1958 Soviet nuclear tests

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1958
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Information
CountrySoviet Union
Test siteGround Zero, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan; NZ Area C, Sukhoy Nos, Novaya Zemlya, Russia; Western Kazakhstan
Period1958
Number of tests36
Test typeair drop, atmospheric, high alt rocket (30–80 km)
Max. yield2.9 megatonnes of TNT (12 PJ)
Test series chronology
Map all coordinates in "1958 Soviet nuclear tests" using: OpenStreetMap 
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The Soviet Union's 1958 nuclear test series[1] was a group of 36 nuclear tests conducted in 1958. These tests followed the 1957 Soviet nuclear tests series and preceded the 1961 Soviet nuclear tests series.

Soviet Union's 1958 series tests and detonations
Name [note 1] Date time (UT) Local time zone [note 2][2] Location [note 3] Elevation + height [note 4] Delivery, [note 5]
Purpose [note 6]
Device [note 7] Yield [note 8] Fallout [note 9] References Notes
50 (Joe 44) 4 January 1958 ALMT (6 hrs)
Ground Zero, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan ~ 50°24′N 77°48′E / 50.4°N 77.8°E / 50.4; 77.8 (50 (Joe 44)) 280 m (920 ft) + 400 m (1,300 ft) air drop,
weapons development
1.3 kt [1][3][4][5][6][7]
51 (Joe 45) 17 January 1958 ALMT (6 hrs)
Ground Zero, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan ~ 50°24′N 77°48′E / 50.4°N 77.8°E / 50.4; 77.8 (51 (Joe 45)) N/A + 500 m (1,600 ft) atmospheric,
weapons development
500 t [1][3][4][5][6][7]
52 (Joe 46) 23 February 1958 MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area C, Sukhoy Nos, Novaya Zemlya, Russia 74°18′N 53°48′E / 74.3°N 53.8°E / 74.3; 53.8 (52 (Joe 46)) 0 + 2,500 m (8,200 ft) air drop,
weapons development
warhead-2 NGB? TN 860 kt [1][3][6][8]
53 (Joe 47) 27 February 1958 07:59:?? MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area C, Sukhoy Nos, Novaya Zemlya, Russia 74°24′N 53°36′E / 74.4°N 53.6°E / 74.4; 53.6 (53 (Joe 47)) 0 + 2,500 m (8,200 ft) air drop,
weapons development
TN 250 kt [1][3][6][8]
54 (Joe 48) 27 February 1958 10:24:?? MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area C, Sukhoy Nos, Novaya Zemlya, Russia 74°18′N 54°00′E / 74.3°N 54°E / 74.3; 54 (54 (Joe 48)) 0 + air drop,
weapons development
warhead-1 TN 1.5 Mt [1][3][6][8]
55 (Joe 49) 13 March 1958 ALMT (6 hrs)
Ground Zero, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan ~ 50°24′N 77°48′E / 50.4°N 77.8°E / 50.4; 77.8 (55 (Joe 49)) 280 m (920 ft) + 475 m (1,558 ft) air drop,
weapons development
1.2 kt [1][3][4][5][6][7]
unnumbered #2 13 March 1958 ALMT (6 hrs)
Ground Zero, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan ~ 50°24′N 77°48′E / 50.4°N 77.8°E / 50.4; 77.8 (unnumbered #2) 280 m (920 ft) + atmospheric,
less than 0.001 kt [1][5][6][7][9]
56 (Joe 51) 14 March 1958 ALMT (6 hrs)
Ground Zero, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan ~ 50°24′N 77°48′E / 50.4°N 77.8°E / 50.4; 77.8 (56 (Joe 51)) 280 m (920 ft) + 1,030 m (3,380 ft) air drop,
weapons development
35 kt [1][3][5][6][7][9]
57 (Joe 50) 14 March 1958 MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area C, Sukhoy Nos, Novaya Zemlya, Russia 74°15′N 54°20′E / 74.25°N 54.33°E / 74.25; 54.33 (57 (Joe 50)) 0 + air drop,
fundamental science
40 kt [1][3][8]
58 (Joe 52) 15 March 1958 ALMT (6 hrs)
Ground Zero, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan ~ 50°24′N 77°48′E / 50.4°N 77.8°E / 50.4; 77.8 (58 (Joe 52)) 280 m (920 ft) + 965 m (3,166 ft) air drop,
weapons development
14 kt [1][3][5][6][7][9]
unnumbered #3 15 March 1958 ALMT (6 hrs)
Ground Zero, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan ~ 50°24′N 77°48′E / 50.4°N 77.8°E / 50.4; 77.8 (unnumbered #3) 280 m (920 ft) + atmospheric,
no yield [1][5][6][7][9]
59 18 March 1958 ALMT (6 hrs)
Ground Zero, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan ~ 50°24′N 77°48′E / 50.4°N 77.8°E / 50.4; 77.8 (59) 280 m (920 ft) + 290 m (950 ft) air drop,
fundamental science
160 t [1][4][5][6][7]
60 (Joe 53) 20 March 1958 ALMT (6 hrs)
Ground Zero, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan ~ 50°24′N 77°48′E / 50.4°N 77.8°E / 50.4; 77.8 (60 (Joe 53)) 280 m (920 ft) + 1,015 m (3,330 ft) air drop,
weapons development
12 kt [1][3][5][6][7][9]
61 (Joe 54) 21 March 1958 MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area C, Sukhoy Nos, Novaya Zemlya, Russia 74°N 60°E / 74°N 60°E / 74; 60 (61 (Joe 54)) 0 + 2,500 m (8,200 ft) air drop,
weapons development
TN 650 kt [1][3][6][8]
62 (Joe 55) 22 March 1958 ALMT (6 hrs)
Ground Zero, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan ~ 50°24′N 77°48′E / 50.4°N 77.8°E / 50.4; 77.8 (62 (Joe 55)) 280 m (920 ft) + 1,415 m (4,642 ft) air drop,
weapons development
18 kt [1][3][5][6][7][9]
63 (Joe 56) 30 September 1958 07:50:?? MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area C, Sukhoy Nos, Novaya Zemlya, Russia 73°45′N 54°45′E / 73.75°N 54.75°E / 73.75; 54.75 (63 (Joe 56)) 0 + 1,500 m (4,900 ft) air drop,
weapons development
TN 1.2 Mt [1][3][6][8]
64 (Joe 57) 30 September 1958 09:55:?? MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area C, Sukhoy Nos, Novaya Zemlya, Russia 73°24′N 55°00′E / 73.4°N 55°E / 73.4; 55 (64 (Joe 57)) 0 + 2,500 m (8,200 ft) air drop,
weapons development
TN 900 kt [1][6][8]
65 (Joe 58) 2 October 1958 08:00:?? MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area C, Sukhoy Nos, Novaya Zemlya, Russia ~ 73°N 55°E / 73°N 55°E / 73; 55 (65 (Joe 58)) 0 + 1,620 m (5,310 ft) atmospheric,
weapons development
TN 290 kt [1][3][6][8]
66 (Joe 59) 2 October 1958 09:01:?? MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area C, Sukhoy Nos, Novaya Zemlya, Russia 73°38′N 57°30′E / 73.63°N 57.5°E / 73.63; 57.5 (66 (Joe 59)) 0 + atmospheric,
fundamental science
40 kt [1][3][6][8]
67 (Joe 60) 4 October 1958 MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area C, Sukhoy Nos, Novaya Zemlya, Russia ~ 73°N 55°E / 73°N 55°E / 73; 55 (67 (Joe 60)) 0 + 800 m (2,600 ft) atmospheric,
weapons development
9 kt [1][3][8]
68 (Joe 61) 5 October 1958 06:00:?? MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area C, Sukhoy Nos, Novaya Zemlya, Russia ~ 73°N 55°E / 73°N 55°E / 73; 55 (68 (Joe 61)) 0 + 1,200 m (3,900 ft) atmospheric,
weapons development
15 kt [1][3][6][8]
69 (Joe 62) 6 October 1958 MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area C, Sukhoy Nos, Novaya Zemlya, Russia ~ 73°N 55°E / 73°N 55°E / 73; 55 (69 (Joe 62)) 0 + 1,200 m (3,900 ft) air drop,
weapons development
5.5 kt [1][3][8]
70 (Joe 63) 10 October 1958 07:51:?? MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area C, Sukhoy Nos, Novaya Zemlya, Russia 73°38′N 54°15′E / 73.63°N 54.25°E / 73.63; 54.25 (70 (Joe 63)) 0 + air drop,
weapons development
TN 68 kt [1][3][6][8]
71 (Joe 64) 12 October 1958 07:53:34 MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area C, Sukhoy Nos, Novaya Zemlya, Russia 74°56′N 53°19′E / 74.93°N 53.32°E / 74.93; 53.32 (71 (Joe 64)) 0 + air drop,
weapons development
warhead-1 TN 1.5 Mt [1][3][6][8][10]
72 (Joe 65) 15 October 1958 07:51:14 MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area C, Sukhoy Nos, Novaya Zemlya, Russia 74°00′N 51°48′E / 74°N 51.8°E / 74; 51.8 (72 (Joe 65)) 0 + 2,150 m (7,050 ft) air drop,
weapons development
TN 1.5 Mt [1][3][6][8][10]
73 (Joe 66) 18 October 1958 09:51:06 MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area C, Sukhoy Nos, Novaya Zemlya, Russia 73°58′N 52°28′E / 73.97°N 52.47°E / 73.97; 52.47 (73 (Joe 66)) 0 + air drop,
weapons development
TN 2.9 Mt [1][3][6][8][10]
75 (Joe 67) 19 October 1958 MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area C, Sukhoy Nos, Novaya Zemlya, Russia ~ 73°N 55°E / 73°N 55°E / 73; 55 (75 (Joe 67)) 0 + 900 m (3,000 ft) air drop,
weapons development
less than 0.001 kt [1][3][8]
74 19 October 1958 07:27:?? MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area C, Sukhoy Nos, Novaya Zemlya, Russia ~ 73°N 55°E / 73°N 55°E / 73; 55 (74) 0 + air drop,
fundamental science
40 kt [1][8][11] A fizzle.
76 (Joe 68) 20 October 1958 08:20:?? MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area C, Sukhoy Nos, Novaya Zemlya, Russia 73°35′N 54°18′E / 73.58°N 54.3°E / 73.58; 54.3 (76 (Joe 68)) 0 + air drop,
weapons development
TN 440 kt [1][3][6][8]
77 (Joe 69) 21 October 1958 MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area C, Sukhoy Nos, Novaya Zemlya, Russia ~ 73°N 55°E / 73°N 55°E / 73; 55 (77 (Joe 69)) 0 + 570 m (1,870 ft) air drop,
weapons development
2 kt [1][3][8]
78 (Joe 70) 22 October 1958 08:21:04 MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area C, Sukhoy Nos, Novaya Zemlya, Russia 73°32′N 53°06′E / 73.53°N 53.1°E / 73.53; 53.1 (78 (Joe 70)) 0 + 2,070 m (6,790 ft) air drop,
weapons development
TN 2.8 Mt [1][3][6][8][10]
79 (Joe 71) 24 October 1958 08:03:06 MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area C, Sukhoy Nos, Novaya Zemlya, Russia 73°41′N 54°58′E / 73.68°N 54.97°E / 73.68; 54.97 (79 (Joe 71)) 0 + 1,525 m (5,003 ft) air drop,
weapons development
warhead-2 NGB? TN 1 Mt [1][3][6][8][10]
81 25 October 1958 MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area C, Sukhoy Nos, Novaya Zemlya, Russia ~ 73°N 55°E / 73°N 55°E / 73; 55 (81) 0 + 300 m (980 ft) air drop,
fundamental science
50 t [1][8]
80 (Joe 72) 25 October 1958 08:20:?? MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area C, Sukhoy Nos, Novaya Zemlya, Russia 74°N 55°E / 74°N 55°E / 74; 55 (80 (Joe 72)) 0 + 1,500 m (4,900 ft) air drop,
weapons development
TN 190 kt [1][3][6][8][11]
82 (Joe 73) 1 November 1958 URAT (5 hrs)
Launch from Kapustin Yar, Astrakhan 48°34′10″N 45°54′12″E / 48.56956°N 45.90346°E / 48.56956; 45.90346 (Launch_82 (Joe 73)), elv: 0 + 0 m (0 + 0 ft);
Detonation over Western Kazakhstan ~ 49°18′N 48°00′E / 49.3°N 48°E / 49.3; 48 (82 (Joe 73))
N/A + 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) high alt rocket (30–80 km),
weapon effect
10 kt [1][3][6][8] Fired after agreed upon end of testing, caused Eisenhower to formally abrogate unilateral test ban, but US maintained ban anyway. R-5M rocket.
83 (Joe 74) 3 November 1958 URAT (5 hrs)
Launch from Kapustin Yar, Astrakhan 48°34′10″N 45°54′12″E / 48.56956°N 45.90346°E / 48.56956; 45.90346 (Launch_83 (Joe 74)), elv: 0 + 0 m (0 + 0 ft);
Detonation over Western Kazakhstan ~ 49°18′N 48°00′E / 49.3°N 48°E / 49.3; 48 (83 (Joe 74))
N/A + 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) high alt rocket (30–80 km),
weapon effect
10 kt [1][3][6][8] Fired after agreed upon end of testing, caused Eisenhower to formally abrogate unilateral test ban, but US maintained ban anyway. R-5M rocket.
  1. ^ The US, France and Great Britain have code-named their test events, while the USSR and China did not, and therefore have only test numbers (with some exceptions – Soviet peaceful explosions were named). Word translations into English in parentheses unless the name is a proper noun. A dash followed by a number indicates a member of a salvo event. The US also sometimes named the individual explosions in such a salvo test, which results in "name1 – 1(with name2)". If test is canceled or aborted, then the row data like date and location discloses the intended plans, where known.
  2. ^ To convert the UT time into standard local, add the number of hours in parentheses to the UT time; for local daylight saving time, add one additional hour. If the result is earlier than 00:00, add 24 hours and subtract 1 from the day; if it is 24:00 or later, subtract 24 hours and add 1 to the day. All historical timezone data are derived from here:
  3. ^ Rough place name and a latitude/longitude reference; for rocket-carried tests, the launch location is specified before the detonation location, if known. Some locations are extremely accurate; others (like airdrops and space blasts) may be quite inaccurate. "~" indicates a likely pro-forma rough location, shared with other tests in that same area.
  4. ^ Elevation is the ground level at the point directly below the explosion relative to sea level; height is the additional distance added or subtracted by tower, balloon, shaft, tunnel, air drop or other contrivance. For rocket bursts the ground level is "N/A". In some cases it is not clear if the height is absolute or relative to ground, for example, Plumbbob/John. No number or units indicates the value is unknown, while "0" means zero. Sorting on this column is by elevation and height added together.
  5. ^ Atmospheric, airdrop, balloon, gun, cruise missile, rocket, surface, tower, and barge are all disallowed by the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Sealed shaft and tunnel are underground, and remained useful under the PTBT. Intentional cratering tests are borderline; they occurred under the treaty, were sometimes protested, and generally overlooked if the test was declared to be a peaceful use.
  6. ^ Include weapons development, weapon effects, safety test, transport safety test, war, science, joint verification and industrial/peaceful, which may be further broken down.
  7. ^ Designations for test items where known, "?" indicates some uncertainty about the preceding value, nicknames for particular devices in quotes. This category of information is often not officially disclosed.
  8. ^ Estimated energy yield in tons, kilotons, and megatons. A ton of TNT equivalent is defined as 4.184 gigajoules (1 gigacalorie).
  9. ^ Radioactive emission to the atmosphere aside from prompt neutrons, where known. The measured species is only iodine-131 if mentioned, otherwise it is all species. No entry means unknown, probably none if underground and "all" if not; otherwise notation for whether measured on the site only or off the site, where known, and the measured amount of radioactivity released.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak Yang, Xiaoping; North, Robert; Romney, Carl (August 2000). CMR Nuclear Explosion Database (Revision 3) (Technical report). SMDC Monitoring Research.
  2. ^ "Timezone Historical Database". iana.com. Retrieved March 8, 2014.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Soviet Atomic Energy Program (PDF) (Technical report). National Intelligence Estimate 11-2A-62. Central Intelligence Agency. May 16, 1962. Retrieved August 12, 2014.
  4. ^ a b c d Andrushkin, Vitaly V.; Leith, William (September 1, 2001). The containment of Soviet underground nuclear explosions (PDF) (Open File Report 01-312). USGS. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 9, 2013. Retrieved December 13, 2013.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Nuclear explosions in the USSR: The North Test Site reference material, version 4 (PDF) (Technical report). IAEA Dept. of Nuclear Safety and Security. December 1, 2004. Retrieved December 13, 2013.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Podvig, Pavel, ed. (2001). Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Retrieved January 9, 2014.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j USSR Nuclear Weapons Tests and Peaceful Nuclear Explosions 1949 through 1990. Sarov, Russia: RFNC-VNIIEF. 1996. The official Russian list of Soviet tests.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z USSR Nuclear Tests, Hydronuclear Experiments, Plutonium Inventory. Sarov, Russia: RFNC-VNIIEF. 1998.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Cochran, Thomas B.; Arkin, William M.; Norris, Robert S.; Sands, Jeffrey I. Nuclear Weapons Databook Vol. IV: Soviet Nuclear Weapons. New York, NY: Harper and Row.
  10. ^ a b c d e Donn, William L.; Ewing, Maurice (1962). "Atmospheric waves from nuclear explosions". Journal of Geophysical Research. 67: 1855ff. Bibcode:1962JGR....67.1855D. doi:10.1029/jz067i005p01855.
  11. ^ a b Khalturin, Vitaly I.; Rautian, Tatyana G.; Richards, Paul G.; Leith, William S. (10 April 2004). "A Review of Nuclear Testing by the Soviet Union at Novaya Zemlya, 1955--1990" (PDF). Science and Global Security. 13 (1): 1–42. doi:10.1080/08929880590961862. Retrieved August 12, 2014.