1st Cossack Cavalry Division
|1st Cossack Cavalry Division|
Insignia of the 1st Cossack Cavalry Division
|Part of||XV SS Cossack Cavalry Corps|
|Engagements||World War II|
|Helmuth von Pannwitz|
|Don Cossack insignia|
The 1st Cossack Cavalry Division (German: 1. Kosaken-Kavallerie-Division) was a Russian Cossack division of the German Army that served during World War II. It was created on the Eastern Front mostly out of Don Cossacks already serving in the Wehrmacht, those who escaped from the advancing Red Army and Soviet POWs. In 1945, the division was transferred to the Waffen SS, becoming the 1st SS Cossack Cavalry Division (1. SS-Kosaken-Kavallerie-Division). At the end of the war, the unit ceased to exist.
Upon the formation of the unit in April 1943, the Division was dispatched to Croatia, where they were placed under the command of the Second Panzer Army and were used to provide rear area security to the army.
The Division's first fighting engagement was on October 12, 1943, when the unit was dispatched against Yugoslav partisans in Fruška Gora Mountains. In the operation the Cossacks aided by 15 tanks and 1 armoured car captured the village of Beocin with the partisan HQ. During that operations, many villages were burned, including a one monastery on Fruška gora, and around 300 innocent Serbian villagers were killed. Subsequently, the unit was used to protect the Zagreb-Belgrade railroad and the Sava valley. Several regiments of the division took part in several anti-partisan operations and guarded the Sarajevo railroad against the partisans. As part of a wide anti-partisan operation Napfkuchen the Cossack division was transferred to Croatia, where it fought against partisans and chetniks in 1944.
While in Croatia, the division quickly established a reputation for undisciplined and ruthless behavior, not only towards the partisans, but also towards the civilian population, prompting the Croatian authorities to complain to the Germans and finally to Hitler personally. Besides raping women, killing people, and plundering and burning towns suspected of harboring partisans and partisan supporters, the division used telegraph poles along the railroad tracks as a warning to the partisans and others. During its first two months of deployment in Croatia, special divisional courts martial imposed at least twenty death sentences in each of the four regiments for related crimes.
The Cossacks' first engagement against the Red Army happened in December 1944 near Pitomača. The fighting resulted in Soviet withdrawal from the area. In January 1945, the 1st Cossack Division together with the 2nd Cossack Division was transferred to the Waffen-SS. As the 1. SS-Kosaken-Kavallerie-Division it became part of the newly formed XV SS Cossack Cavalry Corps.
At the end of the war, Cossacks of the division retreated into Austria and surrendered to British troops. They were promised safety by the British, but subsequently removed from the compound and transferred to the USSR - in what became known as the Betrayal of the Cossacks. Once in Russian captivity, the majority (including their German cadre officers) were executed.
- Lieutenant-General Helmuth von Pannwitz
- Colonel Hans-Joachim von Schultz
- Colonel von Baath
- Colonel Alexander von Boesse
- Colonel Konstantin Wagner
Order of battle
In 1944, the division was composed of the following units:
1st Cossack Cavalry Brigade Don
- 1st (Don) Cossack Cavalry Regiment
- 2nd (Ural) Cossack Cavalry Regiment
- 3rd (Sswodno) Cossack Cavalry Regiment
- Cossack Horse Artillery Regiment Don
2nd Cossack Cavalry Brigade
- 4th (Kuban) Cossack Cavalry Regiment
- 5th (Don) Cossack Cavalry Regiment
- 6th (Terek) Cossack Cavalry Regiment
- Cossack Horse Artillery Regiment Kuban
- 55th Reconnaissance Battalion
- 55th (Kuban) Cossack Horse Artillery Regiment
- 1st Cossack Engineer Battalion
- 55th Cossack Engineer Battalion
- 1st Signal Battalion
- Mitcham, Samuel W. (2007). German Order of Battle Vol. 2 291st - 999th Infantry Divisions, Named Infantry Divisions, and Special Divisions in World War II. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-8117-3437-0.
- Newland, Samuel J. (1991). Cossacks in the German Army, 1941–1945. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7146-8199-3.
- Tomasevich, Jozo (2001). War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-3615-2.
- François de Lannoy. Pannwitz Cossacks: Les Cosaques de Pannwitz 1942 - 1945