This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Ton of TNT|
The explosion from a 14 kiloton nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site, in 1951.
|Symbol||t or ton of TNT|
|1 t in ...||... is equal to ...|
|SI base units||≈ 4.184 gigajoules|
TNT equivalent is a convention for expressing energy, typically used to describe the energy released in an explosion. The ton of TNT is a unit of energy defined by that convention to be 4.184 gigajoules, which is the approximate energy released in the detonation of a metric ton (1,000 kilograms) of TNT. In other words, for each gram of TNT exploded, 4184 joules (or one large Calorie = 1,000 calories) of energy is released.
This convention intends to compare the destructiveness of an event with that of traditional explosive materials, of which TNT is a typical example, although other conventional explosives such as dynamite contain more energy.
Kiloton and megaton
The "kiloton (of TNT)" is a unit of energy equal to 4.184 terajoules (4.184×1012 J).
The "megaton (of TNT)" is a unit of energy equal to 4.184 petajoules (4.184×1015 J).
The kiloton and megaton of TNT have traditionally been used to describe the energy output, and hence the destructive power, of a nuclear weapon. The TNT equivalent appears in various nuclear weapon control treaties, and has been used to characterize the energy released in such other highly destructive events as an asteroid impact.
Historical derivation of the value
Where for example the comparison is by energy yield, an explosive's energy is normally expressed for chemical purposes as the thermodynamic work produced by its detonation. For TNT this has been accurately measured as 4686 J/g from a large sample of air blast experiments, and theoretically calculated to be 4853 J/g.
But, even on this basis, comparing the actual energy yields of a large nuclear device and an explosion of TNT can be slightly inaccurate. Small TNT explosions, especially in the open, don't tend to burn the carbon-particle and hydrocarbon products of the explosion. Gas-expansion and pressure-change effects tend to "freeze" the burn rapidly. A large open explosion of TNT may maintain fireball temperatures high enough so that some of those products do burn up with atmospheric oxygen.
So, one can state that a nuclear bomb has a yield of 15 kt (6.3×1013 J); but an actual explosion of a 15000 ton pile of TNT may yield (for example) 8×1013 J due to additional carbon/hydrocarbon oxidation not present with small open-air charges.
A kiloton of TNT can be visualized as a cube of TNT 8.46 metres (27.8 ft) on a side.
|Grams TNT||Symbol||Tons TNT||Symbol||Energy [Joules]||Energy [Wh]||Corresponding mass loss|
|gram of TNT||g||microton of TNT||μt||4.184×103 J or 4.184 kilojoules||1.162 Wh||46.55 pg|
|kilogram of TNT||kg||milliton of TNT||mt||4.184×106 J or 4.184 megajoules||1.162 kWh||46.55 ng|
|megagram of TNT||Mg||ton of TNT||t||4.184×109 J or 4.184 gigajoules||1.162 MWh||46.55 μg|
|gigagram of TNT||Gg||kiloton of TNT||kt||4.184×1012 J or 4.184 terajoules||1.162 GWh||46.55 mg|
|teragram of TNT||Tg||megaton of TNT||Mt||4.184×1015 J or 4.184 petajoules||1.162 TWh||46.55 g|
|petagram of TNT||Pg||gigaton of TNT||Gt||4.184×1018 J or 4.184 exajoules||1.162 PWh||46.55 kg|
Conversion to other units
1 ton TNT equivalent is approximately:
- 1.0×109 calories
- 4.184×109 joules
- 3.96831×106 British thermal units
- 3.08802×109 foot pounds
- 1.162×103 kilowatt hours
|Megatons of TNT||Energy [Wh]||Description|
|1×10−12||1.162 Wh||≈ 1 food Calorie (large Calorie, kcal), which is the approximate amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree Celsius at a pressure of one atmosphere.|
|1×10−9||1.162 kWh||Under controlled conditions one kilogram of TNT can destroy (or even obliterate) a small vehicle.|
|1×10−8||11.62 kWh||The approximate radiant heat energy released during 3-phase, 600 V, 100 kA arcing fault in a 0.5 m × 0.5 m × 0.5 m (20 in × 20 in × 20 in) compartment within a 1-second period.[further explanation needed]|
|1.2×10−8||13.94 kWh||Amount of TNT used (12 kg) in Coptic church explosion in Cairo, Egypt on December 11, 2016 that left 25 dead|
|(1–44)×10−6||1.16–51.14 MWh||Conventional bombs yield from less than one ton to FOAB's 44 tons. The yield of a Tomahawk cruise missile is equivalent to 500 kg of TNT, or approximately 0.5 tons.|
|1.9×10−6||2.90 MWh||The television show MythBusters used 2.5 tons of ANFO to make "homemade" diamonds.|
|5×10−4||581 MWh||A real 0.5-kilotonne-of-TNT (2.1 TJ) charge at Operation Sailor Hat. If the charge were a full sphere, it would be 1 kilotonne of TNT (4.2 TJ).|
|1.2×10−3||2.088 GWh||Estimated yield of the Beirut explosion of 2,750 tons of ammonium nitrate that killed initially 137 at and near a Lebanese port at 6 p.m. local time Tuesday August 4, 2020.|
|(1–2)×10−3||1.16–2.32 GWh||Estimated yield of the Oppau explosion that killed more than 500 at a German fertilizer factory in 1921.|
|2.3×10−3||2.67 GWh||Amount of solar energy falling on 4,000 m2 (1 acre) of land in a year is 9.5 TJ (2,650 MWh) (an average over the Earth's surface).|
|2.9×10−3||3.49 GWh||The Halifax Explosion in 1917 was the accidental detonation of 200 tons of TNT and 2,300 tons of Picric acid|
|4×10−3||9.3 GWh||Minor Scale, a 1985 United States conventional explosion, using 4,744 tons of ANFO explosive to provide a scaled equivalent airblast of an eight kiloton (33.44 TJ) nuclear device, is believed to be the largest planned detonation of conventional explosives in history.|
|(1.5–2)×10−2||17.4–23.2 GWh||The Little Boy atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, exploded with an energy of about 15 kilotons of TNT (63 TJ), and the Fat Man atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945, exploded with an energy of about 20 kilotons of TNT (84 TJ). The modern nuclear weapons in the United States arsenal range in yield from 0.3 kt (1.3 TJ) to 1.2 Mt (5.0 PJ) equivalent, for the B83 strategic bomb.|
|1||1.16 TWh||The energy contained in one megaton of TNT (4.2 PJ) is enough to power the average American household for 103,000 years. The 30 Mt (130 PJ) estimated upper limit blast power of the Tunguska event could power the same average home for more than 3,100,000 years. The energy of that blast could power the entire United States for 3.27 days.|
|4||4.6 TWh||The biggest h bomb that China has detonated is 4 megatons of TNT|
|8.6||10 TWh||The energy released by a typical tropical cyclone in one minute, primarily from water condensation. Winds constitute 0.25% of that energy.|
|21.5||25 TWh||The complete conversion of 1 kg of matter into pure energy would yield the theoretical maximum (E = mc2) of 89.8 petajoules, which is equivalent to 21.5 megatons of TNT. No such method of total conversion as combining 500 grams of matter with 500 grams of antimatter has yet been achieved. In the event of proton–antiproton annihilation, approximately 50% of the released energy will escape in the form of neutrinos, which are almost undetectable. Electron–positron annihilation events emit their energy entirely as gamma rays.|
|24||28 TWh||Approximate total yield of the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens.|
|100||29–116 TWh||Soviet developed a prototype weapon, nicknamed the Tsar Bomba, which was tested at 50 Mt (210 PJ), but had a maximum theoretical yield of 100 Mt (420 PJ). The effective destructive potential of such a weapon varies greatly, depending on such conditions as the altitude at which it is detonated, the characteristics of the target, the terrain, and the physical landscape upon which it is detonated.|
|26.3||30.6 TWh||Megathrust earthquakes 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake released record ME surface rupture energy, or potential for damage at 26.3 megatons of TNT (110 PJ).|
|200||232 TWh||The total energy released by the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa in the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia).|
|540||628 TWh||The total energy produced worldwide by all nuclear testing and combat combined, from the 1940s until the present is about 540 megatons.|
|1,460||1.69 PWh||The total global nuclear arsenal is about 15,000 nuclear warheads with a destructive capacity of around 1460 megatons or 1.460 gigatons (1,460 million tons) of TNT. This is the equivalent of 6.11x1021 joules of energy|
|33,000||38 PWh||The total energy released by the 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora in the island of Sumbawa in Indonesia.|
|104,400||121 PWh||The total solar irradience energy received by Earth in the upper atmosphere per hour.|
|875,000||1,000 PWh||Approximate yield of the last eruption of the Yellowstone supervolcano.|
|6×106||6,973 PWh||The estimated energy at impact when the largest fragment of Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9 struck Jupiter is equivalent to 6 million megatons (6 trillion tons) of TNT.|
|9.32×106||10,831 PWh||The energy released in the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami was over 200,000 times the surface energy and was calculated by the USGS at 3.9×1022 joules, slightly less than the 2004 Indian Ocean quake. This is equivalent to 9.32 teratons of TNT.|
|9.56×106||11,110 PWh||Megathrust earthquakes record huge MW values, or total energy released. The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake released 9,560 gigatons TNT equivalent.|
|1×108||116,222 PWh||The approximate energy released when the Chicxulub impact caused the mass extinction 65–66 million years ago was estimated to be equal to 100 teratons (i.e. 100 exagrams or approximately 220.462 quadrillion pounds) of TNT (a teraton equals 1 million megatons). the most energetic event on the history of Earth for hundreds of millions of years, far more powerful than any volcanic eruption, earthquake or firestorm. Such an explosion annihilated everything within a thousand kilometres of the impact in a split second. Such energy is equivalent to that needed to power the whole Earth for several centuries.|
|3×108 - 119×108||349 EWh to 14 ZWh||Later estimates for the Chicxulub impactor energy have climbed to between 300 million megatons and 11,900 million megatons.|
|5.972×1015||6.94×1027 Wh||The explosive energy of a quantity of TNT the mass of Earth.|
|7.89×1015||9.17×1027 Wh||Total solar output in all directions per day.|
|1.98×1021||2.3×1033 Wh||The explosive energy of a quantity of TNT the mass of the Sun.|
|(2.4–4.8)×1028||(2.8–5.6)×1040 Wh||A type 1a supernova explosion gives off 1–2×1044 joules of energy, which is about 2.4–4.8 hundred billion yottatons (24–48 octillion (2.4–4.8×1028) megatons) of TNT, equivalent to the explosive force of a quantity of TNT over a trillion (1012) times the mass of the planet Earth. This is the astrophysical standard candle used to determine galactic distances.|
|(2.4–4.8)×1030||(2.8–5.6)×1042 Wh||The largest type of supernova observed, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) release more than 1046 joules of energy.|
|1.3×1032||1.5×1044 Wh||A merger of two black holes, resulting in the first observation of gravitational waves, released 5.3×1047 joules|
Relative effectiveness factor
The relative effectiveness factor (RE factor) relates an explosive's demolition power to that of TNT, in units of the TNT equivalent/kg (TNTe/kg). The RE factor is the relative mass of TNT to which an explosive is equivalent: The greater the RE, the more powerful the explosive.
This enables engineers to determine the proper masses of different explosives when applying blasting formulas developed specifically for TNT. For example, if a timber-cutting formula calls for a charge of 1 kg of TNT, then based on octanitrocubane's RE factor of 2.38, it would take only 1.0/2.38 (or 0.42) kg of it to do the same job. Using PETN, engineers would need 1.0/1.66 (or 0.60) kg to obtain the same effects as 1 kg of TNT. With ANFO or ammonium nitrate, they would require 1.0/0.74 (or 1.35) kg or 1.0/0.32 (or 3.125) kg, respectively.
Calculating a single RE factor for an explosive is, however, impossible. It depends on the specific case or use. Given a pair of explosives, one can produce 2× the shockwave output (this depends on the distance of measuring instruments) but the difference in direct metal cutting ability may be 4× higher for one type of metal and 7× higher for another type of metal. The relative differences between two explosives with shaped charges will be even greater. The table below should be taken as an example and not as a precise source of data.
|Ammonium nitrate (AN + <0.5% H2O)||0.88||2700||0.32|
|Black powder (75% KNO3 + 19% C + 6% S, ancient explosives)||1.65||600||0.55|
|Tanerit Simply (93% granulated AN + 6% red P + 1% C)||0.90||2750||0.55|
|Hexamine dinitrate (HDN)||1.30||5070||0.60|
|HMTD (hexamine peroxide)||0.88||4520||0.74|
|ANFO (94% AN + 6% fuel oil)||0.92||5270||0.74|
|TATP (acetone peroxide)||1.18||5300||0.80|
|Tovex Extra (AN water gel) commercial product||1.33||5690||0.80|
|Hydromite 600 (AN water emulsion) commercial product||1.24||5550||0.80|
|ANNMAL (66% AN + 25% NM + 5% Al + 3% C + 1% TETA)||1.16||5360||0.87|
|Amatol (50% TNT + 50% AN)||1.50||6290||0.91|
|Tritonal (80% TNT + 20% aluminium)*||1.70||6650||1.05|
|Nickel hydrazine nitrate (NHN)||1.70||7000||1.05|
|Amatol (80% TNT + 20% AN)||1.55||6570||1.10|
|Nitrocellulose (13.5% N, NC; AKA guncotton)||1.40||6400||1.10|
|PBXW-126 (22% NTO, 20% RDX, 20% AP, 26% Al, 12% PU's system)*||1.80||6450||1.10|
|Diethylene glycol dinitrate (DEGDN)||1.38||6610||1.17|
|PBXIH-135 EB (42% HMX, 33% Al, 25% PCP-TMETN's system)*||1.81||7060||1.17|
|PBXN-109 (64% RDX, 20% Al, 16% HTPB's system)*||1.68||7450||1.17|
|Picric acid (TNP)||1.71||7350||1.17|
|Tetrytol (70% tetryl + 30% TNT)||1.60||7370||1.20|
|Dynamite, Nobel's (75% NG + 23% diatomite)||1.48||7200||1.25|
|Torpex (aka HBX, 41% RDX + 40% TNT + 18% Al + 1% wax)*||1.80||7440||1.30|
|Composition B (63% RDX + 36% TNT + 1% wax)||1.72||7840||1.33|
|Composition C-3 (78% RDX)||1.60||7630||1.33|
|Composition C-4 (91% RDX)||1.59||8040||1.37|
|Pentolite (56% PETN + 44% TNT)||1.66||7520||1.33|
|Semtex 1A (76% PETN + 6% RDX)||1.55||7670||1.35|
|Hexal (76% RDX + 20% Al + 4% wax)*||1.79||7640||1.35|
|RISAL P (50% IPN + 28% RDX + 15% Al + 4% Mg + 1% Zr + 2% NC)*||1.39||5980||1.40|
|Mixture: 24% nitrobenzene + 76% TNM||1.48||8060||1.50|
|Mixture: 30% nitrobenzene + 70% nitrogen tetroxide||1.39||8290||1.50|
|Methyl nitrate (MN)||1.21||7900||1.54|
|Octol (80% HMX + 19% TNT + 1% DNT)||1.83||8690||1.54|
|DADNE (1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene, FOX-7)||1.77||8330||1.60|
|Gelignite (92% NG + 7% nitrocellulose)||1.60||7970||1.60|
|Plastics Gel® (in toothpaste tube: 45% PETN + 45% NG + 5% DEGDN + 4% NC)||1.51||7940||1.60|
|Composition A-5 (98% RDX + 2% stearic acid)||1.65||8470||1.60|
|Erythritol tetranitrate (ETN)||1.72||8206||1.60|
|PBXW-11 (96% HMX, 1% HyTemp, 3% DOA)||1.81||8720||1.60|
|Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN)||1.49||8300||1.66|
|Octogen (HMX grade B)||1.86||9100||1.70|
|Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW; AKA CL-20)||1.97||9380||1.80|
|MEDINA (Methylene dinitroamine)||1.65||8700||1.93|
*: TBX (thermobaric explosives) or EBX (enhanced blast explosives), in a small, confined space, may have over twice the power of destruction. The total power of aluminized mixtures strictly depends on the condition of explosions.
(kilotons of TNT)
|Bomb used in Oklahoma City (ANFO based on racing fuel)||0.0018||2,300||0.78|
|GBU-57 bomb (Massive Ordnance Penetrator, MOP)||0.0035||13,600||0.26|
|Grand Slam (Earthquake bomb, M110)||0.0065||9,900||0.66|
|BLU-82 (Daisy Cutter)||0.0075||6,800||1.10|
|MOAB (non-nuclear bomb, GBU-43)||0.011||9,800||1.13|
|FOAB (advanced thermobaric bomb, ATBIP)||0.044||9,100||4.83|
|W54, Mk-54 (Davy Crockett)||0.022||23||1,000|
|W54, B54 (SADM)||1.0||23||43,500|
|Hypothetical suitcase nuke||2.5||31||80,000|
|Fat Man (dropped on Nagasaki) A-bomb||20||4600||4,500|
|Classic (one-stage) fission A-bomb||22||420||50,000|
|W88 modern thermonuclear warhead (MIRV)||470||355||1,300,000|
|Typical (two-stage) nuclear bomb||500–1000||650–1120||900,000|
|W56 thermonuclear warhead||1,200||272–308||4,960,000|
|B53 nuclear bomb (two-stage)||9,000||4050||2,200,000|
|B41 nuclear bomb (three-stage)||25,000||4850||5,100,000|
|Tsar nuclear bomb (three-stage)||50,000–56,000||26,500||2,100,000|
- Net explosive quantity
- Nuclear weapon yield
- Orders of magnitude (energy)
- Relative effectiveness factor
- Table of explosive detonation velocities
- Tonne of oil equivalent, a unit of energy almost exactly 10 tonnes of TNT
- "Tons (Explosives) to Gigajoules Conversion Calculator". unitconversion.org.
- "Joules to Megatons Conversion Calculator". unitconversion.org.
- Sorin Bastea, Laurence E. Fried, Kurt R. Glaesemann, W. Michael Howard, P. Clark Souers, Peter A. Vitello, Cheetah 5.0 User's Manual, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 2007.
- Maienschein, Jon L. (2002). Estimating equivalency of explosives through a thermochemical approach (PDF) (Technical report). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. UCRL-JC-147683. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 21, 2016. Retrieved December 12, 2012.
- Maienschein, Jon L. (2002). Tnt equivalency of different explosives – estimation for calculating load limits in heaf firing tanks (Technical report). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. EMPE-02-22.
- Cunningham, Bruce J. (2001). C-4/tnt equivalency (Technical report). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. EMPE-01-81.
- Cooper, Paul W. (1996). Explosives Engineering. New York: Wiley-VCH. p. 406. ISBN 978-0-471-18636-6.
- Charles E. Needham (October 3, 2017). Blast Waves. p. 91. ISBN 978-3319653822. OCLC 1005353847. Archived from the original on December 26, 2018. Retrieved January 25, 2019.
- Blast effects of external explosions (Section 4.8. Limitations of the TNT equivalent method) Archived August 10, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
- "Appendix B8 – Factors for Units Listed Alphabetically". 2009-07-02. In NIST SI Guide 2008
- "Arc blast Tri-Nitro-Toluene TNT Trotyl equivalent – ARCAD INC". arcblasts.com.
- Atassi, Basma; Sirgany, Sarah; Narayan, Chandrika (December 13, 2016). "Local media: Blast at Cairo cathedral kills at least 25". CNN. Retrieved 5 April 2017.
- Homer-Dixon, Thomas F; Homer-Dixon, Thomas (2002). The Ingenuity Gap. p. 249. ISBN 978-0-375-71328-6.
- Fuwad, Ahamad (5 August 2020). "Beirut Blast: How does yield of 2,750 tonnes of ammonium nitrate compare against Halifax explosion, Hiroshima bombing?". DNA India. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
- Staff, W. S. J. (6 August 2020). "Beirut Explosion: What Happened in Lebanon and Everything Else You Need to Know". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
- TECH REPS INC ALBUQUERQUE NM (1986). "Minor Scale Event, Test Execution Report". hdl:100.2/ADA269600. Cite journal requires
- "Frequently Asked Questions – Electricity". United States Department of Energy. 2009-10-06. Retrieved 2009-10-21. (Calculated from 2007 value of 936 kWh monthly usage)
- "Country Comparison :: Electricity – consumption". The World Factbook. CIA. Archived from the original on 2012-01-28. Retrieved 2009-10-22. (Calculated from 2007 value of 3,892,000,000,000 kWh annual usage)
- "NOAA FAQ: How much energy does a hurricane release?". National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration. August 2001. Retrieved 2009-06-30. cites 6E14 watts continuous.
- Borowski, Stanley K. (March 1996). Comparison of Fusion/Antiproton Propulsion systems (PDF). 23rd Joint Propulsion Conference. NASA Glenn Research Center. doi:10.2514/6.1987-1814. hdl:2060/19960020441.[permanent dead link]
- See Currently deployed U.S. nuclear weapon yields Archived September 7, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, Complete List of All U.S. Nuclear Weapons Archived December 16, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Tsar Bomba Archived June 17, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, all from Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapon Archive.
- "Status of World Nuclear Forces". fas.org.
- "Nuclear Weapons: Who Has What at a Glance". armscontrol.org.
- "Global nuclear weapons: downsizing but modernizing". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. 13 June 2016.
- Kristensen, Hans M.; Norris, Robert S. (May 3, 2016). "Russian nuclear forces, 2016". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 72 (3): 125–134. Bibcode:2016BuAtS..72c.125K. doi:10.1080/00963402.2016.1170359 – via Taylor and Francis+NEJM.
- Kristensen, Hans M; Norris, Robert S (2015). "US nuclear forces, 2015". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 71 (2): 107. Bibcode:2015BuAtS..71b.107K. doi:10.1177/0096340215571913.
- "Minimize Harm and Security Risks of Nuclear Energy". Archived from the original on 2014-09-24. Retrieved 2017-05-04.
- Kristensen, Hans M; Norris, Robert S (2015). "Chinese nuclear forces, 2015". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 71 (4): 77. Bibcode:2015BuAtS..71d..77K. doi:10.1177/0096340215591247.
- "USGS.gov: USGS WPhase Moment Solution". Earthquake.usgs.gov. Archived from the original on 14 March 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
- Durand-Manterola, H. J.; Cordero-Tercero, G. (2014). "Assessments of the energy, mass and size of the Chicxulub Impactor". arXiv:1403.6391 [astro-ph.EP].
- Maselli, A.; Melandri, A.; Nava, L.; Mundell, C. G.; Kawai, N.; Campana, S.; Covino, S.; Cummings, J. R.; Cusumano, G.; Evans, P. A.; Ghirlanda, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Guidorzi, C.; Kobayashi, S.; Kuin, P.; LaParola, V.; Mangano, V.; Oates, S.; Sakamoto, T.; Serino, M.; Virgili, F.; Zhang, B.- B.; Barthelmy, S.; Beardmore, A.; Bernardini, M. G.; Bersier, D.; Burrows, D.; Calderone, G.; Capalbi, M.; Chiang, J. (2014). "GRB 130427A: A Nearby Ordinary Monster". Science. 343 (6166): 48–51. arXiv:1311.5254. Bibcode:2014Sci...343...48M. doi:10.1126/science.1242279. PMID 24263134.
- US Army FM 3–34.214: Explosives and Demolition, 2007, page 1–2.
- Török, Zoltán; Ozunu, Alexandru (2015). "Hazardous properties of ammonium nitrate and modeling of explosions using TNT equivalency". Environmental Engineering & Management Journal (EEMJ). 14 (11): 2671–2678.
- Queensland Government. "Storage requirements for security sensitive ammonium nitrate (SSAN)". Retrieved 24 August 2020.
- Whitehall Paraindistries
- "FM 5–250" (PDF). bits.de. United States Department of the Army. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
- Thompson, A.; Taylor, B.N. (July 2008). Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI). NIST Special Publication. 811. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Version 3.2.
- Nuclear Weapons FAQ Part 1.3
- Rhodes, Richard (2012). The Making of the Atomic Bomb (25th Anniversary ed.). Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4516-7761-4.
- Cooper, Paul W. (1996), Explosives Engineering, New York: Wiley-VCH, ISBN 978-0-471-18636-6
- HQ Department of the Army (2004) , Field Manual 5-25: Explosives and Demolitions, Washington, D.C.: Pentagon Publishing, pp. 83–84, ISBN 978-0-9759009-5-6
- Explosives - Compositions, Alexandria, VA: GlobalSecurity.org, retrieved September 1, 2010
- Urbański, Tadeusz (1985) , Chemistry and Technology of Explosives, Volumes I–IV (second ed.), Oxford: Pergamon
- Mathieu, Jörg; Stucki, Hans (2004), "Military High Explosives", CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry, 58 (6): 383–389, doi:10.2533/000942904777677669, ISSN 0009-4293
- 3. Thermobaric Explosives, Advanced Energetic Materials, 2004., The National Academies Press, nap.edu, 2004, doi:10.17226/10918, ISBN 978-0-309-09160-2