167] The largest is 624 Hektor.

Most short-period comets belong to the Jupiter family—defined as comets with semi-major axes smaller than Jupiter's. Jupiter family comets are thought to form in the Kuiper belt outside the orbit of Neptune. During close encounters with Jupiter their orbits are perturbed into a smaller period and then circularized by regular gravitational interaction with the Sun and Jupiter.[168]

Due to the magnitude of Jupiter's mass, the center of gravity between it and the Sun lies just above the Sun's surface, the only planet in the solar system for which this is true.[169][170]

Impacts

Hubble image taken on July 23, 2009, showing a blemish of about 8,000 km (5,000 mi) long left by the 2009 impact of Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9.[171]

Jupiter has been called the Solar System's vacuum cleaner:[172] because of its immense gravity well and location near the inner Solar System there are more impacts on Jupiter, such as comets, than on the Solar System's other planets.[173] It was thought that the planet served to partially shield the inner system from cometary bombardment.[48] However, recent computer simulations suggest that Jupiter does not cause a net decrease in the number of comets that pass through the inner Solar System, as its gravity perturbs their orbits inward roughly as often as it accretes or ejects them.[174] This topic remains controversial among scientists, as some think it draws comets towards Earth from the Kuiper belt while others think that Jupiter protects Earth from the Oort cloud.[175] Jupiter experiences about 200 times more asteroid and comet impacts than Earth.[48]

A 1997 survey of early astronomical records and drawings suggested that a certain dark surface feature discovered by astronomer Giovanni Cassini in 1690 may have been an impact scar. The survey initially produced eight more candidate sites as potential impact observations that he and others had recorded between 1664 and 1839. It was later determined, however, that these candidate sites had little or no possibility of being the results of the proposed impacts.[176]

Mythology

The planet Jupiter has been known since ancient times. It is visible to the naked eye in the night sky and can occasionally be seen in the daytime when the Sun is low.[177] To the Babylonians, this object represented their god Marduk. They used Jupiter's roughly 12-year orbit along the ecliptic to define the constellations of their zodiac.[43][178]

The Romans called it "the star of Jupiter" (Iuppiter Stella), as they believed it to be sacred to the principal god of Roman mythology, whose name comes from the Proto-Indo-European vocative compound *Dyēu-pəter (nominative: *Dyēus-pətēr, meaning "Father Sky-God", or "Father Day-God").[179] In turn, Jupiter was the counterpart to the mythical Greek Zeus (Ζεύς), also referred to as Dias (Δίας), the planetary name of which is retained in modern Greek.[180] The ancient Greeks knew the planet as Phaethon (Φαέθων), meaning "shining one" or "blazing star."[181][182] As supreme god of the Roman pantheon, Jupiter was the god of thunder, lightning and storms, and appropriately called the god of light and sky. The Archaic Greek poet Homer's Iliad describes the god as stronger than all the other deities put together; the king of the gods boasts that his pulling strength is greater than the others' combined and that he cannot be beaten in a tug of war:

Jupiter, woodcut from a 1550 edition of Guido Bonatti's Liber Astronomiae

εἰ δ᾽ ἄγε πειρήσασθε θεοὶ ἵνα εἴδετε πάντες:
σειρὴν χρυσείην ἐξ οὐρανόθεν κρεμάσαντες
πάντές τ᾽ ἐξάπτεσθε θεοὶ πᾶσαί τε θέαιναι:
ἀλλ᾽ οὐκ ἂν ἐρύσαιτ᾽ ἐξ οὐρανόθεν πεδίον δὲ
Ζῆν᾽ ὕπατον μήστωρ᾽, οὐδ᾽ εἰ μάλα πολλὰ κάμοιτε.
ἀλλ᾽ ὅτε δὴ καὶ ἐγὼ πρόφρων ἐθέλοιμι ἐρύσσαι,
αὐτῇ κεν γαίῃ ἐρύσαιμ᾽ αὐτῇ τε θαλάσσῃ:
σειρὴν μέν κεν ἔπειτα περὶ ῥίον Οὐλύμποιο
δησαίμην, τὰ δέ κ᾽ αὖτε μετήορα πάντα γένοιτο.
τόσσον ἐγὼ περί τ᾽ εἰμὶ θεῶν περί τ᾽ εἴμ᾽ ἀνθρώπων.

"Hang me a golden chain from heaven, and
lay hold of it all of you, gods and goddesses
together – tug as you will, you will not drag
Zeus the supreme counselor from heaven to earth;
but were I to pull at it myself I should draw you up
with earth and sea into the bargain, then would I
bind the chain about some pinnacle of Olympus
and leave you all dangling in the mid firmament.
So far am I above all others either of gods or men."

—Homer, Iliad, VIII.18–27 Samuel Butler The Iliad of Homer: Rendered into English prose for the use of those who cannot read the original.

London. New York and Bombay: Longmans, Green and Co., 1898.

The astronomical symbol for the planet, Jupiter symbol.svg, is a stylized representation of the god's lightning bolt. The original Greek deity Zeus supplies the root zeno-, used to form some Jupiter-related words, such as zenographic.[e] Jovian is the adjectival form of Jupiter. The older adjectival form jovial, employed by astrologers in the Middle Ages, has come to mean "happy" or "merry", moods ascribed to Jupiter's astrological influence.[183] In Germanic mythology, Jupiter is equated to Thor, whence the English name Thursday for the Roman dies Jovis.[184]

In Vedic astrology, Hindu astrologers named the planet after Brihaspati, the religious teacher of the gods, and often called it "Guru", which literally means the "Heavy One".[185] In Central Asian Turkic myths, Jupiter is called Erendiz or Erentüz, from eren (of uncertain meaning) and yultuz ("star"). There are many theories about the meaning of eren. These peoples calculated the period of the orbit of Jupiter as 11 years and 300 days. They believed that some social and natural events connected to Erentüz's movements on the sky.[186] The Chinese, Vietnamese, Koreans and Japanese called it the "wood star" (Chinese: 木星; pinyin: mùxīng), based on the Chinese Five Elements.[187][188][189]

Analogs

Several gas giant exoplanets are inferred to be physically similar to Jupiter but that have very short orbital periods (P < 10 days).[190] The close proximity to their stars and high surface-atmosphere temperatures resulted in the moniker "hot Jupiters".[191] Their defining characteristics are their large masses and short orbital periods, spanning 0.36–11.8 Jupiter masses and 1.3–111 Earth days.[192] The mass cannot be greater than approximately 13.6 Jupiter masses because then the pressure and temperature inside the planet would be high enough to cause deuterium fusion.[193]

See also


Notes

  1. ^ This image was taken by the Hubble Space Telescope, using the Wide Field Camera 3, on April 21, 2014. Jupiter's atmosphere and its appearance constantly changes, and hence its current appearance today may not resemble what it was when this image was taken. Depicted in this image, however, are a few features that remain consistent, such as the famous Great Red Spot, featured prominently in the lower right of the image, and the planet's recognizable banded appearance.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Refers to the level of 1 bar atmospheric pressure
  3. ^ Based on the volume within the level of 1 bar atmospheric pressure
  4. ^ See Moons of Jupiter for details and cites
  5. ^ See for example: "IAUC 2844: Jupiter; 1975h". International Astronomical Union. October 1, 1975. Retrieved October 24, 2010. That particular word has been in use since at least 1966. See: "Query Results from the Astronomy Database". Smithsonian/NASA. Retrieved July 29, 2007.

References

  1. ^ Simpson, J. A.; Weiner, E. S. C. (1989). "Jupiter". Oxford English Dictionary. 8 (2nd ed.). Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-861220-9.
  2. ^ Seligman, Courtney. "Rotation Period and Day Length". Retrieved August 13, 2009.
  3. ^ a b c d Simon, J. L.; Bretagnon, P.; Chapront, J.; Chapront-Touzé, M.; Francou, G.; Laskar, J. (February 1994). "Numerical expressions for precession formulae and mean elements for the Moon and planets". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 282 (2): 663–683. Bibcode:1994A&A...282..663S.
  4. ^ "The MeanPlane (Invariable plane) of the Solar System passing through the barycenter". April 3, 2009. Archived from the original on April 20, 2009. Retrieved April 10, 2009. (produced with Solex 10 Archived December 20, 2008, at the Wayback Machine written by Aldo Vitagliano; see also Invariable plane)
  5. ^ JPL Horizons for Jupiter (mb=599) and Observer Location: @Sun
  6. ^ a b Sheppard, Scott S. (July 16, 2018). "A Dozen New Moons of Jupiter Discovered, Including One "Oddball"". Carnegie Institution for Science.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Williams, David R. (June 30, 2017). "Jupiter Fact Sheet". NASA. Archived from the original on September 26, 2011. Retrieved October 13, 2017.
  8. ^ "Solar System Exploration: Jupiter: Facts & Figures". NASA. May 7, 2008.
  9. ^ "Astrodynamic Constants". JPL Solar System Dynamics. February 27, 2009. Retrieved August 8, 2007.
  10. ^ Ni, D. (2018). "Empirical models of Jupiter's interior from Juno data". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 613: A32. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201732183.
  11. ^ Seidelmann, P. K.; Abalakin, V. K.; Bursa, M.; Davies, M. E.; de Burgh, C.; Lieske, J. H.; Oberst, J.; Simon, J. L.; Standish, E. M.; Stooke, P.; Thomas, P. C. (2001). "Report of the IAU/IAG Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements of the Planets and Satellites: 2000". Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy. 82 (1): 83. Bibcode:2002CeMDA..82...83S. doi:10.1023/A:1013939327465. S2CID 189823009. Retrieved February 2, 2007.
  12. ^ Li, Liming; et al. (2018). "Less absorbed solar energy and more internal heat for Jupiter". Nature Communications. 9 (1): 3709. Bibcode:2018NatCo...9.3709L. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-06107-2. PMC 6137063. PMID 30213944.
  13. ^ Mallama, Anthony; Krobusek, Bruce; Pavlov, Hristo (2017). "Comprehensive wide-band magnitudes and albedos for the planets, with applications to exo-planets and Planet Nine". Icarus. 282: 19–33. arXiv:1609.05048. Bibcode:2017Icar..282...19M. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2016.09.023. S2CID 119307693.
  14. ^ a b c d e Mallama, A.; Hilton, J. L. (2018). "Computing Apparent Planetary Magnitudes for The Astronomical Almanac". Astronomy and Computing. 25: 10–24. arXiv:1808.01973. Bibcode:2018A&C....25...10M. doi:10.1016/j.ascom.2018.08.002. S2CID 69912809.
  15. ^ Seidelmann, P. Kenneth; Archinal, Brent A.; A'Hearn, Michael F.; et al. (2007). "Report of the IAU/IAG Working Group on cartographic coordinates and rotational elements: 2006". Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy. 98 (3): 155–180. Bibcode:2007CeMDA..98..155S. doi:10.1007/s10569-007-9072-y.
  16. ^ de Pater, Imke; Lissauer, Jack J. (2015). Planetary Sciences (2nd updated ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 250. ISBN 978-0-521-85371-2.
  17. ^ "Probe Nephelometer". Galileo Messenger (6). March 1983. Archived from the original on July 19, 2009. Retrieved February 12, 2007.
  18. ^ Knecht, Robin (October 24, 2005). "On The Atmospheres Of Different Planets" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 14, 2017. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  19. ^ Taylor, Stuart Ross (2001). Solar system evolution: a new perspective: an inquiry into the chemical composition, origin, and evolution of the solar system (2nd, illus., revised ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 208. ISBN 978-0-521-64130-2.
  20. ^ "Young astronomer captures a shadow cast by Jupiter: Bad Astronomy". Discover Blogs. November 18, 2011. Retrieved May 27, 2013.
  21. ^ Saumon, D.; Guillot, T. (2004). "Shock Compression of Deuterium and the Interiors of Jupiter and Saturn". The Astrophysical Journal. 609 (2): 1170–1180. arXiv:astro-ph/0403393. Bibcode:2004ApJ...609.1170S. doi:10.1086/421257. S2CID 119325899.
  22. ^ Plait, Phil (December 22, 2020). "Wait. Jupiter has *how* many moons?". SYFY WIRE. Retrieved January 5, 2021.
  23. ^ "In Depth | Pioneer 10". NASA Solar System Exploration. Retrieved February 9, 2020. Pioneer 10, the first NASA mission to the outer planets, garnered a series of firsts perhaps unmatched by any other robotic spacecraft in the space era: the first vehicle placed on a trajectory to escape the solar system into interstellar space; the first spacecraft to fly beyond Mars; the first to fly through the asteroid belt; the first to fly past Jupiter; and the first to use all-nuclear electrical power
  24. ^ "Exploration | Jupiter". NASA Solar System Exploration. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
  25. ^ a b c Chang, Kenneth (July 5, 2016). "NASA's Juno Spacecraft Enters Jupiter's Orbit". The New York Times. Retrieved July 5, 2016.
  26. ^ Chang, Kenneth (June 30, 2016). "All Eyes (and Ears) on Jupiter". The New York Times. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  27. ^ Schneider, J. "Interactive Extra-solar Planets Catalog". The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  28. ^ Batygin, Konstantin (2015). "Jupiter's decisive role in the inner Solar System's early evolution". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112 (14): 4214–4217. arXiv:1503.06945. Bibcode:2015PNAS..112.4214B. doi:10.1073/pnas.1423252112. PMC 4394287. PMID 25831540.
  29. ^ Lund University (March 22, 2019). "Jupiter's Unknown Journey Revealed". ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 25, 2019.
  30. ^ Fazekas, Andrew (March 24, 2015). "Observe: Jupiter, Wrecking Ball of Early Solar System". National Geographic. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
  31. ^ Zube, N.; Nimmo, F.; Fischer, R.; Jacobson, S. (2019). "Constraints on terrestrial planet formation timescales and equilibration processes in the Grand Tack scenario from Hf-W isotopic evolution". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 522 (1): 210–218. arXiv:1910.00645. Bibcode:2019E&PSL.522..210Z. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2019.07.001. PMC 7339907. PMID 32636530. S2CID 199100280.
  32. ^ D'Angelo, G.; Marzari, F. (2012). "Outward Migration of Jupiter and Saturn in Evolved Gaseous Disks". The Astrophysical Journal. 757 (1): 50 (23 pp.). arXiv:1207.2737. Bibcode:2012ApJ...757...50D. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/757/1/50. S2CID 118587166.
  33. ^ D'Angelo, G.; Weidenschilling, S. J.; Lissauer, J. J.; Bodenheimer, P. (2021). "Growth of Jupiter: Formation in disks of gas and solids and evolution to the present epoch". Icarus. 355: 114087. arXiv:2009.05575. Bibcode:2021Icar..35514087D. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2020.114087. S2CID 221654962.
  34. ^ Denecke, Edward J. (January 7, 2020). Regents Exams and Answers: Earth Science—Physical Setting 2020. Barrons Educational Series. p. 419. ISBN 978-1-5062-5399-2.
  35. ^ Polyanin, Andrei D.; Chernoutsan, Alexei (October 18, 2010). A Concise Handbook of Mathematics, Physics, and Engineering Sciences. CRC Press. p. 1041. ISBN 978-1-4398-0640-1.
  36. ^ Kim, S. J.; Caldwell, J.; Rivolo, A. R.; Wagner, R. (1985). "Infrared Polar Brightening on Jupiter III. Spectrometry from the Voyager 1 IRIS Experiment". Icarus. 64 (2): 233–248. Bibcode:1985Icar...64..233K. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(85)90201-5.
  37. ^ Gautier, D.; Conrath, B.; Flasar, M.; Hanel, R.; Kunde, V.; Chedin, A.; Scott N. (1981). "The helium abundance of Jupiter from Voyager". Journal of Geophysical Research. 86 (A10): 8713–8720. Bibcode:1981JGR....86.8713G. doi:10.1029/JA086iA10p08713. hdl:2060/19810016480.
  38. ^ a b Kunde, V. G.; et al. (September 10, 2004). "Jupiter's Atmospheric Composition from the Cassini Thermal Infrared Spectroscopy Experiment". Science. 305 (5690): 1582–1586. Bibcode:2004Sci...305.1582K. doi:10.1126/science.1100240. PMID 15319491. S2CID 45296656. Retrieved April 4, 2007.
  39. ^ Niemann, H. B.; Atreya, S. K.; Carignan, G. R.; Donahue, T. M.; Haberman, J. A.; Harpold, D. N.; Hartle, R. E.; Hunten, D. M.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Owen, T. C.; Spencer, N. W.; Way, S. H. (1996). "The Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer: Composition of Jupiter's Atmosphere". Science. 272 (5263): 846–849. Bibcode:1996Sci...272..846N. doi:10.1126/science.272.5263.846. PMID 8629016. S2CID 3242002.
  40. ^ a b von Zahn, U.; Hunten, D. M.; Lehmacher, G. (1998). "Helium in Jupiter's atmosphere: Results from the Galileo probe Helium Interferometer Experiment". Journal of Geophysical Research. 103 (E10): 22815–22829. Bibcode:1998JGR...10322815V. doi:10.1029/98JE00695.
  41. ^ Ingersoll, A. P.; Hammel, H. B.; Spilker, T. R.; Young, R. E. (June 1, 2005). "Outer Planets: The Ice Giants" (PDF). Lunar & Planetary Institute. Retrieved February 1, 2007.
  42. ^ MacDougal, Douglas W. (2012). "A Binary System Close to Home: How the Moon and Earth Orbit Each Other". Newton's Gravity. Undergraduate Lecture Notes in Physics. Springer New York. pp. 193–211. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-5444-1_10. ISBN 978-1-4614-5443-4. the barycenter is 743,000 km from the center of the sun. The Sun's radius is 696,000 km, so it is 47,000 km above the surface.
  43. ^ a b c d e f [page needed] Burgess, Eric (1982). By Jupiter: Odysseys to a Giant. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-05176-7.
  44. ^ Shu, Frank H. (1982). The physical universe: an introduction to astronomy. Series of books in astronomy (12th ed.). University Science Books. p. 426. ISBN 978-0-935702-05-7.
  45. ^ Davis, Andrew M.; Turekian, Karl K. (2005). Meteorites, comets, and planets. Treatise on geochemistry. 1. Elsevier. p. 624. ISBN 978-0-08-044720-9.
  46. ^ Schneider, Jean (2009). "The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopedia: Interactive Catalogue". Paris Observatory.
  47. ^ a b Seager, S.; Kuchner, M.; Hier-Majumder, C. A.; Militzer, B. (2007). "Mass-Radius Relationships for Solid Exoplanets". The Astrophysical Journal. 669 (2): 1279–1297. arXiv:0707.2895. Bibcode:2007ApJ...669.1279S. doi:10.1086/521346. S2CID 8369390.
  48. ^ a b c d e f g h How the Universe Works 3. Jupiter: Destroyer or Savior?. Discovery Channel. 2014.
  49. ^ Guillot, Tristan (1999). "Interiors of Giant Planets Inside and Outside the Solar System". Science. 286 (5437): 72–77. Bibcode:1999Sci...286...72G. doi:10.1126/science.286.5437.72. PMID 10506563. Retrieved August 28, 2007.
  50. ^ Burrows, A.; Hubbard, W. B.; Saumon, D.; Lunine, J. I. (1993). "An expanded set of brown dwarf and very low mass star models". Astrophysical Journal. 406 (1): 158–171. Bibcode:1993ApJ...406..158B. doi:10.1086/172427.
  51. ^ Queloz, Didier (November 19, 2002). "VLT Interferometer Measures the Size of Proxima Centauri and Other Nearby Stars". European Southern Observatory. Retrieved January 12, 2007.
  52. ^ a b c d e f g h i j [page needed] Elkins-Tanton, Linda T. (2006). Jupiter and Saturn. New York: Chelsea House. ISBN 978-0-8160-5196-0.
  53. ^ Patrick G. J. Irwin (2003). Giant Planets of Our Solar System: Atmospheres, Composition, and Structure. Springer. ISBN 3-540-00681-8., second edition, 2009, p=4, quote = the radius of Jupiter is estimated to be currently shrinking by approximately 1 mm/yr| ISBN 978-3-642-09888-8.
  54. ^ a b Guillot, T.; Stevenson, D. J.; Hubbard, W. B.; Saumon, D. (2004). "Chapter 3: The Interior of Jupiter". In Bagenal, F.; Dowling, T. E.; McKinnon, W. B. (eds.). Jupiter: The Planet, Satellites and Magnetosphere. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-81808-7.
  55. ^ Bodenheimer, P. (1974). "Calculations of the early evolution of Jupiter". Icarus. 23. 23 (3): 319–325. Bibcode:1974Icar...23..319B. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(74)90050-5.
  56. ^ "'Totally Wrong' on Jupiter: What Scientists Gleaned from NASA's Juno Mission". January 2018.
  57. ^ Liu, S. F.; Hori, Y.; Müller, S.; Zheng, X.; Helled, R.; Lin, D.; Isella, A. (2019). "The formation of Jupiter's diluted core by a giant impact". Nature. 572 (7769): 355–357. arXiv:2007.08338. Bibcode:2019Natur.572..355L. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1470-2. PMID 31413376. S2CID 199576704.
  58. ^ Guillot, T. (2019). "Signs that Jupiter was mixed by a giant impact". Nature. 572 (7769): 315–317. Bibcode:2019Natur.572..315G. doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02401-1. PMID 31413374.
  59. ^ Wahl, S. M.; et al. (2017). "Comparing Jupiter interior structure models to Juno gravity measurements and the role of a dilute core". Geophysical Letters. 44 (10): 4649–4659. doi:10.1002/2017GL073160.
  60. ^ Züttel, Andreas (September 2003). "Materials for hydrogen storage". Materials Today. 6 (9): 24–33. doi:10.1016/S1369-7021(03)00922-2.
  61. ^ Guillot, T. (1999). "A comparison of the interiors of Jupiter and Saturn". Planetary and Space Science. 47 (10–11): 1183–1200. arXiv:astro-ph/9907402. Bibcode:1999P&SS...47.1183G. doi:10.1016/S0032-0633(99)00043-4. S2CID 19024073.
  62. ^ a b Lang, Kenneth R. (2003). "Jupiter: a giant primitive planet". NASA. Retrieved January 10, 2007.
  63. ^ Lodders, Katharina (2004). "Jupiter Formed with More Tar than Ice" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 611 (1): 587–597. Bibcode:2004ApJ...611..587L. doi:10.1086/421970. S2CID 59361587.
  64. ^ Kramer, Miriam (October 9, 2013). "Diamond Rain May Fill Skies of Jupiter and Saturn". Space.com. Retrieved August 27, 2017.
  65. ^ Kaplan, Sarah (August 25, 2017). "It rains solid diamonds on Uranus and Neptune". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 27, 2017.
  66. ^ Stevenson, David J. (2020). "Jupiter's Interior as Revealed by Juno". Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 48: 465–489. doi:10.1146/annurev-earth-081619-052855.
  67. ^ Seiff, A.; Kirk, D. B.; Knight, T. C. D.; et al. (1998). "Thermal structure of Jupiter's atmosphere near the edge of a 5-μm hot spot in the north equatorial belt". Journal of Geophysical Research. 103 (E10): 22857–22889. Bibcode:1998JGR...10322857S. doi:10.1029/98JE01766.
  68. ^ Miller, Steve; Aylward, Alan; Millward, George (January 2005). "Giant Planet Ionospheres and Thermospheres: The Importance of Ion-Neutral Coupling". Space Science Reviews. 116 (1–2): 319–343. Bibcode:2005SSRv..116..319M. doi:10.1007/s11214-005-1960-4. S2CID 119906560.
  69. ^ Ingersoll, A. P.; Dowling, T. E.; Gierasch, P. J.; Orton, G. S.; Read, P. L.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Showman, A. P.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Vasavada, A. R. "Dynamics of Jupiter's Atmosphere" (PDF). Lunar & Planetary Institute. Retrieved February 1, 2007.
  70. ^ Watanabe, Susan, ed. (February 25, 2006). "Surprising Jupiter: Busy Galileo spacecraft showed jovian system is full of surprises". NASA. Retrieved February 20, 2007.
  71. ^ Kerr, Richard A. (2000). "Deep, Moist Heat Drives Jovian Weather". Science. 287 (5455): 946–947. doi:10.1126/science.287.5455.946b. S2CID 129284864. Retrieved February 24, 2007.
  72. ^ Becker, Heidi N.; et al. (2020). "Small lightning flashes from shallow electrical storms on Jupiter". Nature. 584 (7819): 55–58. ISSN 0028-0836.
  73. ^ Guillot, Tristan; Stevenson, David J.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Bolton, Scott J.; Becker, Heidi N. (2020). "Storms and the Depletion of Ammonia in Jupiter: I. Microphysics of "Mushballs"". Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets. 125 (8): e2020JE006403. arXiv:2012.14316. doi:10.1029/2020JE006404.
  74. ^ Giles, Rohini S.; et al. (2020). "Possible Transient Luminous Events Observed in Jupiter's Upper Atmosphere". Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets. 125 (11): e2020JE006659. arXiv:2010.13740. doi:10.1029/2020JE006659.
  75. ^ "Juno Data Indicates 'Sprites' or 'Elves' Frolic in Jupiter's Atmosphere". NASA. October 27, 2020. Retrieved December 30, 2020.
  76. ^ Strycker, P. D.; Chanover, N.; Sussman, M.; Simon-Miller, A. (2006). A Spectroscopic Search for Jupiter's Chromophores. DPS meeting #38, #11.15. American Astronomical Society. Bibcode:2006DPS....38.1115S.
  77. ^ a b c Gierasch, Peter J.; Nicholson, Philip D. (2004). "Jupiter". World Book @ NASA. Archived from the original on January 5, 2005. Retrieved August 10, 2006.
  78. ^ Chang, Kenneth (December 13, 2017). "The Great Red Spot Descends Deep into Jupiter". The New York Times. Retrieved December 15, 2017.
  79. ^ Denning, W. F. (1899). "Jupiter, early history of the great red spot on". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 59 (10): 574–584. Bibcode:1899MNRAS..59..574D. doi:10.1093/mnras/59.10.574.
  80. ^ Kyrala, A. (1982). "An explanation of the persistence of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter". Moon and the Planets. 26 (1): 105–107. Bibcode:1982M&P....26..105K. doi:10.1007/BF00941374. S2CID 121637752.
  81. ^ Philosophical Transactions Vol. I (1665–1666.). Project Gutenberg. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
  82. ^ "New Red Spot Appears on Jupiter". HubbleSite. NASA. Retrieved December 12, 2013.
  83. ^ "Three Red Spots Mix It Up on Jupiter". HubbleSite. NASA. Retrieved April 26, 2015.
  84. ^ Covington, Michael A. (2002). Celestial Objects for Modern Telescopes. Cambridge University Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-521-52419-3.
  85. ^ Cardall, C. Y.; Daunt, S.J. "The Great Red Spot". University of Tennessee. Retrieved February 2, 2007.
  86. ^ Phillips, Tony (March 3, 2006). "Jupiter's New Red Spot". NASA. Archived from the original on October 19, 2008. Retrieved February 2, 2007.
  87. ^ a b White, Greg (November 25, 2015). "Is Jupiter's Great Red Spot nearing its twilight?". Space.news. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
  88. ^ Sommeria, Jöel; Meyers, Steven D.; Swinney, Harry L. (February 25, 1988). "Laboratory simulation of Jupiter's Great Red Spot". Nature. 331 (6158): 689–693. Bibcode:1988Natur.331..689S. doi:10.1038/331689a0. S2CID 39201626.
  89. ^ a b Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; et al. (March 2015). Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot. 46th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. March 16–20, 2015. The Woodlands, Texas. Bibcode:2015LPI....46.1010S.
  90. ^ Doctor, Rina Marie (October 21, 2015). "Jupiter's Superstorm Is Shrinking: Is Changing Red Spot Evidence Of Climate Change?". Tech Times. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
  91. ^ "Jupiter's New Red Spot". 2006. Archived from the original on October 19, 2008. Retrieved March 9, 2006.
  92. ^ Steigerwald, Bill (October 14, 2006). "Jupiter's Little Red Spot Growing Stronger". NASA. Retrieved February 2, 2007.
  93. ^ Goudarzi, Sara (May 4, 2006). "New storm on Jupiter hints at climate changes". USA Today. Retrieved February 2, 2007.
  94. ^ Harrington, J. D.; Weaver, Donna; Villard, Ray (May 15, 2014). "Release 14-135 – NASA's Hubble Shows Jupiter's Great Red Spot is Smaller than Ever Measured". NASA. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
  95. ^ Stallard, Tom S.; Melin, Henrik; Miller, Steve; et al. (April 10, 2017). "The Great Cold Spot in Jupiter's upper atmosphere". Geophysical Research Letters. 44 (7): 3000–3008. Bibcode:2017GeoRL..44.3000S. doi:10.1002/2016GL071956. PMC 5439487. PMID 28603321.
  96. ^ Brainerd, Jim (November 22, 2004). "Jupiter's Magnetosphere". The Astrophysics Spectator. Retrieved August 10, 2008.
  97. ^ "Receivers for Radio JOVE". March 1, 2017. Retrieved September 9, 2020.
  98. ^ "Radio Storms on Jupiter". NASA. February 20, 2004. Archived from the original on February 13, 2007. Retrieved February 1, 2007.
  99. ^ Herbst, T. M.; Rix, H.-W. (1999). Guenther, Eike; Stecklum, Bringfried; Klose, Sylvio (eds.). Star Formation and Extrasolar Planet Studies with Near-Infrared Interferometry on the LBT. Optical and Infrared Spectroscopy of Circumstellar Matter. 188. San Francisco, Calif.: Astronomical Society of the Pacific. pp. 341–350. Bibcode:1999ASPC..188..341H. ISBN 978-1-58381-014-9. – See section 3.4.
  100. ^ Michtchenko, T. A.; Ferraz-Mello, S. (February 2001). "Modeling the 5 : 2 Mean-Motion Resonance in the Jupiter–Saturn Planetary System". Icarus. 149 (2): 77–115. Bibcode:2001Icar..149..357M. doi:10.1006/icar.2000.6539.
  101. ^ "Interplanetary Seasons". Science@NASA. Archived from the original on October 16, 2007. Retrieved February 20, 2007.
  102. ^ Ridpath, Ian (1998). Norton's Star Atlas (19th ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-582-35655-9.[page needed]
  103. ^ Rogers, John H. (July 20, 1995). "Appendix 3". The giant planet Jupiter. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-41008-3.
  104. ^ "Encounter with the Giant". NASA. 1974. Retrieved February 17, 2007.
  105. ^ "How to Observe Jupiter". WikiHow. July 28, 2013. Retrieved July 28, 2013.
  106. ^ North, Chris; Abel, Paul (October 31, 2013). The Sky at Night: How to Read the Solar System. Ebury Publishing. p. 183. ISBN 978-1-4481-4130-2.
  107. ^ Sachs, A. (May 2, 1974). "Babylonian Observational Astronomy". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 276 (1257): 43–50 (see p. 44). Bibcode:1974RSPTA.276...43S. doi:10.1098/rsta.1974.0008. JSTOR 74273. S2CID 121539390.
  108. ^ Dubs, Homer H. (1958). "The Beginnings of Chinese Astronomy". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 78 (4): 295–300. doi:10.2307/595793. JSTOR 595793.
  109. ^ Xi, Z. Z. (1981). "The Discovery of Jupiter's Satellite Made by Gan-De 2000 Years Before Galileo". Acta Astrophysica Sinica. 1 (2): 87. Bibcode:1981AcApS...1...85X.
  110. ^ Dong, Paul (2002). China's Major Mysteries: Paranormal Phenomena and the Unexplained in the People's Republic. China Books. ISBN 978-0-8351-2676-2.
  111. ^ Pedersen, Olaf (1974). A Survey of the Almagest. Odense University Press. pp. 423, 428.
  112. ^ Pasachoff, Jay M. (2015). "Simon Marius's Mundus Iovialis: 400th Anniversary in Galileo's Shadow". Journal for the History of Astronomy. 46 (2): 218–234. Bibcode:2015AAS...22521505P. doi:10.1177/0021828615585493. S2CID 120470649.
  113. ^ Westfall, Richard S. "Galilei, Galileo". The Galileo Project. Retrieved January 10, 2007.
  114. ^ O'Connor, J. J.; Robertson, E. F. (April 2003). "Giovanni Domenico Cassini". University of St. Andrews. Retrieved February 14, 2007.
  115. ^ Murdin, Paul (2000). Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics. Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing. ISBN 978-0-12-226690-4.
  116. ^ "SP-349/396 Pioneer Odyssey—Jupiter, Giant of the Solar System". NASA. August 1974. Retrieved August 10, 2006.
  117. ^ "Roemer's Hypothesis". MathPages. Retrieved January 12, 2007.
  118. ^ Tenn, Joe (March 10, 2006). "Edward Emerson Barnard". Sonoma State University. Retrieved January 10, 2007.
  119. ^ "Amalthea Fact Sheet". NASA/JPL. October 1, 2001. Retrieved February 21, 2007.
  120. ^ Dunham Jr., Theodore (1933). "Note on the Spectra of Jupiter and Saturn". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 45 (263): 42–44. Bibcode:1933PASP...45...42D. doi:10.1086/124297.
  121. ^ Youssef, A.; Marcus, P. S. (2003). "The dynamics of jovian white ovals from formation to merger". Icarus. 162 (1): 74–93. Bibcode:2003Icar..162...74Y. doi:10.1016/S0019-1035(02)00060-X.
  122. ^ Weintraub, Rachel A. (September 26, 2005). "How One Night in a Field Changed Astronomy". NASA. Retrieved February 18, 2007.
  123. ^ Garcia, Leonard N. "The Jovian Decametric Radio Emission". NASA. Retrieved February 18, 2007.
  124. ^ Klein, M. J.; Gulkis, S.; Bolton, S. J. (1996). "Jupiter's Synchrotron Radiation: Observed Variations Before, During and After the Impacts of Comet SL9". Conference at University of Graz. NASA: 217. Bibcode:1997pre4.conf..217K. Retrieved February 18, 2007.
  125. ^ NASA – Pioneer 10 Mission Profile Archived November 6, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. NASA. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
  126. ^ NASA – Glenn Research Center. NASA. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
  127. ^ Fortescue, Peter W.; Stark, John and Swinerd, Graham Spacecraft systems engineering, 3rd ed., John Wiley and Sons, 2003, ISBN 978-0-470-85102-9 p. 150.
  128. ^ Hirata, Chris. "Delta-V in the Solar System". California Institute of Technology. Archived from the original on July 15, 2006. Retrieved November 28, 2006.
  129. ^ Wong, Al (May 28, 1998). "Galileo FAQ: Navigation". NASA. Retrieved November 28, 2006.
  130. ^ a b c Chan, K.; Paredes, E. S.; Ryne, M. S. (2004). "Ulysses Attitude and Orbit Operations: 13+ Years of International Cooperation". Space OPS 2004 Conference. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. doi:10.2514/6.2004-650-447.
  131. ^ Lasher, Lawrence (August 1, 2006). "Pioneer Project Home Page". NASA Space Projects Division. Archived from the original on January 1, 2006. Retrieved November 28, 2006.
  132. ^ "Jupiter". NASA/JPL. January 14, 2003. Retrieved November 28, 2006.
  133. ^ Hansen, C. J.; Bolton, S. J.; Matson, D. L.; Spilker, L. J.; Lebreton, J.-P. (2004). "The Cassini–Huygens flyby of Jupiter". Icarus. 172 (1): 1–8. Bibcode:2004Icar..172....1H. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2004.06.018.
  134. ^ "Mission Update: At Closest Approach, a Fresh View of Jupiter". Archived from the original on April 29, 2007. Retrieved July 27, 2007.
  135. ^ "Pluto-Bound New Horizons Provides New Look at Jupiter System". Retrieved July 27, 2007.
  136. ^ a b McConnell, Shannon (April 14, 2003). "Galileo: Journey to Jupiter". NASA/JPL. Retrieved November 28, 2006.
  137. ^ Magalhães, Julio (December 10, 1996). "Galileo Probe Mission Events". NASA Space Projects Division. Archived from the original on January 2, 2007. Retrieved February 2, 2007.
  138. ^ Goodeill, Anthony (March 31, 2008). "New Frontiers – Missions – Juno". NASA. Archived from the original on February 3, 2007. Retrieved January 2, 2007.
  139. ^ Firth, Niall (September 5, 2016). "NASA's Juno probe snaps first images of Jupiter's north pole". New Scientist. Retrieved September 5, 2016.
  140. ^ Clark, Stephen (February 21, 2017). "NASA's Juno spacecraft to remain in current orbit around Jupiter". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved April 26, 2017.
  141. ^ Agle, D. C.; Wendel, JoAnna; Schmid, Deb (June 6, 2018). "NASA Re-plans Juno's Jupiter Mission". NASA/JPL. Retrieved January 5, 2019.
  142. ^ Dickinson, David (February 21, 2017). "Juno Will Stay in Current Orbit Around Jupiter". Sky & Telescope. Retrieved January 7, 2018.
  143. ^ Bartels, Meghan (July 5, 2016). "To protect potential alien life, NASA will destroy its $1 billion Jupiter spacecraft on purpose". Business Insider. Retrieved January 7, 2018.
  144. ^ Amos, Jonathan (May 2, 2012). "Esa selects 1bn-euro Juice probe to Jupiter". BBC News. Retrieved May 2, 2012.
  145. ^ Foust, Jeff (July 10, 2020). "Cost growth prompts changes to Europa Clipper instruments". Space News. Retrieved July 10, 2020.
  146. ^ Berger, Brian (February 7, 2005). "White House scales back space plans". MSNBC. Retrieved January 2, 2007.
  147. ^ "Laplace: A mission to Europa & Jupiter system". European Space Agency. Retrieved January 23, 2009.
  148. ^ Favata, Fabio (April 19, 2011). "New approach for L-class mission candidates". European Space Agency.
  149. ^ Sheppard, Scott S. "The Giant Planet Satellite and Moon Page". Department of Terrestrial Magnetism. Carnegie Institution for Science. Archived from the original on June 7, 2009. Retrieved December 19, 2014.
  150. ^ Zimmermann, Kim Ann (October 1, 2018). "Jupiter's Moons: Facts About the Largest Jovian Moons". Space.com. Retrieved December 31, 2020.
  151. ^ Carter, Jamie (2015). A Stargazing Program for Beginners. Springer International Publishing. p. 104. ISBN 978-3-319-22072-7.
  152. ^ Musotto, S.; Varadi, F.; Moore, W. B.; Schubert, G. (2002). "Numerical simulations of the orbits of the Galilean satellites". Icarus. 159 (2): 500–504. Bibcode:2002Icar..159..500M. doi:10.1006/icar.2002.6939.
  153. ^ a b Lang, Kenneth R. (March 3, 2011). The Cambridge Guide to the Solar System. Cambridge University Press. p. 304. ISBN 978-1-139-49417-5.
  154. ^ McFadden, Lucy-Ann; Weissmann, Paul; Johnson, Torrence (2006). Encyclopedia of the Solar System. Elsevier Science. p. 446. ISBN 978-0-08-047498-4.
  155. ^ Kessler, Donald J. (October 1981). "Derivation of the collision probability between orbiting objects: the lifetimes of jupiter's outer moons". Icarus. 48 (1): 39–48. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(81)90151-2. Retrieved December 30, 2020.
  156. ^ Hamilton, Thomas W. M. (2013). Moons of the Solar System. SPBRA. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-62516-175-8.
  157. ^ Jewitt, D. C.; Sheppard, S.; Porco, C. (2004). Bagenal, F.; Dowling, T.; McKinnon, W (eds.). Jupiter: The Planet, Satellites and Magnetosphere (PDF). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-81808-7. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 26, 2009.
  158. ^ Nesvorný, D.; Alvarellos, J. L. A.; Dones, L.; Levison, H. F. (2003). "Orbital and Collisional Evolution of the Irregular Satellites" (PDF). The Astronomical Journal. 126 (1): 398–429. Bibcode:2003AJ....126..398N. doi:10.1086/375461.
  159. ^ Showman, A. P.; Malhotra, R. (1999). "The Galilean Satellites". Science. 286 (5437): 77–84. doi:10.1126/science.286.5437.77. PMID 10506564. S2CID 9492520.
  160. ^ Sheppard, Scott S.; Jewitt, David C. (May 2003). "An abundant population of small irregular satellites around Jupiter" (PDF). Nature. 423: 261–263. doi:10.1038/nature01584. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 13, 2006.
  161. ^ a b Nesvorný, David; Alvarellos, Jose L. A.; Dones, Luke; Levison, Harold F. (2003). "Orbital and Collisional Evolution of the Irregular Satellites" (PDF). The Astronomical Journal. 126: 398–429.
  162. ^ Nesvorný, David; Beaugé, Cristian; Dones, Luke; Levison, Harold F. (July 2003). "Collisional Origin of Families of Irregular Satellites" (PDF). The Astronomical Journal. 127: 1768–1783.
  163. ^ Showalter, M. A.; Burns, J. A.; Cuzzi, J. N.; Pollack, J. B. (1987). "Jupiter's ring system: New results on structure and particle properties". Icarus. 69 (3): 458–498. Bibcode:1987Icar...69..458S. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(87)90018-2.
  164. ^ a b Burns, J. A.; Showalter, M. R.; Hamilton, D. P.; et al. (1999). "The Formation of Jupiter's Faint Rings". Science. 284 (5417): 1146–1150. Bibcode:1999Sci...284.1146B. doi:10.1126/science.284.5417.1146. PMID 10325220. S2CID 21272762.
  165. ^ Fieseler, P. D.; Adams, O. W.; Vandermey, N.; et al. (2004). "The Galileo Star Scanner Observations at Amalthea". Icarus. 169 (2): 390–401. Bibcode:2004Icar..169..390F. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2004.01.012.
  166. ^ Kerr, Richard A. (2004). "Did Jupiter and Saturn Team Up to Pummel the Inner Solar System?". Science. 306 (5702): 1676. doi:10.1126/science.306.5702.1676a. PMID 15576586. S2CID 129180312. Retrieved August 28, 2007.
  167. ^ "List Of Jupiter Trojans". IAU Minor Planet Center. Retrieved October 24, 2010.
  168. ^ Quinn, T.; Tremaine, S.; Duncan, M. (1990). "Planetary perturbations and the origins of short-period comets". Astrophysical Journal, Part 1. 355: 667–679. Bibcode:1990ApJ...355..667Q. doi:10.1086/168800.
  169. ^ MacDougal, Douglas W. (December 16, 2012). Newton's Gravity: An Introductory Guide to the Mechanics of the Universe. Springer New York. p. 199. ISBN 978-1-4614-5444-1.
  170. ^ Popular Astronomy. 44. Carleton College. 1936. p. 542.
  171. ^ Overbye, Dennis (July 24, 2009). "Hubble Takes Snapshot of Jupiter's 'Black Eye'". The New York Times. Retrieved July 25, 2009.
  172. ^ Lovett, Richard A. (December 15, 2006). "Stardust's Comet Clues Reveal Early Solar System". National Geographic News. Retrieved January 8, 2007.
  173. ^ Nakamura, T.; Kurahashi, H. (1998). "Collisional Probability of Periodic Comets with the Terrestrial Planets: An Invalid Case of Analytic Formulation". Astronomical Journal. 115 (2): 848–854. Bibcode:1998AJ....115..848N. doi:10.1086/300206.
  174. ^ Horner, J.; Jones, B. W. (2008). "Jupiter – friend or foe? I: the asteroids". International Journal of Astrobiology. 7 (3–4): 251–261. arXiv:0806.2795. Bibcode:2008IJAsB...7..251H. doi:10.1017/S1473550408004187. S2CID 8870726.
  175. ^ Overbyte, Dennis (July 25, 2009). "Jupiter: Our Comic Protector?". The New York Times. Retrieved July 27, 2009.
  176. ^ Tabe, Isshi; Watanabe, Jun-ichi; Jimbo, Michiwo (February 1997). "Discovery of a Possible Impact SPOT on Jupiter Recorded in 1690". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 49: L1–L5. Bibcode:1997PASJ...49L...1T. doi:10.1093/pasj/49.1.l1.
  177. ^ "Stargazers prepare for daylight view of Jupiter". ABC News. June 16, 2005. Archived from the original on May 12, 2011. Retrieved February 28, 2008.
  178. ^ Rogers, J. H. (1998). "Origins of the ancient constellations: I. The Mesopotamian traditions". Journal of the British Astronomical Association. 108: 9–28. Bibcode:1998JBAA..108....9R.
  179. ^ Harper, Douglas (November 2001). "Jupiter". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved February 23, 2007.
  180. ^ "Greek Names of the Planets". April 25, 2010. Retrieved July 14, 2012. In Greek the name of the planet Jupiter is Dias, the Greek name of god Zeus. See also the Greek article about the planet.
  181. ^ Cicero, Marcus Tullius (1888). Cicero's Tusculan Disputations; also, Treatises on The Nature of the Gods, and on The Commonwealth. Translated by Yonge, Charles Duke. New York, NY: Harper & Brothers. p. 274 – via Internet Archive.
  182. ^ Cicero, Marcus Tullus (1967) [1933]. Warmington, E. H. (ed.). De Natura Deorum [On The Nature of the Gods]. Cicero. 19. Translated by Rackham, H. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. p. 175 – via Internet Archive.
  183. ^ "Jovial". Dictionary.com. Retrieved July 29, 2007.
  184. ^ Falk, Michael; Koresko, Christopher (2004). "Astronomical Names for the Days of the Week". Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. 93: 122–133. arXiv:astro-ph/0307398. Bibcode:1999JRASC..93..122F. doi:10.1016/j.newast.2003.07.002. S2CID 118954190.
  185. ^ "Guru". Indian Divinity.com. Retrieved February 14, 2007.
  186. ^ "Türk Astrolojisi-2" (in Turkish). NTV. Archived from the original on January 4, 2013. Retrieved April 23, 2010.
  187. ^ De Groot, Jan Jakob Maria (1912). Religion in China: universism. a key to the study of Taoism and Confucianism. American lectures on the history of religions. 10. G.P. Putnam's Sons. p. 300. Retrieved January 8, 2010.
  188. ^ Crump, Thomas (1992). The Japanese numbers game: the use and understanding of numbers in modern Japan. Nissan Institute/Routledge Japanese studies series. Routledge. pp. 39–40. ISBN 978-0-415-05609-0.
  189. ^ Hulbert, Homer Bezaleel (1909). The passing of Korea. Doubleday, Page & Company. p. 426. Retrieved January 8, 2010.
  190. ^ Wang, Ji; Fischer, Debra A.; Horch, Elliott P.; Huang, Xu (2015). "On the Occurrence Rate of Hot Jupiters in Different Stellar Environments". The Astrophysical Journal. 799 (2): 229. arXiv:1412.1731. Bibcode:2015ApJ...799..229W. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/799/2/229. S2CID 119117019.
  191. ^ "What worlds are out there?". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. August 25, 2016. Retrieved June 5, 2017.
  192. ^ Winn, Joshua N.; Fabrycky, Daniel; Albrecht, Simon; Johnson, John Asher (1 January 2010). "Hot stars with hot Jupiters have high obliquities". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 718 (2): L145. arXiv:1006.4161. Bibcode:2010ApJ...718L.145W. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/718/2/L145. ISSN 2041-8205. S2CID 13032700.
  193. ^ Chauvin, G.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Zuckerman, B.; Dumas, C.; Mouillet, D.; Song, I.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Lowrance, P.; Bessell, M. S. (2005). "A companion to AB Pic at the planet/Brown dwarf boundary". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 438 (3): L29–L32. arXiv:astro-ph/0504658. Bibcode:2005A&A...438L..29C. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200500111. S2CID 119089948.

External links